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J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112837, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493746


The ambiguity of dose-effect relationship of many traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) has always influenced their rational use in TCM clinic. Rhubarb, a preferred representative of cathartic TCM, is currently widely used that results in a diversity of its dosage. The aim of this study was to use an integrated metabolomics strategy to simultaneously reveal dose-effect relationship and therapeutic mechanisms of different efficacy of rhubarb in constipation rats. Six doses of rhubarb (0.135, 0.27, 0.81, 1.35, 4.05, and 8.1 g/kg) were examined to elucidate the laxative and fire-purging effects by pathological sections and UPLC-Q-TOF/MSE. The results showed that there existed serious lesions in the stomach and colon of model rats. And conditions were basically improved to some extent in rhubarb-treated groups. Through relative distance calculation based on metabolomics score plots, it suggested that the effective dose threshold (EC20-EC80 range) of rhubarb was from 0.31 to 4.5 g/kg (corresponding to 3.44-50.00 g in the clinic) in rat serum and 0.29-2.1 g/kg (corresponding to 3.22-23.33 g in the clinic) in feces. Then, 33 potential biomarkers were identified in total. Functional pathway analysis revealed that the alterations of these biomarkers were associated with 15 metabolic pathways, mainly including arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, steroid biosynthesis, primary bile acid biosynthesis and sphingolipid metabolism. Of note, different doses of rhubarb could alleviate endogenous disorders to varying degrees through regulating multiple perturbed pathways to the normal state, which might be in a dose-dependent manner and involved in therapeutic mechanisms. To sum up, integrated serum and fecal metabolomics obtained that rhubarb ranging from 0.31 to 2.1 g/kg is safe and effective for constipation treatment. Also, our findings showed that the robust metabolomics techniques would be promising to be more accurately used in the dose-effect studies of complex TCM, and to clarify syndrome pathogenesis and action mechanisms in Chinese medicine.

J Ethnopharmacol ; 238: 111868, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981706


ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb), as the preferred representative of cathartic drugs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has a long history of medicinal use and multifarious functions that produce a wide range of dosage. In modern times, rhubarb and its prescriptions are not only used to treat common clinical diseases, but also achieve good results in the treatment of acute, dangerous, severe and difficult diseases. However, rhubarb also has an alias called "General", which means that its efficacy is relatively rapid. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was conducted to simultaneously elucidate dosage-effect relationship of rhubarb of different efficacy, "Removing accumulation with purgation" (E1) and "Clearing heat and purging fire" (E2), providing reference for the safe and effective usage of rhubarb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-week-old rats were randomly divided into the normal control group (Con.), model group (Mod.) and rhubarb groups with six doses (0.135, 0.27, 0.81, 1.35, 4.05, 8.1 g/kg). We established a constipation model with gastrointestinal accumulated heat induced by dyspepsia, taking defecation characteristics observed by metabolic cages, alvine pushing rate, gastrointestinal hormones in serum, etc., as indicators of E1, and taking TG, Na+-K+-ATPase, inflammatory factors and proteins, etc., as indicators of E2. The factor analytic approach was used to systematically evaluate the two effects and analyze the corresponding dosage-effect relationship. RESULTS: The levels of Gas, AchE, TG, Na+-K+-ATPase, TNF-α, IL-1ß, (p-)NF-κB p65, (p-)p38, (p-)ERK and p-JNK in model rats increased significantly while the levels of defecation, fecal water content, MTL, SS, ET, NTS, VIP, JNK and TLR4 decreased. Compared with the Mod., in rhubarb groups, the increase of faeces, alvine pushing rate, most gastrointestinal hormones, etc., reflected the therapeutic efficacy of E1, and the reduction of TG, Na+-K+-ATPase, expression levels of inflammatory indexes, etc., reflected the impact of E2. After the analysis, the effective threshold dose ranging from 0.67 to 5.37 g/kg (corresponding to 7.44-59.67 g in the clinic) was in the EC20-EC80 range for E1 treatment and from 0.78 to 5.60 g/kg (equivalently clinical 8.67-62.22 g) was for E2 treatment. And the 1.6- and 1.2-fold rhubarb highest dose of Chinese Pharmacopoeia might be the optimal doses for E1 and E2 respectively. In general, however, the concentration of rhubarb liquid for overall efficacy is suggested to be between middle and highest dose of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. CONCLUSION: A constipation model was used to elucidate two main effects of rhubarb, which was consistent with the characteristics of TCM syndrome. In the wide range of rhubarb dosage, low doses might have little or no effect and although high concentrations of rhubarb liquid enhanced curative efficacy, it would also have certain side effects on the body. Therefore, scientific-based experiments and rational analysis by mathematical models could contribute to the safe and effective application of rhubarb in the clinic.

Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Laxantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rheum/química , Animais , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Laxantes/química , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 8636835, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911351


Ginkgo ketoester tablets (GT) and donepezil were a clinically used combination for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of the study was undertaken to investigate the antiamnesic effects of the two drugs alone and in combination through in vivo models of the Morris water maze along with in vitro antioxidants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). The potential mechanisms were speculated by the activities of acetylcholine (ACh), AChE, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) and the protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine protein kinase B (TrkB). The combination group showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of cholinesterase and antioxidation. As far as its mechanism was concerned, the combination of two drugs exerted excellent effects on oxidative stress, cholinergic pathway damage, and inactivation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. Additionally, to elucidate the binding mechanism of GT active ingredients into the structure of AChE, the results of molecular docking studies indicated that hydrogen and/or hydrophobic bonds might play an important role in their binding process. Thus, the combination of drugs could treat AD perfectly and further verify the scientific rationality of clinical medication.

Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Donepezila/uso terapêutico , Ginkgo biloba/química , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase , Amnésia/patologia , Animais , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Donepezila/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ginkgolídeos/química , Ligantes , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Receptor trkB/metabolismo , Escopolamina , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Comprimidos