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1.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compare three algorithms for cardiovascular (CV) risk estimation, namely Framingham, ACC/AHA and QRISK3, in a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Consecutive patients with SLE according to the ACR criteria were enrolled. Traditional risk factors, ongoing therapies, comorbidities and SLE-specific evaluations were assessed. In those without previous myocardial infarction or stroke, Framingham, ACC/AHA and QRISK3 algorithms were then used to estimate the individual risk of developing a CV disease over the next 10 years. RESULTS: Patients eligible for CV risk estimation were 123 out of 135 enrolled. Framingham index reported a median risk score of 4.7% (IQR 9.5-2.2), considering 29 patients (23.6%) at high CV risk. ACC/AHA index showed a median risk score of 1.4% (IQR 4.5-0.7), with 17 patients (13.8%) at high-risk. QRISK3 revealed a median risk score of 6.2% (IQR 12.5-2.8), making it possible to classify 44 patients (35.8%) at high CV risk. The subgroup analysis of subjects older than 40 years confirmed the same number of high-risk patients for both Framingham and ACC/AHA, whereas QRISK3 classified 38 subjects at high CV risk. CONCLUSIONS: QRISK3 classifies a greater number of SLE patients at high-risk of developing CV diseases over the next 10 years in comparison with classic algorithms as Framingham and ACC/AHA. If its predictive accuracy were confirmed by longitudinal data, QRISK3 could become an important tool in the early detection of a considerable part of CV high-risk SLE patients that would be underestimated when applying classic algorithms.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593595

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: UCTD is a systemic autoimmune condition that fails to fulfil the criteria for a definite CTD. Given that there are a lack of studies on links between pregnancy and UCTD, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of disease flares or development of CTD in addition to the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in patients with UCTD. METHODS: This is a retrospective study using prospectively collected data for 100 pregnancies in 81 incidences of UCTD treated in a single referral centre. RESULTS: A total of 11 pregnancies (11%) ended in miscarriage in the first trimester and the remaining 89 (89%) ended with a live birth. Thirteen patients (13%) flared during pregnancy or puerperium and three (3%) suffered major flares that led to the development of SLE with renal involvement. Obstetric complications occurred in 26 of the 89 successful pregnancies (29%), including 1 case (1%) of pre-eclampsia; in some cases, a single pregnancy was affected by more than one complication. There was a significant link between disease flare and both anti-dsDNA-positive antibodies at baseline (P < 0.01) and disease activity at the beginning of pregnancy (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The impact on pregnancy in the study's cohort appears to be less serious in UCTD than in other CTDs. Nevertheless, disease flares and obstetric complications can represent a clinical challenge and clinical and serological disease activity would appear to represent important determinants of pregnancy outcomes. Pre-pregnancy counselling and planning as well as close monitoring during pregnancy is therefore essential.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560454

RESUMO

A project towards new SLE classification criteria supported by both EULAR and the ACR is based on weighted criteria that include both laboratory and clinical items. Combinations of certain symptoms may occur commonly in SLE, which would argue against independently counting these items. However, these interrelationships have not been formally investigated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interrelationship between candidate criteria items in an international early SLE cohort and in the Euro-Lupus cohort. METHODS: The international early SLE cohort included 389 patients, who were diagnosed within the last 3 years. Data on ACR 1997, SLICC 2012 and 30 additional items were collected. To evaluate the inter-relationship of criteria, a tetrachoric correlation was used to assess the degree of association between different manifestations of the same organ-system. The correlations identified in the international early SLE cohort were validated in the Euro-Lupus cohort. RESULTS: A few relevant correlations were observed among specific clinical cutaneous manifestations (in particular, malar rash correlated with photosensitivity, alopecia, and oral ulcers) and serologic manifestations (anti-Sm and anti-dsDNA and anti-RNP, anti-Ro with anti-La, and between anti-phospholipid antibodies), and these results were validated in the Euro-Lupus cohort. The associations within the mucocutaneous domain, hematologic and the specific autoantibodies suggest that within a single domain only the highest ranking item should be counted to avoid overrepresentation. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the candidate SLE criteria do cluster within domains. Given these interrelationships, multiple criteria within a domain should not be independently counted. These results are important for the structure of new SLE classification criteria.

4.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide evidence-based recommendations for vaccination against influenza virus and S. pneumoniae in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). METHODS: A Consensus Committee including physicians with expertise in rheumatic and infectious diseases was established by two Italian scientific societies, Società Italiana di Reumatologia (SIR) and Società Italiana di Malattie Infettive e Tropicali (SIMIT). The experts were invited to develop evidence-based recommendations concerning vaccinations in ARDs patients, based on their clinical status before and after undergoing immunosuppressive treatments. Key clinical questions were formulated for the systematic literature reviews, based on the clinical pathway. A search was made in Medline (via PubMed) according to the original MeSH strategy from October 2009 and a keyword strategy from January 2016 up to December 2017, updating existing EULAR recommendations. Specific recommendations were separately voted and scored from 0 (no agreement with) to 100 (maximal agreement) and supporting evidence graded. The mean and standard deviation of the scores were calculated to determine the level of agreement among the experts' panel for each recommendation. Total cumulative agreement ≥70 defined consensus for each statement. RESULTS: Nine recommendations, based on 6 key clinical questions addressed by the expert committee, were proposed. The aim of this work is to integrate the 2011 EULAR recommendations on vaccination against influenza and S. pneumoniae in ARDs patients. An implementation plan was proposed to improve the vaccination status of these patients and their safety during immunosuppressive treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza and pneumococcus vaccinations are effective and safe in patients with ARDs. More efforts should be made to translate the accumulated evidence into practice.

5.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(5): 715-722, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376267

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective-tissue disorder with a wide range of clinical manifestations that predominantly affect women. Many aspects of its pathogenesis are still unclear, and new therapeutic strategies are progressively emerging. Thus, in this review we aim to summarise the most relevant data on SLE that emerged during 2018, following the previous annual review of this series. In particular, the review will focus on new insights in SLE regarding new pathogenetic pathways, new biomarkers, new data on clinical manifestations, clinical outcomes and comorbidities and what has emerged on new drugs and new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Autoimunidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(9): 1151-1159, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. (1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort and a patient survey. (2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. (3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. (4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in seven clinical (constitutional, haematological, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and three immunological (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered and weighted criteria reflect current thinking about SLE and provide an improved foundation for SLE research.

7.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1400-1412, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385462

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop new classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) jointly supported by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). METHODS: This international initiative had four phases. 1) Evaluation of antinuclear antibody (ANA) as an entry criterion through systematic review and meta-regression of the literature and criteria generation through an international Delphi exercise, an early patient cohort, and a patient survey. 2) Criteria reduction by Delphi and nominal group technique exercises. 3) Criteria definition and weighting based on criterion performance and on results of a multi-criteria decision analysis. 4) Refinement of weights and threshold scores in a new derivation cohort of 1,001 subjects and validation compared with previous criteria in a new validation cohort of 1,270 subjects. RESULTS: The 2019 EULAR/ACR classification criteria for SLE include positive ANA at least once as obligatory entry criterion; followed by additive weighted criteria grouped in 7 clinical (constitutional, hematologic, neuropsychiatric, mucocutaneous, serosal, musculoskeletal, renal) and 3 immunologic (antiphospholipid antibodies, complement proteins, SLE-specific antibodies) domains, and weighted from 2 to 10. Patients accumulating ≥10 points are classified. In the validation cohort, the new criteria had a sensitivity of 96.1% and specificity of 93.4%, compared with 82.8% sensitivity and 93.4% specificity of the ACR 1997 and 96.7% sensitivity and 83.7% specificity of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics 2012 criteria. CONCLUSION: These new classification criteria were developed using rigorous methodology with multidisciplinary and international input, and have excellent sensitivity and specificity. Use of ANA entry criterion, hierarchically clustered, and weighted criteria reflects current thinking about SLE and provides an improved foundation for SLE research.

8.
RMD Open ; 5(2): e000916, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275608

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the proportion of patients who have successfully withdrawn glucocorticoids (GCs) in a longitudinal cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) over a period of 6 years; to evaluate patient characteristics during GC withdrawal in relation to existing definitions of remission and Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS); and to evaluate the occurrence of flares after GC withdrawal. Methods: Patients who attempted GC withdrawal were identified for the cohort, and the following information was assessed during withdrawal attempts: date of last disease flare, disease activity and damage and ongoing treatment. Information regarding the occurrence of disease flares after GC withdrawal was also recorded for patients who successfully stopped treatment.Definitions of remission were applied to GC withdrawal in line with European consensus criteria (Definitions of remission in SLE [DORIS]) and LLDAS in line with the Asian Pacific Lupus Consortium definition. Results: 148 patients were involved in the study; GC withdrawal was attempted in 91 patients (61.5%) with 77 patients (84.6%) successfully stopping GCs. At the beginning of the GC reduction, the majority of patients were in complete or clinical remission (48.9% and 39.6%, respectively). Disease activity was significantly lower in patients who successfully stopped GCs, and the proportion of patients in complete remission was higher (54.2%) with respect to patients who failed in their attempt. Among patients who stopped GCs, 18 flares were recorded after a median of 1 year. The time period since the last flare was shorter in patients who experienced flares with respect to patients who did not flare (mean 0.93 years vs 6.0, p<0.001). Conclusions: GC withdrawal is an achievable goal in SLE and may be attempted after a long-term remission or LLDAS to protect the patient from disease flares.

9.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36(6 Suppl 115): 125-128, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the study was to determine the frequency of psychiatric disorders in Behçet's syndrome (BS) patients, both with and without neurological involvement. The secondary aims were: to investigate a possible association between disease activity/organ involvement/demographic data and psychiatric profile in BS patients, and to compare the distribution of psychiatric disorders in BS patients compared to patients with other chronic diseases. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen BS patients were studied; in addition, two groups of patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic arterial hypertension were included in the study as disease control groups. The end-point was represented by the assessment of disease activity, performed by the evaluation of: the presence/absence of manifestations, BDCAF and clinician's overall perception of disease activity. Psychiatric comorbidity was evaluated according to the DSMIV-TR criteria. RESULTS: The frequency of bipolar disorders resulted significantly higher in BS than in disease controls. The presence of bipolar disorders in BS patients does not seem to be related to the presence of neurological involvement in the history of the disease. Notably, a significant correlation was found between BS disease activity and mood disorders, also in the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated a high frequency of psychiatric disorders in BS patients, peculiarly represented by bipolar disorders. The presence of this involvement, independently from the organ involvement, and strictly related to the disease activity, seems to suggest that neuro-psycho-BS may represent an intrinsic aspect of BS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Behçet/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Síndrome de Behçet/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Behçet/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36(5): 763-777, 2018 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272543

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune condition characterised by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, partly related to the disease itself, but also linked to its comorbidities and drugs adverse reactions. Following the previous annual reviews, we focused on new insights in SLE clinical features, pathogenic pathways, biomarkers of specific organ involvement and therapeutic strategies. We finally concentrated on SLE aspects that could significantly influence patients' quality of life and that need to be investigated in detail through the development and validation of disease-specific patient-reported outcomes.

11.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36 Suppl 114(5): 68-73, 2018 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296972

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal symptoms are among the most common manifestations in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), being reported in up to 95% of patients; joint and tendon involvement can range from arthralgia to severe deforming arthropathy; while myositis a rare manifestation, comorbid fibromyalgia is reported in up to 40% of SLE patients. All these manifestations have a significant impact on the patients' quality of life, possibly leading to disability and functional impairment in daily living activities. In recent years, thanks to the availability of new imaging techniques for the assessment of tendon and joint pathologies, the approach to the definition and characterisation of these manifestations in SLE is constantly evolving. In this review we will therefore illustrate the state of the art of imaging techniques in the assessment of joint involvement in SLE, focusing on ultrasounds (US) and magnetic resonance (MRI), discussing their advantages, drawbacks and possible future developments. The main findings that emerge from the recent literature is that imaging studies may allow a more accurate definition of disease subtypes revealing an unexpected higher prevalence of joint and tendon involvement with respect to what known by clinical evaluation and standard radiography. Indeed, US and MRI also made possible the identification of joints and tendons pathologies in patients with no or very mild clinical symptoms. On the other hand, the interpretation of some findings remains uncertain, as well as the validity and feasibility of this analysis in clinical practice. Thus, further studies should clarify the clinical meaning of subclinical abnormalities detected in US and MRI scans and their impact on the long-term outcomes.

12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2018 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30035365

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presents with nonspecific signs and symptoms that are also found in other conditions. This study aimed to evaluate manifestations at disease onset and to compare early SLE manifestations to those of diseases mimicking SLE. METHODS: Academic lupus centers in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America collected baseline data on patients who were referred to them during the previous 3 years for possible SLE and who had a symptom duration of <1 year. Clinical and serologic manifestations were compared between patients diagnosed as having SLE and those diagnosed as having SLE-mimicking conditions. Diagnostic performance of the 1997 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria and the 2012 Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) SLE classification criteria was tested. RESULTS: Data were collected on 389 patients with early SLE and 227 patients with SLE-mimicking conditions. Unexplained fever was more common in early SLE than in SLE-mimicking conditions (34.5% versus 13.7%, respectively; P < 0.001). Features less common in early SLE included Raynaud's phenomenon (22.1% versus 48.5%; P < 0.001), sicca symptoms (4.4% versus 34.4%; P < 0.001), dysphagia (0.3% versus 6.2%; P < 0.001), and fatigue (28.3% versus 37.0%; P = 0.024). Anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-ß2 -glycoprotein I antibodies, positive Coombs' test results, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, hypocomplementemia, and leukopenia were more common in early SLE than in SLE-mimicking conditions. Symptoms detailed in the ACR and SLICC classification criteria were significantly more frequent among those with early SLE. Fewer patients with early SLE were not identified as having early SLE with use of the SLICC criteria compared to the ACR criteria (16.5% versus 33.9%), but the ACR criteria demonstrated higher specificity than the SLICC criteria (91.6% versus 82.4%). CONCLUSION: In this multicenter cohort, clinical manifestations that could help to distinguish early SLE from SLE-mimicking conditions were identified. These findings may aid in earlier SLE diagnosis and provide information for ongoing initiatives to revise SLE classification criteria.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0194266, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698406

RESUMO

The RV144 Phase III clinical trial with ALVAC-HIV prime and AIDSVAX B/E subtypes CRF01_AE (A244) and B (MN) gp120 boost vaccine regime in Thailand provided a foundation for the future development of improved vaccine strategies that may afford protection against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Results from this trial showed that immune responses directed against specific regions V1V2 of the viral envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1, were inversely correlated to the risk of HIV-1 infection. Due to the low production of gp120 proteins in CHO cells (2-20 mg/L), cleavage sites in V1V2 loops (A244) and V3 loop (MN) causing heterogeneous antigen products, it was an urgent need to generate CHO cells harboring A244 gp120 with high production yields and an additional, homogenous and uncleaved subtype B gp120 protein to replace MN used in RV144 for the future clinical trials. Here we describe the generation of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines stably expressing vaccine HIV-1 Env antigens for these purposes: one expressing an HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE A244 Env gp120 protein (A244.AE) and one expressing an HIV-1 subtype B 6240 Env gp120 protein (6240.B) suitable for possible future manufacturing of Phase I clinical trial materials with cell culture expression levels of over 100 mg/L. The antigenic profiles of the molecules were elucidated by comprehensive approaches including analysis with a panel of well-characterized monoclonal antibodies recognizing critical epitopes using Biacore and ELISA, and glycosylation analysis by mass spectrometry, which confirmed previously identified glycosylation sites and revealed unknown sites of O-linked and N-linked glycosylations at non-consensus motifs. Overall, the vaccines given with MF59 adjuvant induced higher and more rapid antibody (Ab) responses as well as higher Ab avidity than groups given with aluminum hydroxide. Also, bivalent proteins (A244.AE and 6240.B) formulated with MF59 elicited distinct V2-specific Abs to the epitope previously shown to correlate with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection in the RV144 trial. All together, these results provide critical information allowing the consideration of these candidate gp120 proteins for future clinical evaluations in combination with a potent adjuvant.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Antígenos HIV/imunologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Glicosilação , Cobaias , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/metabolismo , Antígenos HIV/genética , Antígenos HIV/metabolismo , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/genética , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Polissorbatos , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Esqualeno/imunologia
14.
Lupus Sci Med ; 5(1): e000234, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531772

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate what proportion of patients fulfil the DORIS definition of remission, the definition of lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS) and LLDAS with a glucocorticoid (GC) dosage ≤5 (LLDAS5) in a longitudinal monocentric cohort of patients with SLE; to identify predictors of sustained remission and LLDAS attainment; to evaluate the effect of sustained remission and LLDAS on damage accrual over a period of 5 years and compare the two conditions in terms of clinical outcomes. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data prospectively collected from patients with SLE followed from 2012 to 2016. Results: 115 patients were included in this analysis. At baseline, 72% of patients were on LLDAS and almost all patients also fulfilled the LLDAS5 definition; 45% of patients were in remission on treatment, 12% were in remission off treatment, 26% were in complete remission on treatment, 2% were in complete remission off treatment. Disease activity at baseline was the strongest predictor of subsequent LLDAS and remission; the presence of joint and cutaneous manifestations was associated with a minor likelihood to achieve LLDAS or remission during follow-up.Patients in remission and LLDAS for the whole follow-up period accrued significantly less organ damage; on the contrary, patients who maintained all kinds of remissions or LLDAS for less than 50% of the time did not show any differences in damage accrual with respect to the rest of the cohort. Conclusion: Remission and LLDAS, even with reduced GC use, are an achievable goal in clinical practice; sustained LLDAS and remission are both associated with reduced damage accrual.

15.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 48(2): 240-255, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature on the prevalence of Cognitive Dysfunction (CD) in SLE patients in studies that used a specified neuropsychological instrument. METHODS: This review was prepared with a protocol following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis-Protocols statement. Literature search in Ovid Medline, Embase, and Psyc INFO for articles on CD in adult SLE patients was conducted. Included studies were critically appraised (Newcastle-Ottawa Evaluation Scale) and the Pooled Prevalence (PP) of CD was studied for all instruments. The association between demographics and CD, the risk of CD in SLE compared to healthy subjects and patients with RA, and the course of CD over time were studied narratively whenever sufficient information was available. RESULT: Of 8054 references, 670 were selected for detailed review and 78 were included in the final analysis. Comprehensive Battery (CB) was utilized in 35 studies in 2463 SLE patients and PP was 38% (95%; CI: 33-43%). The CD prevalence was higher in NPSLE [PP 39% (95% CI: 24-55%]. Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metric (ANAM) was utilized in 7 studies in 438 patients (PP of CD 26% (95% CI: 12-42%). Other less frequently utilized tools were the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) and The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and subjective tools and others. The relative risk for CD in SLE was greater when compared to RA and to healthy individuals; RR being 1.80 and 2.80, respectively. Information on demographics and its association with CD was very heterogeneous among studies. CONCLUSION: Patients with lupus have a high prevalence of CD. The delay in diagnosis of CD is complex; although caregivers and patients express concerns about cognitive function, testing for CD often imposes administrative and cost burdens. There is an unmet need to identify the best screening, diagnostic metrics of CD. The assessment of cognitive function over time, and the association of demographics with CD, will require further research.

16.
J Autoimmun ; 86: 1-8, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate efficacy, safety and survival of belimumab and to identify predictors of drug response and drug discontinuation in patients with active SLE in clinical practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of SLE patients, treated with belimumab, from 11 Italian prospective cohorts were analyzed. SLEDAI-2K, anti-dsDNA, C3, C4, prednisone daily dose, DAS-28, 24-h proteinuria, CLASIa (Cutaneous LE Disease Area and Severity Index Activity) were recorded at baseline and every 6 months. SLE Responder Index-4 (SRI-4) was calculated at 12 and 24 months. Demographic and clinical features and comorbidities were included in the univariate and multivariate analysis. Adverse events were recorded at each visit. Statistics was performed using the SPSS software. RESULTS: We studied 188 SLE patients, mean follow-up 17.5 ± 10.6 months. The most frequent manifestations, which required the use of belimumab, were polyarthritis (45.2%) and skin rashes (25.5%). SRI-4 was achieved by 77.0% and 68.7% of patients at 12 and 24-months. Independent predictors of 12-month response were SLEDAI-2K ≥ 10 (OR 40.46, p = 0.001) and polyarthritis (OR 12.64, p = 0.001) and of 24-month response were SLEDAI-2K ≥ 10 (OR 15.97, p = 0.008), polyarthritis (OR 32.36, p = 0.006), and prednisone ≥7.5 mg/day (OR 9.94, p = 0.026). We observed a low rate of severe adverse events. Fifty-eight patients (30.8%) discontinued belimumab after a mean follow-up of 10.4 ± 7.5 months. The drug survival was 86.9%, 76.9%, 69.4%, 67.1%, and 61.9% at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 30 months, respectively. No factors associated with drug discontinuation were found. CONCLUSION: Belimumab is effective and safe when used in clinical practice setting.

17.
Int J Stem Cells ; 10(2): 160-168, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29186654

RESUMO

Objective: Pre-clinical and uncontrolled studies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) showed that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have a potential therapeutic role in refractory cases. The optimal therapeutic strategy in these patients remain to be elucidated. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that repeated administrations of 1×106/kg body weight of allogenic MSCs, that is a significantly lower dosage with respect to the fixed 1×106 MSC used in animal models, can be effective in improving the clinical course of a murine SLE model. Methods: Bone marrow derived MSCs were obtained from 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice. Seventy-five 8 weeks old female NZ mice were randomly assigned to receive via caudal vein the following alternative treatments: 1) single infusion of 106 MSCs/kg body weight at 18 weeks of age (NZs18) or at at 22 weeks of age (NZs22); 2) multiple monthly infusions of 106 MSCs/kg body weight starting at 18 weeks of age (NZM18) or at 22 weeks of age (NZM22); 3) saline infusions (NZc) Fifteen 8 weeks old C57BL/6J mice (Envigo, Huntingdon, UK) were used as untreated controls (C). Weekly, body weight was recorded and twenty-four hour urines were collected by metabolic cages for each animal; proteinuria was detected by dipstick analysis. At sacrifice, peripheral blood samples were collected from mice and anti-dsDNA antibodies were detected by enzyme immunoassorbent assay (ELISA) method using commercial kits. At sacrifice, kidneys were analyzed for histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for B220, CD4, MPO, CD4+Foxp3, F40/80 infiltration was performed. Results: Proteinuria occurrence was delayed NZS and NZM mice, no differences were observed in anti-dsDNA autoantibody titer among the groups at the different time-points; at 36 weeks, no significant differences were observed in term of nephritis scores. Inflammatory cells deposition (MPO and F4/80 positive cells) in NZM was significantly higher than in NZ and NZS. An overexpression of B lymphocytes (B220) was found in NZM while T regulatory cells (CD4+ Foxp3+ cells) were reduced in both NZS and NZM with respect to NZc. Conclusions: Overall, our study failed to show a positive effect of a treatment with murine MSCs in this model and, for some aspects, even deleterious results seem to be observed.

18.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 147: w14506, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975961

RESUMO

QUESTIONS: Published studies lack clear indicators of risk and predictors of transition from Raynaud's phenomenon (Rp) to connective tissue diseases (CTDs). Therefore, we aimed to study the outcomes, rates and predictors of transition to CTDs in patients with Rp. METHODS: A sensitive search was developed in Medline and Embase. Observational studies reporting incidence and risk factors of transition from Rp to a CTD were analysed by two independent reviewers. The main outcome was the rate of transition to a CTD; the secondary outcome was the evaluation of predictors. RESULTS: Of 856 articles captured, 7 selected studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 4051 patients with primary Rp (pRp) and 1220 transitions to overt CTDs were recorded. The mean incidence rate of transition from pRp to a CTD was 2.65/100 person-years (standard error [SE] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-5.73). A total of 657 patients with suspected secondary Rp (ssRp) had antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) and/or capillary abnormalities; 188 transitions to CTDs were recorded, the mean incidence rate of transition from ssRp to CTD was 11.01/100 person-years (SE 4.0, 95% CI 0.11-22.12), and 135 transitions to systemic sclerosis (SSc), giving a mean incidence rate of transition from ssRp to SSc of 5.7/100 person-years (SE 2.19, 95% CI 1.02-13.19). With respect to patients with pRp, having ANAs without capillary abnormalities was associated with a risk for developing a CTD (pooled relative risks [RR] 7.63, 95% CI 2.87-20.29), whereas capillary abnormalities without ANAs resulted in a weaker risk of CTD transition (RR 5.53, 95% CI 1.45-21.06). The coexistence of ANAs and abnormal capillaroscopy significantly increased the risk of transition to CTD (RR 16.96, 95% CI 6.61-43.55). CONCLUSIONS: A low incidence rate of transition from pRp to overt CTD was found. In spite of a possible study selection bias, ssRp appears to have a strong risk of transition to a CTD when there is concomitant presence of ANAs and abnormal capillaroscopy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/etiologia , Doença de Raynaud/complicações , Doença de Raynaud/imunologia , Anticorpos Antinucleares/análise , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35(4): 551-561, 2017 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28721860

RESUMO

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that predominately affects women. It is characterised by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, however, its course and organ involvement are unpredictable. Although over the last few decades an improvement in survival for SLE patients has been observed, pathogenic mechanisms underlying this disease are still unclear. Comorbidities, due to both disease and treatment, as well as multiple aspects of SLE, are under intensive investigation. Following the previous annual reviews of this series, we hereby provide a critical digest of the recent papers on SLE focusing on pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory features, as well as current and new therapeutic strategies published over the last year.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia
20.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 127(2): 115-121, 2017 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28120818

RESUMO

Over the last few decades, reproductive medicine has observed an improvement in the management and outcome of pregnancy in connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, pregnancy and related issues remain a challenge in these patients. In routine clinical practice, health professionals dealing with SLE and APS need to consider the numerous aspects of the reproductive life of their patients, such as pregnancy, family planning, fertility, contraception, cancer surveillance, and menopause. The new European League Against Rheumatism recommendations for women's health and family planning reflect the need for a novel approach to communication in the patient-physician relationship. Preconception counseling is essential to ensure optimal pregnancy outcomes through a careful risk stratification involving disease activity, organ involvement, autoantibody profile, use of drugs, and previous pregnancy outcomes, as well as to ensure better preventive and therapeutic strategies to limit complications. In patients with stable/inactive disease and low risk of thrombosis, adequate hormonal contraception and menopausal replacement therapy should be recommended. Assisted reproductive techniques can be safely used in these patients, but anticoagulation or low-dose aspirin (or both) should be added in those with positive antiphospholipid antibody titers. All menstruating women should be counseled on the possibility to preserve fertility with gonadotropin- ­releasing hormone analogues if receiving alkylating agents. Strict clinical, serological, laboratory, and multidisciplinary monitoring during pregnancy is mandatory to early recognize and effectively treat disease flares or obstetric complications. Doppler ultrasonography and fetal biometry should be regularly performed, especially in the second and third trimesters. Physicians should recommend screening for cervical dysplasia related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially during immunosuppressive therapy, and HPV immunization can be used in women with stable/inactive disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome Antifosfolipídica/terapia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Menopausa , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Aconselhamento , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
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