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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2022 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36563700

RESUMO

Recurrent disease outbreaks caused by a range of emerging and resurging pathogens over the past decade reveal major gaps in public health preparedness, detection, and response systems in Africa. Underlying causes of recurrent disease outbreaks include inadequacies in the detection of new infectious disease outbreaks in the community, in rapid pathogen identification, and in proactive surveillance systems. In sub-Saharan Africa, where 70% of zoonotic outbreaks occur, there remains the perennial risk of outbreaks of new or re-emerging pathogens for which no vaccines or treatments are available. As the Ebola virus disease, COVID-19, and mpox (formerly known as monkeypox) outbreaks highlight, a major paradigm shift is required to establish an effective infrastructure and common frameworks for preparedness and to prompt national and regional public health responses to mitigate the effects of future pandemics in Africa.

2.
Malar J ; 21(1): 277, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is a key barrier to long-term malaria control, and it may be exacerbated by poor agricultural pesticide use. Current practices, however, do not link public health and agricultural pesticide use. This study investigated the perspectives of farmers and other stakeholders regarding the integration of agricultural and public health measures to address resistance. Additionally, the feasibility of participatory workshops to increase the farmers' understanding and participation in pesticide stewardship was assessed. METHODS: Four themes were investigated: pesticide awareness, practices, and opinions of; insecticide resistance in malaria vectors; the effectiveness of current malaria prevention tools; and the links between agricultural and public health pesticide usage. Participatory workshops and field training were held with entomologists, farmers, and agricultural specialists, focusing on agro-ecosystem practices related to pest control; and local farmers were involved in live-testing for insecticides resistance of local Anopheles mosquitoes. RESULTS: Most farmers (94%) considered pesticides effective, and nearly half of them (n = 198, 46.4%) could identify and name crop pests and diseases, mostly using local names. Three quarters were unaware of mosquito larvae in their fields, and only 7% considered their fields as potential sources of mosquitoes. Two thirds were uninformed of any effects that agricultural pesticides may have on mosquitoes, and three quarters had never heard of resistance in malaria mosquitoes. Experts from various sectors acknowledged that agricultural pesticides might impact malaria control through increasing resistance. They did, however, emphasize the importance of crop protection and advocated for the use of pesticides sparingly and non-chemical approaches. Farmers learnt how to discriminate between malaria vectors and non-vectors, identify agricultural pests and diseases, choose and use pesticides effectively, and conduct resistance tests during the participatory workshops. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the significance of enhancing subsistence farmers' awareness of mosquito ecology as well as merging public health and agricultural pest management measures. Participatory techniques have the potential to raise stakeholder awareness and engagement, resulting in more effective resistance management.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Praguicidas , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Ecossistema , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Tanzânia
3.
Adv Parasitol ; 116: xv-xix, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752451

RESUMO

Malaria has a worldwide distribution and is the world's deadliest mosquito-borne disease. The goal of malaria elimination is also reflected in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the Global Technical Strategy for Malaria 2016-2030 issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). China succeeded in its malaria elimination programme after being certified as malaria-free by the WHO on 30 June 2021. Therefore, we document some of the key lessons learnt in the course of the malaria elimination effort in China in this special volume, showing how different strategies made elimination feasible in different subregions of China with different epidemiological and socioeconomic characteristics, in order to present strong signals to other malaria-endemic countries that malaria elimination is feasible within one generation.


Assuntos
Malária , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle
5.
Malar J ; 21(1): 99, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35331251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progress towards malaria elimination has stagnated, partly because infections persisting at low parasite densities comprise a large reservoir contributing to ongoing malaria transmission and are difficult to detect. This study compared the performance of an ultrasensitive rapid diagnostic test (uRDT) designed to detect low density infections to a conventional RDT (cRDT), expert microscopy using Giemsa-stained thick blood smears (TBS), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) during a controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) study conducted in malaria exposed adults (NCT03590340). METHODS: Blood samples were collected from healthy Equatoguineans aged 18-35 years beginning on day 8 after CHMI with 3.2 × 103 cryopreserved, infectious Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge, strain NF54) administered by direct venous inoculation. qPCR (18s ribosomal DNA), uRDT (Alere™ Malaria Ag P.f.), cRDT [Carestart Malaria Pf/PAN (PfHRP2/pLDH)], and TBS were performed daily until the volunteer became TBS positive and treatment was administered. qPCR was the reference for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites. RESULTS: 279 samples were collected from 24 participants; 123 were positive by qPCR. TBS detected 24/123 (19.5% sensitivity [95% CI 13.1-27.8%]), uRDT 21/123 (17.1% sensitivity [95% CI 11.1-25.1%]), cRDT 10/123 (8.1% sensitivity [95% CI 4.2-14.8%]); all were 100% specific and did not detect any positive samples not detected by qPCR. TBS and uRDT were more sensitive than cRDT (TBS vs. cRDT p = 0.015; uRDT vs. cRDT p = 0.053), detecting parasitaemias as low as 3.7 parasites/µL (p/µL) (TBS and uRDT) compared to 5.6 p/µL (cRDT) based on TBS density measurements. TBS, uRDT and cRDT did not detect any of the 70/123 samples positive by qPCR below 5.86 p/µL, the qPCR density corresponding to 3.7 p/µL by TBS. The median prepatent periods in days (ranges) were 14.5 (10-20), 18.0 (15-28), 18.0 (15-20) and 18.0 (16-24) for qPCR, TBS, uRDT and cRDT, respectively; qPCR detected parasitaemia significantly earlier (3.5 days) than the other tests. CONCLUSIONS: TBS and uRDT had similar sensitivities, both were more sensitive than cRDT, and neither matched qPCR for detecting low density parasitaemia. uRDT could be considered an alternative to TBS in selected applications, such as CHMI or field diagnosis, where qualitative, dichotomous results for malaria infection might be sufficient.


Assuntos
Malária , Plasmodium falciparum , Adolescente , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Guiné Equatorial , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 343, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: World-wide, there is growing universal health coverage (UHC) enthusiasm. The South African government began piloting policies aimed at achieving UHC in 2012. These UHC policies have been and are being rolled out in the ten selected pilot districts. Our study explored policy implementation experiences of 71 actors involved in UHC policy implementation, in one South African pilot district using the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT) lens. METHOD: Our study applied a two-actor deductive theory of implementation, Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT) to analyse 71 key informant interviews from one National Health Insurance (NHI) pilot district in South Africa. The theory uses motivation, information, power, resources and the interaction of these to explain implementation experiences and outcomes. The research question centred on the utility of CIT tenets in explaining the observed implementation experiences of actors and outcomes particularly policy- practice gaps. RESULTS: All CIT central tenets (information, motivation, power, resources and interactions) were alluded to by actors in their policy implementation experiences, a lack or presence of these tenets were explained as either a facilitator or barrier to policy implementation. This theory was found as very useful in explaining policy implementation experiences of both policy makers and facilitators. CONCLUSION: A central tenet that was present in this context but not fully captured by CIT was leadership. Leadership interactions were revealed as critical for policy implementation, hence we propose the inclusion of leadership interactions to the current CIT central tenets, to become motivation, information, power, resources, leadership and interactions of all these.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , África do Sul
8.
Malar J ; 21(1): 50, 2022 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35172833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving malaria elimination requires the targeting of the human reservoir of infection, including those patients with asymptomatic infection. The objective was to synthesise evidence on the accuracy of the rapid-onsite diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopy for the detection of asymptomatic malaria as part of the surveillance activities in Asian countries. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. Relevant studies that evaluated the diagnostic performance of RDTs and microscopy for detection of asymptomatic malaria were searched in health-related electronic databases. The methodological quality of the studies included was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. RESULTS: Ten studies assessing RDT and/or microscopy were identified. The diagnostic accuracies in all these studies were verified by PCR. Overall, the pooled sensitivities of RDT, as well as microscopy for detection of any malaria parasites in asymptomatic participants, were low, while their pooled specificities were almost ideal. For the detection of Plasmodium falciparum, pooled sensitivity by RDT (59%, 95%CI:16-91%) or microscopy (55%, 95%CI: 25-82%) were almost comparable. For detection of Plasmodium vivax, pooled sensitivity of RDT (51%, 95% CI:7-94%) had also the comparable accuracy of microscopy (54%, 95%CI,11-92%). Of note are the wide range of sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSION: The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that RDTs and microscopy have limited sensitivity and are inappropriate for the detection of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections. Other methods including a combination of PCR-based strategies, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) technique must be considered to target these infections, in order to achieve malaria elimination. However, more data is needed for the wide acceptance and feasibility of these approaches. Studies to explore the role of asymptomatic and sub-patent infections in the transmission of malaria are of critical importance and are recommended.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum , Malária , Plasmodium , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130487

RESUMO

Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) Vaccine is composed of radiation-attenuated, aseptic, purified cryopreserved PfSPZ. Multiple clinical trials empirically assessing two to six doses have shown multi-dose priming (-two to four doses the first week) to be optimal for protection in both 4- and 16-week regimens. In this randomized, double-blind, normal saline (NS), placebo-controlled trial, four groups (G) of 18- to 32-year-old Equatoguineans received multi-dose priming regimens with or without a delayed final dose at 4 or 16 weeks (9 × 105 PfSPZ/dose). The regimens were G1: days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 113; G2: days 1, 3, 5, and 7; G3: days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 29; and G4: days 1, 8, and 29). All doses were 9 × 105 PfSPZ. Tolerability, safety, immunogenicity, and vaccine efficacy (VE) against homologous-controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) 6-7 weeks after vaccination were assessed to down-select the best regimen. All four regimens were safe and well tolerated, with no significant differences in adverse events (AEs) between vaccinees (N = 84) and NS controls (N = 20) or between regimens. Out of 19 controls, 13 developed Pf parasitemia by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after CHMI. Only the vaccine regimen administered on study days 1, 8, and 29 gave significant protection (7/21 vaccinees versus 13/19 controls infected, VE 51.3%, P = 0.03, Barnard's test, two-tailed). There were no significant differences in antibodies against Pf circumporozoite protein (PfCSP), a major SPZ antigen, between protected and nonprotected vaccinees or controls pre-CHMI. The six controls not developing Pf parasitemia had significantly higher antibodies to blood stage antigens Pf exported protein 1 (PfEXP1) and Pf merozoite surface protein 1 (PfMSP1) than the controls who developed parasitemia, suggesting naturally acquired immunity against Pf-limited infections in controls. This study identified a safe, protective, 4-week, multi-dose prime vaccination regimen for assessment in future trials of PfSPZ Vaccine.

10.
Acta Trop ; 229: 106308, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021104
11.
Malar J ; 21(1): 23, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surveillance programmes often use malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to determine the proportion of the population carrying parasites in their peripheral blood to assess the malaria transmission intensity. Despite an increasing number of reports on false-negative and false-positive RDT results, there is a lack of systematic quality control activities for RDTs deployed in malaria surveillance programmes. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of field-deployed RDTs used for malaria surveys was assessed by retrospective molecular analysis of the blood retained on the tests. RESULTS: Of the 2865 RDTs that were collected in 2018 on Bioko Island and analysed in this study, 4.7% had a false-negative result. These false-negative RDTs were associated with low parasite density infections. In 16.6% of analysed samples, masked pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions were identified, in which at least one Plasmodium falciparum strain carried a gene deletion. Among all positive RDTs analysed, 28.4% were tested negative by qPCR and therefore considered to be false-positive. Analysing the questionnaire data collected from the participants, this high proportion of false-positive RDTs could be explained by P. falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) antigen persistence after recent malaria treatment. CONCLUSION: Malaria surveillance depending solely on RDTs needs well-integrated quality control procedures to assess the extent and impact of reduced sensitivity and specificity of RDTs on malaria control programmes.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/diagnóstico , Vigilância da População , Proteínas de Protozoários/análise , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Guiné Equatorial/epidemiologia , Reações Falso-Positivas , Incidência , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Ácidos Nucleicos/análise , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium malariae/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium ovale/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30058, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been much discussion about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children and adolescents, since the pandemic was recognised in early 2020. Understanding their role in this pandemic is important for the development of appropriate prevention measures. OBJECTIVE: To summarise evidence about three aspects of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in children and adolescents: (1) severity of SARS-CoV-2 presentation, (2) risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and (3) risk of transmitting SARS-CoV-2.METHODS: We searched PubMed and MedRxiv for studies on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 in children and adolescents from January 2020 to 21 January 2021. The electronic search was supplemented by papers found in a manual search or suggested by experts up to 29 March 2021. We included case reports, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, narrative reviews or viewpoints, systematic reviews and modelling studies. We synthesised the information descriptively and attempted to report findings separately for: infants and small children (0-5 years) who are mostly pre-school; school children (6-12 years) broadly covering primary school years; and adolescents (13-17 years). RESULTS: Of 2778 screened articles, we included 63 (20 case reports, 18 cross-sectional studies, 8 cohort studies, 6 narrative reviews or viewpoints, 10 systematic reviews and 1 modelling study). Children (≤12 years of age) and adolescents (13-17 years of age) usually present with mild disease, with few requiring intensive care treatment. A minority of children of all ages (<18 years) remains asymptomatic throughout the course of infection. In serological studies, reported symptoms are similar in children with and without SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Children and adolescents can acquire and transmit SARS-CoV-2. The risks of acquiring and transmitting SARS-CoV-2 seems to increase with age. There was limited information about SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Poor reporting of age groups and contextual factors such as levels of community transmission, school closures and other non-pharmaceutical interventions make synthesis of findings across studies difficult. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation and role of children and adolescents in SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and transmission needs further investigation, particularly with regard to variants of concern. Large, prospective studies that attempt to minimise biases in design, are analysed appropriately and reported comprehensively should be conducted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 620425, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408619

RESUMO

Objectives: Over the last 2 decades, the World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed a global strategy and initiatives to establish a Health Research System (HRS) focusing on Health Research Quality and Standardization (HRQS), Health Research Knowledge Transfer and Dissemination (HRKTD), and Health Research Translation and Utilization into Health Care Decisions and Policies (HRTUDP). Despite the increase in health research productivity over the past several decades, HRS Capacity (HRSC) in Palestine and in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has rarely been objectively evaluated. This study aims at eliciting the perceptions of HRS performers in Palestine in order to understand the status of HRSC, identify gaps, and generate policies and solutions capable of strengthening HRSC in Palestine. Methods: Key informants from three sectors, namely government, academia, and local and international organizations, were selected purposively based on different sampling methods: criterion, critical case, snowball, and homogeneous sampling. Fifty-two in-depth interviews with key informants and a total of fifty-two individuals, participating in six focus groups, were conducted by the principal investigator in Palestine. Data were analyzed by using MAXQDA 12. Results: The overall pattern of the Palestinian HRSC is relatively weak. The key findings revealed that while HR productivity in Palestine is improving, HRQS is at an average level and quality guidelines are not followed due to paucity of understanding, policies, and resources. HRKTD is a central challenge with both a dearth of conceptualization of translational science and inadequate implementation. The factors related to inadequate HRKTD include lack of awareness on the part of the researchers, inadequate regulatory frameworks and mechanisms for both communication and collaboration between and among researchers and policy-makers and clinicians, and lack of availability of, and credibility in, systematized and reliable HR data. Despite the limited knowledge translation, in general, HRTUDP is not considered an essential decision-making methodology mainly due to the lack of interface between knowledge producers (researchers) and users (policymakers), understanding level, HR credibility and availability of applied research, and governance, resources, and political fluctuations. Recommendations to strengthen HRS in Palestine include: a consolidated research regulatory framework and an effective capacity strengthening strategy overseen by Palestinian authorities; the promotion of HRQS and concepts and practices of translational science; and, most importantly, the use of findings for evidence-based policies and practice. Conclusion: Strengthening HRSC is both an imperative step and an opportunity to improve the Palestinian health system and ensure it is based on research evidence and knowledge. Building a successful HRS characterized by capacities of high-quality research and well-disseminated and translated knowledge is a prerequisite to effective health systems and services. This can be achieved by political commitment to support such strengthening, a consolidated leadership and governance structure, and a strong operational capacity strengthening strategy.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Fortalecimento Institucional , Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Pesquisa Translacional Biomédica , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Fortalecimento Institucional/métodos , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Oriente Médio
14.
Malar J ; 20(1): 322, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extensive malaria control measures have been implemented on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea over the past 16 years, reducing parasite prevalence and malaria-related morbidity and mortality, but without achieving elimination. Malaria vaccines offer hope for reducing the burden to zero. Three phase 1/2 studies have been conducted successfully on Bioko Island to evaluate the safety and efficacy of whole Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoite (SPZ) malaria vaccines. A large, pivotal trial of the safety and efficacy of the radiation-attenuated Sanaria® PfSPZ Vaccine against P. falciparum is planned for 2022. This study assessed the incidence of malaria at the phase 3 study site and characterized the influence of socio-demographic factors on the burden of malaria to guide trial design. METHODS: A cohort of 240 randomly selected individuals aged 6 months to 45 years from selected areas of North Bioko Province, Bioko Island, was followed for 24 weeks after clearance of parasitaemia. Assessment of clinical presentation consistent with malaria and thick blood smears were performed every 2 weeks. Incidence of first and multiple malaria infections per person-time of follow-up was estimated, compared between age groups, and examined for associated socio-demographic risk factors. RESULTS: There were 58 malaria infection episodes observed during the follow up period, including 47 first and 11 repeat infections. The incidence of malaria was 0.25 [95% CI (0.19, 0.32)] and of first malaria was 0.23 [95% CI (0.17, 0.30)] per person per 24 weeks (0.22 in 6-59-month-olds, 0.26 in 5-17-year-olds, 0.20 in 18-45-year-olds). Incidence of first malaria with symptoms was 0.13 [95% CI (0.09, 0.19)] per person per 24 weeks (0.16 in 6-59-month-olds, 0.10 in 5-17-year-olds, 0.11 in 18-45-year-olds). Multivariate assessment showed that study area, gender, malaria positivity at screening, and household socioeconomic status independently predicted the observed incidence of malaria. CONCLUSION: Despite intensive malaria control efforts on Bioko Island, local transmission remains and is spread evenly throughout age groups. These incidence rates indicate moderate malaria transmission which may be sufficient to support future larger trials of PfSPZ Vaccine. The long-term goal is to conduct mass vaccination programmes to halt transmission and eliminate P. falciparum malaria.


Assuntos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Guiné Equatorial/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 2757-2770, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234591

RESUMO

Technological innovation has a significant role in improving health systems (HSs) and achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared resolutions on Health Technology Assessment (HTA) and other global organizations emphasized on HTA systems to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). HTA is a modern multidisciplinary decision-making framework linking knowledge and policymaking by assessing the medical, social, economic, organizational, and ethical effects, and/or impacts within health and social systems. The research significance lies in the growing need for HTA at these moments than ever as it is seen as an essential development approach to tackle the current global challenges and pandemics, particularly in developing countries. The research aims to comprehensively evaluate and understand HTA systems concerning the level of knowledge about HTA, current HTA structure, practices, application, capacity, gaps, and solutions. The project starts in January 2021 and ends in January 2022 and will be carried out in seven countries: Canada, Switzerland, Brazil, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, and Tanzania. A mixed-methods, quantitative and qualitative, along with a literature review will be applied. In each country, ten HTA-associated institutions will complete an adapted electronic survey, developed by the WHO, and ten key-informants selected purposively from the government, academia, NGOs, and private sectors to participate in ten individual in-depth interviews. One government representative from each country will participate in one expanded inter-country workshop. Excel, IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and MAXQDA software programs will be used for data management and analysis. The research will form cutting-edge evidence not only for the seven countries, but also for the global, regional, and national endeavors with regards to opening a room for HTA best application and optimization. It will reveal lessons learned, determine gaps, and build a well-enabled and institutionalized HTA for better UHC, health systems, and multi-sectoral development.

17.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 6(1): 12, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845923

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is considerably the biggest global health challenge of this modern era. Spreading across all regions of the world, this corona virus disease has disrupted even some of the most advanced economies and healthcare systems. With an increasing global death toll and no near end in sight, questions on the efficacy of global response mechanisms, including the role and relevancy of global health institutions, have emerged. Using a reflexive content analytic approach, this study sheds light on some of these questions, underscoring the disconnect between science, policymaking, and society. Global health funding approaches; politicization of the pandemic, including political blame gaming; mistrust of government and other institutions; and a lack of robust accountability measures are some of the pandemic response obstacles. However, COVID-19 has also presented an opportunity for a collaboration that may potentially solidify global solidarity. A pandemic response built on strategic global health diplomacy, vaccine diplomacy, and science diplomacy can spur both political and economic benefits, advancing development, health security, and justice. The virus thrives and flourishes in face of political divisions and lack of cooperation. While the current global crisis has exacerbated the existing social injustices in societies, national unity and global solidarity is essential to winning the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Diplomacia/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Médicos , Humanos
18.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(2): 251-264, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524120

RESUMO

Mortality assessment in cohorts with high numbers of persons lost to follow-up (LTFU) is challenging in settings with limited civil registration systems. We aimed to assess mortality in a clinical cohort (the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort (KIULARCO)) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in rural Tanzania, accounting for unseen deaths among participants LTFU. We included adults enrolled in 2005-2015 and traced a nonrandom sample of those LTFU. We estimated mortality using Kaplan-Meier methods 1) with routinely captured data (method A), 2) crudely incorporating tracing data (method B), 3) weighting using tracing data to crudely correct for unobserved deaths among participants LTFU (method C), and 4) weighting using tracing data accounting for participant characteristics (method D). We investigated associated factors using proportional hazards models. Among 7,460 adults, 646 (9%) died, 883 (12%) transferred to other clinics, and 2,911 (39%) were LTFU. Of 2,010 (69%) traced participants, 325 (16%) were found: 131 (40%) had died and 130 (40%) had transferred. Five-year mortality estimates derived using the 4 methods were 13.1% (A), 16.2% (B), 36.8% (C), and 35.1% (D), respectively. Higher mortality was associated with male sex, referral as a hospital inpatient, living close to the index clinic, lower body mass index, more advanced World Health Organization HIV clinical stage, lower CD4 cell count, and less time since initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Adjusting for unseen deaths among participants LTFU approximately doubled the 5-year mortality estimates. Our approach is applicable to other cohort studies adopting targeted tracing.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Perda de Seguimento , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Virol J ; 18(1): 28, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diverse vaccination outcomes and protection levels among different populations pose a serious challenge to the development of an effective malaria vaccine. Co-infections are among many factors associated with immune dysfunction and sub-optimal vaccination outcomes. Chronic, asymptomatic viral infections can contribute to the modulation of vaccine efficacy through various mechanisms. Human Pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) persists in immune cells thereby potentially modulating immune responses. We investigated whether Pegivirus infection influences vaccine-induced responses and protection in African volunteers undergoing whole P. falciparum sporozoites-based malaria vaccination and controlled human malaria infections (CHMI). METHODS: HPgV-1 prevalence was quantified by RT-qPCR in plasma samples of 96 individuals before, post vaccination with PfSPZ Vaccine and after CHMI in cohorts from Tanzania and Equatorial Guinea. The impact of HPgV-1 infection was evaluated on (1) systemic cytokine and chemokine levels measured by Luminex, (2) PfCSP-specific antibody titers quantified by ELISA, (3) asexual blood-stage parasitemia pre-patent periods and parasite multiplication rates, (4) HPgV-1 RNA levels upon asexual blood-stage parasitemia induced by CHMI. RESULTS: The prevalence of HPgV-1 was 29.2% (28/96) and sequence analysis of the 5' UTR and E2 regions revealed the predominance of genotypes 1, 2 and 5. HPgV-1 infection was associated with elevated systemic levels of IL-2 and IL-17A. Comparable vaccine-induced anti-PfCSP antibody titers, asexual blood-stage multiplication rates and pre-patent periods were observed in HPgV-1 positive and negative individuals. However, a tendency for higher protection levels was detected in the HPgV-1 positive group (62.5%) compared to the negative one (51.6%) following CHMI. HPgV-1 viremia levels were not significantly altered after CHMI. CONCLUSIONS: HPgV-1 infection did not alter PfSPZ Vaccine elicited levels of PfCSP-specific antibody responses and parasite multiplication rates. Ongoing HPgV-1 infection appears to improve to some degree protection against CHMI in PfSPZ-vaccinated individuals. This is likely through modulation of immune system activation and systemic cytokines as higher levels of IL-2 and IL17A were observed in HPgV-1 infected individuals. CHMI is safe and well tolerated in HPgV-1 infected individuals. Identification of cell types and mechanisms of both silent and productive infection in individuals will help to unravel the biology of this widely present but largely under-researched virus.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/imunologia , Infecções por Flaviviridae/imunologia , Vacinas Antimaláricas/imunologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Esporozoítos/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/complicações , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por Flaviviridae/sangue , Infecções por Flaviviridae/complicações , Infecções por Flaviviridae/epidemiologia , Guiné , Humanos , Vacinas Antimaláricas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pegivirus/genética , Pegivirus/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tanzânia , Vacinação , Potência de Vacina , Adulto Jovem
20.
Acta Trop ; 213: 105165, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518573

RESUMO

Elsevier's 2nd conference on "Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases" (IECID), convened in May 2017 in Trieste, Italy, brought together some 120 researchers from more than 20 countries. They presented the latest findings and discussed the impact of current and predicted future environmental changes on infectious disease dynamics in humans, livestock and wildlife in different parts of the world. Particular emphasis was placed on food-, vector- and water-borne diseases within the general theme of infectious diseases of poverty and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The potential impact of mobility, travel, population growth, trade and globalization on infectious disease dynamics against the background of a changing climate, land use, air quality and urbanization on individual, population, ecosystem and planetary health were addressed. Speakers at the conference were encouraged to put forth their talks into stand-alone manuscripts, which resulted in a unique collection of 13 articles, now brought together into a thematic issue of Acta Tropica. In this umbrella piece, we synthesize key findings from the published articles and highlight potential actions that might be taken forward to prevent and mitigate the impact of environmental change on infectious diseases. The work presented is salient in the current era of the Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais , Animais , Mudança Climática , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Vetores de Doenças , Ecossistema , Humanos , Crescimento Demográfico , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Viagem , Urbanização
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