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1.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

2.
Elife ; 82019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038453

RESUMO

We studied resting-state oscillatory connectivity using magnetoencephalography in healthy young humans (N = 183) genotyped for APOE-ɛ4, the greatest genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Connectivity across frequencies, but most prevalent in alpha/beta, was increased in APOE-ɛ4 in a set of mostly right-hemisphere connections, including lateral parietal and precuneus regions of the Default Mode Network. Similar regions also demonstrated hyperactivity, but only in gamma (40-160 Hz). In a separate study of AD patients, hypoconnectivity was seen in an extended bilateral network that partially overlapped with the hyperconnected regions seen in young APOE-ɛ4 carriers. Using machine-learning, AD patients could be distinguished from elderly controls with reasonable sensitivity and specificity, while young APOE-e4 carriers could also be distinguished from their controls with above chance performance. These results support theories of initial hyperconnectivity driving eventual profound disconnection in AD and suggest that this is present decades before the onset of AD symptomology.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 467, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679549

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) show that many common alleles confer risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). These risk loci may contribute to MRI alterations in young individuals, preceding the clinical manifestations of AD. Prior evidence identifies vascular dysregulation as the earliest marker of disease progression. However, it remains unclear whether cerebrovascular function (measured via grey-matter cerebral blood flow (gmCBF)) is altered in young individuals with increased AD genetic risk. We establish relationships between gmCBF with APOE and AD polygenic risk score in a young cohort (N = 75; aged: 19-32). Genetic risk was assessed via a) possessing at least one copy of the APOE ɛ4 allele and b) a polygenic risk score (AD-PRS) estimated from AD-GWAS. We observed a reduction in gmCBF in APOE ɛ4 carriers and a negative relationship between AD-PRS and gmCBF. We further found regional reductions in gmCBF in individuals with higher AD-PRS across the frontal cortex (PFWE < 0.05). Our findings suggest that a larger burden of AD common genetic risk alleles is associated with attenuated cerebrovascular function, during young adulthood. These results suggest that cerebral vasculature is a mechanism by which AD risk alleles confer susceptibility.

4.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 28(8): 945-954, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135031

RESUMO

Cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzymes have a primary role in antidepressant metabolism and variants in these polymorphic genes are targets for pharmacogenetic investigation. This is the first meta-analysis to investigate how CYP2C19 polymorphisms predict citalopram/escitalopram efficacy and side effects. CYP2C19 metabolic phenotypes comprise poor metabolizers (PM), intermediate and intermediate+ metabolizers (IM; IM+), extensive and extensive+ metabolizers (EM [wild type]; EM+) and ultra-rapid metabolizers (UM) defined by the two most common CYP2C19 functional polymorphisms (rs4244285 and rs12248560) in Caucasians. These polymorphisms were genotyped or imputed from genome-wide data in four samples treated with citalopram or escitalopram (GENDEP, STAR*D, GenPod, PGRN-AMPS). Treatment efficacy was assessed by standardized percentage symptom improvement and by remission. Side effect data were available at weeks 2-4, 6 and 9 in three samples. A fixed-effects meta-analysis was performed using EM as the reference group. Analysis of 2558 patients for efficacy and 2037 patients for side effects showed that PMs had higher symptom improvement (SMD = 0.43, CI = 0.19-0.66) and higher remission rates (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.23-1.96) compared to EMs. At weeks 2-4, PMs showed higher risk of gastro-intestinal (OR = 1.26, CI = 1.08-1.47), neurological (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.07-1.53) and sexual side effects (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.23-1.87; week 6 values were similar). No difference was seen at week 9 or in total side effect burden. PMs did not have higher risk of dropout at week 4 compared to EMs. Antidepressant dose was not different among CYP2C19 groups. CYP2C19 polymorphisms may provide helpful information for guiding citalopram/escitalopram treatment, despite PMs being relatively rare among Caucasians (∼2%).

5.
Br J Psychiatry ; 213(3): 548-554, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus and the cingulum may be biomarkers for bipolar disorder and may even be distinctly affected in different subtypes of bipolar disorder, an area in need of further research.AimsThis study aims to establish if fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus and cingulum shows differences between healthy controls, patients with bipolar disorder type I (BD-I) and type II (BD-II), and their unaffected siblings. METHOD: Fractional anisotropy measures from the uncinate fasciculus, cingulum body and parahippocampal cingulum were compared with tractography methods in 40 healthy controls, 32 patients with BD-I, 34 patients with BD-II, 17 siblings of patients with BD-I and 14 siblings of patients with BD-II. RESULTS: The main effects were found in both the right and left uncinate fasciculus, with patients with BD-I showing significantly lower fractional anisotropy than both patients with BD-II and healthy controls. Participants with BD-II did not differ from healthy controls. Siblings showed similar effects in the left uncinate fasciculus. In a subsequent complementary analysis, we investigated the association between fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus and polygenic risk for bipolar disorder and psychosis in a large cohort (n = 570) of healthy participants. However, we found no significant association. CONCLUSIONS: Fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus differs significantly between patients with BD-I and patients with BD-II and healthy controls. This supports the hypothesis of differences in the physiological sub-tract between bipolar disorder subtypes. Similar results were found in unaffected siblings, suggesting the potential for this biomarker to represent an endophenotype for BD-I. However, fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus seems unrelated to polygenic risk for bipolar disorder or psychosis.Declaration of interestNone.

6.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 43(4): 245-253, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are well-established features of schizophrenia, but there is ongoing debate about the nature and degree of cognitive impairment in patients with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that there is a spectrum of increasing impairment from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizoaffective disorder depressive type and schizophrenia. METHODS: We compared performance on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery between participants with schizophrenia (n = 558), schizoaffective disorder depressive type (n = 112), schizoaffective disorder type (n = 76), bipolar disorder (n = 78) and healthy participants (n = 103) using analysis of covariance with post hoc comparisons. We conducted an ordinal logistic regression to examine whether cognitive impairments followed the hypothesized spectrum from bipolar disorder (least severe) to schizophrenia (most severe). In addition to categorical diagnoses, we addressed the influence of symptom domains, examining the association between cognition and mania, depression and psychosis. RESULTS: Cognitive impairments increased in severity from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder depressive type. Participants with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder depressive type showed equivalent performance (d = 0.07, p = 0.90). The results of the ordinal logistic regression were consistent with a spectrum of deficits from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder depressive type (odds ratio = 1.98, p < 0.001). In analyses of the associations between symptom dimensions and cognition, higher scores on the psychosis dimension were associated with poorer performance (B = 0.015, standard error = 0.002, p < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: There were fewer participants with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder than schizophrenia. Despite this, our analyses were robust to differences in group sizes, and we were able to detect differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Cognitive impairments represent a symptom dimension that cuts across traditional diagnostic boundaries.

7.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 43(3): 170076, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29620518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments are well-established features of schizophrenia, but there is ongoing debate about the nature and degree of cognitive impairment in patients with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that there is a spectrum of increasing impairment from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizoaffective disorder depressive type and schizophrenia. METHODS: We compared performance on the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery between participants with schizophrenia (n = 558), schizoaffective disorder depressive type (n = 112), schizoaffective disorder type (n = 76), bipolar disorder (n = 78) and healthy participants (n = 103) using analysis of covariance with post hoc comparisons. We conducted an ordinal logistic regression to examine whether cognitive impairments followed the hypothesized spectrum from bipolar disorder (least severe) to schizophrenia (most severe). In addition to categorical diagnoses, we addressed the influence of symptom domains, examining the association between cognition and mania, depression and psychosis. RESULTS: Cognitive impairments increased in severity from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder depressive type. Participants with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder depressive type showed equivalent performance (d = 0.07, p = 0.90). The results of the ordinal logistic regression were consistent with a spectrum of deficits from bipolar disorder to schizoaffective disorder bipolar type, to schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder depressive type (odds ratio = 1.98, p < 0.001). In analyses of the associations between symptom dimensions and cognition, higher scores on the psychosis dimension were associated with poorer performance (B = 0.015, standard error = 0.002, p < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: There were fewer participants with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder than schizophrenia. Despite this, our analyses were robust to differences in group sizes, and we were able to detect differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Cognitive impairments represent a symptom dimension that cuts across traditional diagnostic boundaries.

8.
Schizophr Bull ; 2018 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608775

RESUMO

Risk profile scores (RPS) derived from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain a considerable amount of susceptibility for schizophrenia (SCZ). However, little is known about how common genetic risk factors for SCZ influence the structure and function of the human brain, largely due to the constraints of imaging sample sizes. In the current study, we use a novel recall-by-genotype (RbG) methodological approach, where we sample young adults from a population cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: N genotyped = 8365) based on their SCZ-RPS. We compared 197 healthy individuals at extremes of low (N = 99) or high (N = 98) SCZ-RPS with behavioral tests, and structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We first provide methodological details that will inform the design of future RbG studies for common SCZ genetic risk. We further provide an between group analysis of the RbG individuals (low vs high SCZ-RPS) who underwent structural neuroimaging data (T1-weighted scans) and fMRI data during a reversal learning task. While we found little evidence for morphometric differences between the low and high SCZ-RPS groups, we observed an impact of SCZ-RPS on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during reward processing in the ventral striatum (PFWE-VS-CORRECTED = .037), a previously investigated broader reward-related network (PFWE-ROIS-CORRECTED = .008), and across the whole brain (PFWE-WHOLE-BRAIN-CORRECTED = .013). We also describe the study strategy and discuss specific challenges of RbG for SCZ risk (such as SCZ-RPS related homoscedasticity). This study will help to elucidate the behavioral and imaging phenotypes that are associated with SCZ genetic risk.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 711, 2018 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459775

RESUMO

Detailed phenotyping is required to deepen our understanding of the biological mechanisms behind genetic associations. In addition, the impact of potentially modifiable risk factors on disease requires analytical frameworks that allow causal inference. Here, we discuss the characteristics of Recall-by-Genotype (RbG) as a study design aimed at addressing both these needs. We describe two broad scenarios for the application of RbG: studies using single variants and those using multiple variants. We consider the efficacy and practicality of the RbG approach, provide a catalogue of UK-based resources for such studies and present an online RbG study planner.

10.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 14, 2018 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have identified a number of significant risk loci, the majority of which lie in non-coding regions of the genome. The lack of causal alleles and considerable polygenicity remains a significant barrier to translation into mechanistic understanding. This includes identifying causal variants and the cell/tissue types in which they operate. A fuller understanding of the cell types and transcriptional networks involved in AD genetic risk mechanisms will provide important insights into pathogenesis. METHODS: We assessed the significance of the overlap between genome-wide significant AD risk variants and sites of open chromatin from data sets representing diverse tissue types. We then focussed on macrophages and microglia to investigate the role of open chromatin sites containing motifs for specific transcription factors. Partitioned heritability using LDscore regression was used to investigate the contribution of specific macrophage and microglia transcription factor motif-containing open chromatin sites to the heritability of AD. RESULTS: AD risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are preferentially located at sites of open chromatin in immune cells, particularly monocytes (z score = 4.43; corrected P = 5.88 × 10- 3). Similar enrichments are observed for macrophages (z score = 4.10; corrected P < 2.40 × 10- 3) and microglia (z score = 4.34, corrected P = 0.011). In both macrophages and microglia, AD risk variants are enriched at a subset of open chromatin sites that contain DNA binding motifs for specific transcription factors, e.g. SPI1 and MEF2. Genetic variation at many of these motif-containing sites also mediate a substantial proportion of AD heritability, with SPI1-containing sites capturing the majority of the common variant SNP-chip heritability (microglia enrichment = 16.28, corrected enrichment P = 0.0044). CONCLUSIONS: AD risk alleles plausibly operate in immune cells, including microglia, and are concentrated in specific transcriptional networks. Combined with primary genetic association results, the SPI1 and MEF2 transcriptional networks appear central to AD risk mechanisms. Investigation of transcription factors targeting AD risk SNP associated regulatory elements could provide powerful insights into the molecular processes affected by AD polygenic risk. More broadly, our findings support a model of polygenic disease risk that arises from variants located in specific transcriptional networks.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Macrófagos/patologia , Microglia/patologia , Transcrição Genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Desoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Microglia/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 7, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317610

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 robust risk loci for schizophrenia with thousands of variants mediating genetic heritability, the majority of which reside in non-coding regions. Analytical approaches have shown this heritability is strongly enriched at variants within regulatory elements identified from human post-mortem brain tissue. However, bulk post-mortem brain tissue has a heterogeneous cell composition, making biological interpretations difficult. We sought to refine the cell types mediating schizophrenia heritability by separating neuronal and glial signals using data from: (1) NeuN-sorted post-mortem brain and (2) cell culture systems. Schizophrenia heritability was partitioned using linkage disequilbrium (LD) score regression. Variants within genomic regions marked by H3K4me3 (marker of active promoters) from NeuN-positive (neuronal) and NeuN-negative (non-neuronal) cells explained a significant amount of schizophrenia heritability (P = 1.38 × 10-10 and P = 7.97 × 10-10). However, variants located in H3K4me3 sites specific to NeuN-positive (neuronal) cells were enriched (P = 3.13 × 10-4), while those specific to NeuN-negative (non-neuronal) cells were not (P = 0.470). Data from cell culture systems mimicked this pattern of association. We show the previously observed enrichment of heritability from variants at brain H3K4me3 sites is mediated by both neuronal and non-neuronal brain cell types. However, only neuronal cell populations showed a unique contribution driven by cell-type specific regulatory elements. Cell culture systems recapitulate disease relevant gene-regulatory landscapes, validating them as a tool for future investigation of genetic mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Identifying the cell types in which risk variants operate will greatly increase our understanding of schizophrenia pathobiology and aid in the development of novel model systems and therapies.

12.
Schizophr Bull ; 44(5): 1100-1110, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228394

RESUMO

Background: Common genetic variants in and around the gene encoding transcription factor 4 (TCF4) are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Conversely, rare damaging TCF4 mutations cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome and have also been found in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation sequencing were used to identify the genomic targets of TCF4. These data were integrated with expression, epigenetic and disease gene sets using a range of computational tools. Results: We identify 10604 TCF4 binding sites in the genome that were assigned to 5437 genes. De novo motif enrichment found that most TCF4 binding sites contained at least one E-box (5'-CAtcTG). Approximately 77% of TCF4 binding sites overlapped with the H3K27ac histone modification for active enhancers. Enrichment analysis on the set of TCF4 targets identified numerous, highly significant functional clusters for pathways including nervous system development, ion transport and signal transduction, and co-expression modules for genes associated with synaptic function and brain development. Importantly, we found that genes harboring de novo mutations in schizophrenia (P = 5.3 × 10-7), ASD (P = 2.5 × 10-4), and ID (P = 7.6 × 10-3) were also enriched among TCF4 targets. TCF4 binding sites were also found at other schizophrenia risk loci including the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor cluster, CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 and SETD1A. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that TCF4 binding sites are found in a large number of neuronal genes that include many genetic risk factors for common neurodevelopmental disorders.

13.
Schizophr Bull ; 2018 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597088

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have linked common variation in ZNF804A with an increased risk of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the biology of ZNF804A and its role in schizophrenia. Here, we investigate the function of ZNF804A using a variety of complementary molecular techniques. We show that ZNF804A is a nuclear protein that interacts with neuronal RNA splicing factors and RNA-binding proteins including RBFOX1, which is also associated with schizophrenia, CELF3/4, components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the ZNF804A paralog, GPATCH8. GPATCH8 also interacts with splicing factors and is localized to nuclear speckles indicative of a role in pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) processing. Sequence analysis showed that GPATCH8 contains ultraconserved, alternatively spliced poison exons that are also regulated by RBFOX proteins. ZNF804A knockdown in SH-SY5Y cells resulted in robust changes in gene expression and pre-mRNA splicing converging on pathways associated with nervous system development, synaptic contact, and cell adhesion. We observed enrichment (P = 1.66 × 10-9) for differentially spliced genes in ZNF804A-depleted cells among genes that contain RBFOX-dependent alternatively spliced exons. Differentially spliced genes in ZNF804A-depleted cells were also enriched for genes harboring de novo loss of function mutations in autism spectrum disorder (P = 6.25 × 10-7, enrichment 2.16) and common variant alleles associated with schizophrenia (P = .014), bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (P = .003), and autism spectrum disorder (P = .005). These data suggest that ZNF804A and its paralogs may interact with neuronal-splicing factors and RNA-binding proteins to regulate the expression of a subset of synaptic and neurodevelopmental genes.

14.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 174(4): 427-434, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28394502

RESUMO

Antidepressant-induced hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is hypothesized to contribute to increases in hippocampal volume among major depressive disorder patients after long-term treatment. Furthermore, rodent studies suggest AHN may be the cellular mechanism mediating the therapeutic benefits of antidepressants. Here, we perform the first investigation of genome-wide expression changes associated with AHN in human cells. We identify gene expression networks significantly activated during AHN, and we perform gene set analyses to probe the molecular relationship between AHN, hippocampal volume, and antidepressant response. The latter were achieved using genome-wide association summary data collected from 30,717 individuals as part of the ENIGMA Consortium (genetic predictors of hippocampal volume dataset), and data collected from 1,222 major depressed patients as part of the NEWMEDS Project (genetic predictors of response to antidepressants dataset). Our results showed that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, escitalopram evoked AHN in human cells; dose-dependently increasing the differentiation of cells into neuroblasts, as well as increasing gliogenesis. Activated genome-wide expression networks relate to axon and microtubule formation, and ribosomal biogenesis. Gene set analysis revealed that gene expression changes associated with AHN were nominally enriched for genes predictive of hippocampal volume, but not for genes predictive of therapeutic response.


Assuntos
Citalopram/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Neurogênese/genética , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo
15.
Brain Behav Immun ; 62: 344-350, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257825

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Population-based studies have associated inflammation, particularly higher C-reactive protein (CRP), with depressive severity, but clinical trials in major depressive disorder were rather non-specific without examining the role of gender. We aimed to investigate the association between CRP and overall depression severity including specific depressive symptoms and to examine potential gender differences. METHODS: We included 231 individuals with major depressive disorder from the Genome-Based Therapeutics Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study. At baseline, we assessed high-sensitivity CRP levels and psychopathology with the Montgomery Aasberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). We performed linear regression analyses to investigate the association between baseline CRP levels with overall MADRS severity and specific symptoms at baseline and adjusted for age, gender, anti-inflammatory and psychotropic drug treatment, body mass index, smoking, inflammatory diseases, and recruitment center. RESULTS: Higher CRP levels were significantly associated with greater overall MADRS symptom severity (p=0.02), which was significant among women (p=0.02) but not among men (p=0.68). Among women, higher CRP was associated with increased severity on observed mood, cognitive symptoms, interest-activity, and suicidality, but we found no significant associations among men. Interaction analyses showed no significant gender differences on the overall MADRS score or specific symptoms. DISCUSSION: Our results support the sickness syndrome theory suggesting that chronic low-grade inflammation may be associated with a subtype of depression. The potential gender differences in psychopathology may be explained by biological and/or psychosocial factors, e.g. differential modulation of immune responses by sex hormones. Clinical studies should investigate symptom-specific and/or gender-specific treatment guided by peripheral inflammatory markers.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Depressão/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28159590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has a high personal and socio-economic burden and >60% of patients fail to achieve remission with the first antidepressant. The biological mechanisms behind antidepressant response are only partially known but genetic factors play a relevant role. A combined predictor across genetic variants may be useful to investigate this complex trait. METHODS: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were used to estimate multi-allelic contribution to: 1) antidepressant efficacy; 2) its overlap with MDD and schizophrenia. We constructed PRS and tested whether these predicted symptom improvement or remission from the GENDEP study (n=736) to the STAR*D study (n=1409) and vice-versa, including the whole sample or only patients treated with escitalopram or citalopram. Using summary statistics from Psychiatric Genomics Consortium for MDD and schizophrenia, we tested whether PRS from these disorders predicted symptom improvement in GENDEP, STAR*D, and five further studies (n=3756). RESULTS: No significant prediction of antidepressant efficacy was obtained from PRS in GENDEP/STAR*D but this analysis might have been underpowered. There was no evidence of overlap in the genetics of antidepressant response with either MDD or schizophrenia, either in individual studies or a meta-analysis. Stratifying by antidepressant did not alter the results. DISCUSSION: We identified no significant predictive effect using PRS between pharmacogenetic studies. The genetic liability to MDD or schizophrenia did not predict response to antidepressants, suggesting differences between the genetic component of depression and treatment response. Larger or more homogeneous studies will be necessary to obtain a polygenic predictor of antidepressant response.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Farmacogenética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/genética
17.
Biol Psychiatry ; 81(2): 154-161, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27157680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified genetic loci that jointly make a considerable contribution to risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because neuropathological features of AD can be present several decades before disease onset, we investigated whether effects of polygenic risk are detectable by neuroimaging in young adults. We hypothesized that higher polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for AD would be associated with reduced volume of the hippocampus and other limbic and paralimbic areas. We further hypothesized that AD PRSs would affect the microstructure of fiber tracts connecting the hippocampus with other brain areas. METHODS: We analyzed the association between AD PRSs and brain imaging parameters using T1-weighted structural (n = 272) and diffusion-weighted scans (n = 197). RESULTS: We found a significant association between AD PRSs and left hippocampal volume, with higher risk associated with lower left hippocampal volume (p = .001). This effect remained when the APOE gene was excluded (p = .031), suggesting that the relationship between hippocampal volume and AD is the result of multiple genetic factors and not exclusively variability in the APOE gene. The diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed that fractional anisotropy of the right cingulum was inversely correlated with AD PRSs (p = .009). We thus show that polygenic effects of AD risk variants on brain structure can already be detected in young adults. CONCLUSIONS: This finding paves the way for further investigation of the effects of AD risk variants and may become useful for efforts to combine genotypic and phenotypic data for risk prediction and to enrich future prevention trials of AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipocampo/patologia , Herança Multifatorial , Imagem Multimodal , Adulto , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Córtex Entorrinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Entorrinal/patologia , Feminino , Fórnice/diagnóstico por imagem , Fórnice/patologia , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Giro Para-Hipocampal/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro Para-Hipocampal/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
18.
Biol Psychiatry ; 81(4): 325-335, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27519822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mood disorder, and despite a known heritable component, a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies revealed no replicable genetic risk variants. Given prior evidence of heterogeneity by age at onset in MDD, we tested whether genome-wide significant risk variants for MDD could be identified in cases subdivided by age at onset. METHODS: Discovery case-control genome-wide association studies were performed where cases were stratified using increasing/decreasing age-at-onset cutoffs; significant single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in nine independent replication samples, giving a total sample of 22,158 cases and 133,749 control subjects for subsetting. Polygenic score analysis was used to examine whether differences in shared genetic risk exists between earlier and adult-onset MDD with commonly comorbid disorders of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and coronary artery disease. RESULTS: We identified one replicated genome-wide significant locus associated with adult-onset (>27 years) MDD (rs7647854, odds ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.21, p = 5.2 × 10-11). Using polygenic score analyses, we show that earlier-onset MDD is genetically more similar to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder than adult-onset MDD. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that using additional phenotype data previously collected by genetic studies to tackle phenotypic heterogeneity in MDD can successfully lead to the discovery of genetic risk factor despite reduced sample size. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to MDD differs between adult- and earlier-onset MDD, with earlier-onset cases having a greater genetic overlap with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Adulto , Idade de Início , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 73(8): 852-61, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27384424

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Psychotic disorders are characterized by attenuated activity in the brain's valuation system in key reward processing areas, such as the ventral striatum (VS), as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether common risk variants for psychosis are associated with individual variation in the VS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional study of a large cohort of adolescents from the IMAGEN study (a European multicenter study of reinforcement sensitivity in adolescents) was performed from March 1, 2008, through December 31, 2011. Data analysis was conducted from October 1, 2015, to January 9, 2016. Polygenic risk profile scores (RPSs) for psychosis were generated for 1841 healthy adolescents. Sample size and characteristics varied across regression analyses, depending on mutual information available (N = 1524-1836). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Reward-related brain function was assessed with blood oxygen level dependency (BOLD) in the VS using the monetary incentive delay (MID) task, distinguishing reward anticipation and receipt. Behavioral impulsivity, IQ, MID task performance, and VS BOLD were regressed against psychosis RPS at 4 progressive P thresholds (P < .01, P < .05, P < .10, and P < .50 for RPS models 1-4, respectively). RESULTS: In a sample of 1841 healthy adolescents (mean age, 14.5 years; 906 boys and 935 girls), we replicated an association between increasing psychosis RPS and reduced IQ (matrix reasoning: corrected P = .003 for RPS model 2, 0.4% variance explained), supporting the validity of the psychosis RPS models. We also found a nominally significant association between increased psychosis RPS and reduced MID task performance (uncorrected P = .03 for RPS model 4, 0.2% variance explained). Our main finding was a positive association between psychosis RPS and VS BOLD during reward anticipation at all 4 psychosis RPS models and for 2 P thresholds for reward receipt (RPS models 1 and 3), correcting for the familywise error rate (0.8%-1.9% variance explained). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings support an association between psychosis RPS and VS BOLD in adolescents. Genetic risk for psychosis may shape an individual's response to rewarding stimuli.


Assuntos
Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/genética , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Herança Multifatorial/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Recompensa , Estriado Ventral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Alelos , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dominância Cerebral/genética , Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Oxigênio/sangue , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Estatística como Assunto
20.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 73(3): 221-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818099

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Schizophrenia is a highly heritable, polygenic condition characterized by a relatively diverse phenotype and frequent comorbid conditions, such as anxiety and depression. At present, limited evidence explains how genetic risk for schizophrenia is manifest in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent to which genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with different phenotypes during adolescence in a population-based birth cohort. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Of 14,062 children in the birth cohort, genetic data were available for 9912 adolescents. Data were collected periodically from September 6, 1990, and collection is ongoing. Data were analyzed from March 4 to August 13, 2015. EXPOSURES: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia generated for individuals in the ALSPAC cohort using results of the second Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia genome-wide association study as a training set. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Logistic regression was used to assess associations between the schizophrenia PRS and (1) psychotic experiences (Psychosis-Like Symptom Interview at 12 and 18 years of age), (2) negative symptoms (Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences at 16.5 years of age), (3) depressive disorder (Development and Well-Being Assessment at 15.5 years of age), and (4) anxiety disorder (Development and Well-Being Assessment at 15.5 years of age) in adolescence. RESULTS: Of the 8230 ALSPAC participants whose genetic data passed quality control checks (51.2% male, 48.8% female), 3676 to 5444 participated in assessments from 12 to 18 years of age. The PRSs created using single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a training-set P ≤ .05 threshold were associated with negative symptoms (odds ratio [OR] per SD increase in PRS, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.36; R(2) = 0.007) and anxiety disorder (OR per SD increase in PRS, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.06- 1.29; R(2) = 0.005). No evidence was found of an association between schizophrenia PRS and psychotic experiences (OR per SD increase in PRS, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.98-1.19; R(2) = 0.001) or depressive disorder (OR per SD increase in PRS, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.13; R(2) = 0.00005). Results were mostly consistent across different training-set P value thresholds and using different cutoffs and measures of the psychopathological outcomes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study demonstrates polygenic overlaps between common genetic polymorphisms associated with schizophrenia and negative symptoms and anxiety disorder but not with psychotic experiences or depression. Because the genetic risk for schizophrenia appears to be manifest as anxiety and negative symptoms during adolescence, a greater focus on these phenotypes rather than on psychotic experiences might be required for prediction of transition in at-risk samples.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adolescente , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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