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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(33): 16463-16472, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346092

RESUMO

Heterozygous in-frame mutations in coding regions of human STAT3 underlie the only known autosomal dominant form of hyper IgE syndrome (AD HIES). About 5% of familial cases remain unexplained. The mutant proteins are loss-of-function and dominant-negative when tested following overproduction in recipient cells. However, the production of mutant proteins has not been detected and quantified in the cells of heterozygous patients. We report a deep intronic heterozygous STAT3 mutation, c.1282-89C>T, in 7 relatives with AD HIES. This mutation creates a new exon in the STAT3 complementary DNA, which, when overexpressed, generates a mutant STAT3 protein (D427ins17) that is loss-of-function and dominant-negative in terms of tyrosine phosphorylation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity. In immortalized B cells from these patients, the D427ins17 protein was 2 kDa larger and 4-fold less abundant than wild-type STAT3, on mass spectrometry. The patients' primary B and T lymphocytes responded poorly to STAT3-dependent cytokines. These findings are reminiscent of the impaired responses of leukocytes from other patients with AD HIES due to typical STAT3 coding mutations, providing further evidence for the dominance of the mutant intronic allele. These findings highlight the importance of sequencing STAT3 introns in patients with HIES without candidate variants in coding regions and essential splice sites. They also show that AD HIES-causing STAT3 mutant alleles can be dominant-negative even if the encoded protein is produced in significantly smaller amounts than wild-type STAT3.

3.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021819

RESUMO

Bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 cause a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe pathogen infections, eczema, allergies, malignancy and impaired humoral responses. These clinical features result from functional defects in most lymphocyte lineages. Thus, DOCK8 plays a key role in immune cell function. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for DOCK8 deficiency. While previous reports have described clinical outcomes for DOCK8 deficiency following HSCT, the effect on lymphocyte reconstitution and function has not been investigated. Our study determined whether defects in lymphocyte differentiation and function in DOCK8-deficient patients were restored following HSCT. DOCK8-deficient T and B lymphocytes exhibited aberrant activation and effector function in vivo and in vitro. Frequencies of αß T and MAIT cells were reduced while γδT cells were increased in DOCK8-deficient patients. HSCT improved, abnormal lymphocyte function in DOCK8-deficient patients. Elevated total and allergen-specific IgE in DOCK8-deficient patients decreased over time following HSCT. Our results document the extensive catalogue of cellular defects in DOCK8-deficient patients, and the efficacy of HSCT to correct these defects, concurrent with improvements in clinical phenotypes. Overall, our findings provide mechanisms at a functional cellular level for improvements in clinical features of DOCK8 deficiency post-HSCT, identify biomarkers that correlate with improved clinical outcomes, and inform the general dynamics of immune reconstitution in patients with monogenic immune disorders following HSCT.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(3): 298-308, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838481

RESUMO

DOCK2 is a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor for Rac proteins. Activated Rac serves various cellular functions including the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in lymphocytes and neutrophils and production of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils. Since 2015, six unrelated patients with combined immunodeficiency and early-onset severe viral infections caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function mutations in DOCK2 have been described. Until now, the function of phagocytes, specifically neutrophils, has not been assessed in human DOCK2 deficiency. Here, we describe a new kindred with four affected siblings harboring a homozygous splice-site mutation (c.2704-2 A > C) in DOCK2. The mutation results in alternative splicing and a complete loss of DOCK2 protein expression. The patients presented with leaky severe combined immunodeficiency or Omenn syndrome. The novel mutation affects EBV-B cell migration and results in NK cell dysfunction similar to previous observations. Moreover, both cytoskeletal rearrangement and reactive oxygen species production are partially impaired in DOCK2-deficient neutrophils.

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(2): 148-158, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911953

RESUMO

"This porridge is too hot!" she exclaimed. So, she tasted the porridge from the second bowl. "This porridge is too cold," she said. So, she tasted the last bowl of porridge. "Ahhh, this porridge is just right," she said happily and she ate it all up. While this describes the adventures of Goldilocks in the classic fairytale "The Story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears," it is an ideal analogy for the need for balanced signaling mediated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), a key signaling hub in immune cells. Either too little or too much PI3K activity is deleterious, even pathogenic-it needs to be "just right"! This has been elegantly demonstrated by the identification of inborn errors of immunity in key components of the PI3K pathway, and the impact of these mutations on immune regulation. Detailed analyses of patients with germline activating mutations in PIK3CD, as well as the parallel generation of novel murine models of this disease, have shed substantial light on the role of PI3K in lymphocyte development and differentiation, and mechanisms of disease pathogenesis resulting not only from PIK3CD mutations but genetic lesions in other components of the PI3K pathway. Furthermore, by being able to pharmacologically target PI3K, these monogenic conditions have provided opportunities for the implementation of precision medicine as a therapy, as well as to gain further insight into the consequences of modulating the PI3K pathway in clinical settings.

7.
Nat Immunol ; 20(3): 350-361, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718914

RESUMO

Despite the known importance of zinc for human immunity, molecular insights into its roles have remained limited. Here we report a novel autosomal recessive disease characterized by absent B cells, agammaglobulinemia and early onset infections in five unrelated families. The immunodeficiency results from hypomorphic mutations of SLC39A7, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter ZIP7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis we have precisely modeled ZIP7 deficiency in mice. Homozygosity for a null allele caused embryonic death, but hypomorphic alleles reproduced the block in B cell development seen in patients. B cells from mutant mice exhibited a diminished concentration of cytoplasmic free zinc, increased phosphatase activity and decreased phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of the pre-B cell and B cell receptors. Our findings highlight a specific role for cytosolic Zn2+ in modulating B cell receptor signal strength and positive selection.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Pré-Escolar , Citosol/imunologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Linhagem , Zinco/metabolismo
8.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 97(4): 389-402, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779216

RESUMO

Inherited defects in genes encoding for proteins that are involved in the assembly and dynamics of the actin skeleton have increasingly been identified in patients presenting with primary immunodeficiencies. In this review, we summarize a subset of the recently described conditions, emphasizing the clinical features as well as the immunophenotype and pathophysiology.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 236-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD cause a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, and impaired antibody responses. Previous work revealed defects in CD8+ T and B cells that contribute to this clinical phenotype, but less is understood about the role of CD4+ T cells in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to dissect the effects of increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling on CD4+ T-cell function. METHODS: We performed detailed ex vivo, in vivo, and in vitro phenotypic and functional analyses of patients' CD4+ T cells and a novel murine disease model caused by overactive PI3K signaling. RESULTS: PI3K overactivation caused substantial increases in numbers of memory and follicular helper T (TFH) cells and dramatic changes in cytokine production in both patients and mice. Furthermore, PIK3CD GOF human TFH cells had dysregulated phenotype and function characterized by increased programmed cell death protein 1, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression, the phenotype of a TFH cell subset with impaired B-helper function. This was confirmed in vivo in which Pik3cd GOF CD4+ T cells also acquired an aberrant TFH phenotype and provided poor help to support germinal center reactions and humoral immune responses by antigen-specific wild-type B cells. The increase in numbers of both memory and TFH cells was largely CD4+ T-cell extrinsic, whereas changes in cytokine production and TFH cell function were cell intrinsic. CONCLUSION: Our studies reveal that CD4+ T cells with overactive PI3K have aberrant activation and differentiation, thereby providing mechanistic insight into dysfunctional antibody responses in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations.

11.
Nat Immunol ; 20(5): 613-625, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778243

RESUMO

Influenza A, B and C viruses (IAV, IBV and ICV, respectively) circulate globally and infect humans, with IAV and IBV causing the most severe disease. CD8+ T cells confer cross-protection against IAV strains, however the responses of CD8+ T cells to IBV and ICV are understudied. We investigated the breadth of CD8+ T cell cross-recognition and provide evidence of CD8+ T cell cross-reactivity across IAV, IBV and ICV. We identified immunodominant CD8+ T cell epitopes from IBVs that were protective in mice and found memory CD8+ T cells directed against universal and influenza-virus-type-specific epitopes in the blood and lungs of healthy humans. Lung-derived CD8+ T cells displayed tissue-resident memory phenotypes. Notably, CD38+Ki67+CD8+ effector T cells directed against novel epitopes were readily detected in IAV- or IBV-infected pediatric and adult subjects. Our study introduces a new paradigm whereby CD8+ T cells confer unprecedented cross-reactivity across all influenza viruses, a key finding for the design of universal vaccines.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza B/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Influenzavirus C/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Criança , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Vírus da Influenza B/fisiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Influenzavirus C/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430354

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately did not display the appropriate captions in the figure. The correct version is displayed below.

13.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357921

RESUMO

Interleukin-9 (IL-9) producing CD4+ Th9 cells are a unique subset of effector cells involved in both health and disease. Th9 cells have been associated with protective immunity during parasitic infections with helminths, protozoans and extracellular pathogens, but implicated in disease states such as allergic asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy and autoimmune conditions including multiple sclerosis and ulcerative colitis. Here, we review the cytokine signaling pathways and downstream transcription factors required for IL-9 expression and how human primary immunodeficiencies caused by monogenic mutations can help elucidate the complex requirements for human Th9 cell differentiation. Primary immunodeficiencies are a platform for investigating IL-9 expression in primary human lymphocytes and by inference whether Th9 cells are implicated in the clinical phenotype characteristic of these patients.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3372, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135429

RESUMO

Vaccine-induced immunity depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBC). However, where and how MBCs are reactivated to make neutralising antibodies remain unknown. Here we show that MBCs are prepositioned in a subcapsular niche in lymph nodes where, upon reactivation by antigen, they rapidly proliferate and differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells in the subcapsular proliferative foci (SPF). This novel structure is enriched for signals provided by T follicular helper cells and antigen-presenting subcapsular sinus macrophages. Compared with contemporaneous secondary germinal centres, SPF have distinct single-cell molecular signature, cell migration pattern and plasma cell output. Moreover, SPF are found both in human and mouse lymph nodes, suggesting that they are conserved throughout mammalian evolution. Our data thus reveal that SPF is a seat of immunological memory that may be exploited to rapidly mobilise secondary antibody responses and improve vaccine efficacy.

16.
Nat Immunol ; 19(9): 973-985, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127434

RESUMO

Human inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie mycobacterial diseases. We describe patients with Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) disease who are homozygous for loss-of-function mutations of SPPL2A. This gene encodes a transmembrane protease that degrades the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of CD74 (HLA invariant chain) in antigen-presenting cells. The CD74 NTF therefore accumulates in the HLA class II+ myeloid and lymphoid cells of SPPL2a-deficient patients. This toxic fragment selectively depletes IL-12- and IL-23-producing CD1c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDC2s) and their circulating progenitors. Moreover, SPPL2a-deficient memory TH1* cells selectively fail to produce IFN-γ when stimulated with mycobacterial antigens in vitro. Finally, Sppl2a-/- mice lack cDC2s, have CD4+ T cells that produce small amounts of IFN-γ after BCG infection, and are highly susceptible to infection with BCG or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These findings suggest that inherited SPPL2a deficiency in humans underlies mycobacterial disease by decreasing the numbers of cDC2s and impairing IFN-γ production by mycobacterium-specific memory TH1* cells.

17.
J Exp Med ; 215(8): 2073-2095, 2018 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018075

RESUMO

Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the p110δ subunit of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), cause a primary immunodeficiency. Affected individuals display impaired humoral immune responses following infection or immunization. To establish mechanisms underlying these immune defects, we studied a large cohort of patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations and established a novel mouse model using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing to introduce a common pathogenic mutation in Pik3cd In both species, hyperactive PI3K severely affected B cell development and differentiation in the bone marrow and the periphery. Furthermore, PI3K GOF B cells exhibited intrinsic defects in class-switch recombination (CSR) due to impaired induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and failure to acquire a plasmablast gene signature and phenotype. Importantly, defects in CSR, AID expression, and Ig secretion were restored by leniolisib, a specific p110δ inhibitor. Our findings reveal key roles for balanced PI3K signaling in B cell development and long-lived humoral immunity and memory and establish the validity of treating affected individuals with p110δ inhibitors.

18.
Nat Immunol ; 19(8): 791-793, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988092
19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(5): 1589-1604.e11, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The actin-interacting protein WD repeat-containing protein 1 (WDR1) promotes cofilin-dependent actin filament turnover. Biallelic WDR1 mutations have been identified recently in an immunodeficiency/autoinflammatory syndrome with aberrant morphology and function of myeloid cells. OBJECTIVE: Given the pleiotropic expression of WDR1, here we investigated to what extent it might control the lymphoid arm of the immune system in human subjects. METHODS: Histologic and detailed immunologic analyses were performed to elucidate the role of WDR1 in the development and function of B and T lymphocytes. RESULTS: Here we identified novel homozygous and compound heterozygous WDR1 missense mutations in 6 patients belonging to 3 kindreds who presented with respiratory tract infections, skin ulceration, and stomatitis. In addition to defective adhesion and motility of neutrophils and monocytes, WDR1 deficiency was associated with aberrant T-cell activation and B-cell development. T lymphocytes appeared to develop normally in the patients, except for the follicular helper T-cell subset. However, peripheral T cells from the patients accumulated atypical actin structures at the immunologic synapse and displayed reduced calcium flux and mildly impaired proliferation on T-cell receptor stimulation. WDR1 deficiency was associated with even more severe abnormalities of the B-cell compartment, including peripheral B-cell lymphopenia, paucity of B-cell progenitors in the bone marrow, lack of switched memory B cells, reduced clonal diversity, abnormal B-cell spreading, and increased apoptosis on B-cell receptor/Toll-like receptor stimulation. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies a novel role for WDR1 in adaptive immunity, highlighting WDR1 as a central regulator of actin turnover during formation of the B-cell and T-cell immunologic synapses.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline gain-of function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD, encoding the catalytic p110δ subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), result in hyperactivation of the PI3K-AKT-mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway and underlie a novel inborn error of immunity. Affected subjects exhibit perturbed humoral and cellular immunity, manifesting as recurrent infections, autoimmunity, hepatosplenomegaly, uncontrolled EBV and/or cytomegalovirus infection, and increased incidence of B-cell lymphoproliferation, lymphoma, or both. Mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning inefficient surveillance of EBV-infected B cells is required to understand disease in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations, identify key molecules required for cell-mediated immunity against EBV, and develop immunotherapeutic interventions for the treatment of this and other EBV-opathies. METHODS: We studied the consequences of PIK3CD GOF mutations on the generation, differentiation, and function of CD8+ T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which are implicated in host defense against infection with herpesviruses, including EBV. RESULTS: PIK3CD GOF total and EBV-specific CD8+ T cells were skewed toward an effector phenotype, with exaggerated expression of markers associated with premature immunosenescence/exhaustion and increased susceptibility to reactivation-induced cell death. These findings were recapitulated in a novel mouse model of PI3K GOF mutations. NK cells in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations also exhibited perturbed expression of differentiation-associated molecules. Both CD8+ T and NK cells had reduced capacity to kill EBV-infected B cells. PIK3CD GOF B cells had increased expression of CD48, programmed death ligand 1/2, and CD70. CONCLUSIONS: PIK3CD GOF mutations aberrantly induce exhaustion, senescence, or both and impair cytotoxicity of CD8+ T and NK cells. These defects might contribute to clinical features of affected subjects, such as impaired immunity to herpesviruses and tumor surveillance.

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