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2.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 589: 34-44, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444821

RESUMO

Efficient delivery of active proteins to specific cells and organs is one of the most important issues in medical applications. However, in most cases, proteins without appropriate carriers face numerous barriers when delivered to the target, due to their unsatisfied properties, such as poor stability, short half-life, and low membrane permeability. Herein, we have presented a large-pore mesoporous silica nanoparticle (LPMSN)-based protein delivery system. LPMSNs were obtained with ethyl acetate as a pore expander. A 2,3-dimethylmaleamic acid-containing silane coupling agent was modified on LPMSNs to provide pH-triggered charge reversal. After Cytochrome c (CC) was encapsulated in the large pores of LPMSNs, amino-terminated polyethylene glycol-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) served as gateguards to cap the tunnels of LPMSNs and to avoid the leakage of CC. Above nanocomposites exhibited the capability to deliver active CC into cancer cells, charge reversal-induced protein release, as well as to initiate the apoptosis machinery of cancer cells in vitro. Importantly, the nanocomposites significantly inhibited tumor growth and extended survival rate without obvious side effects. This study provides a smart and efficient protein delivery platform with good safety profiles for efficacious tumor protein therapy in vivo.

3.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameters with the expression of HIF-1α in soft tissue sarcoma (STS). METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Forty patients with STS who underwent 3.0 T MRI, including IVIM and DKI, were included in the study. Standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true ADC (Dslow), pseudo ADC (Dfast), perfusion fraction (f), mean kurtosis (MK), and mean diffusivity (MD) of each lesion were independently analyzed by two observers. An MRI-pathology control method was used to ensure correspondence between the MRI slices and the pathological sections. Spearman analysis, independent sample t test, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-squared test, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed. RESULTS: Dslow and MD values showed a negative correlation with HIF-1α expression (r = - 0.469, - 0.588). MK and f values showed a positive correlation with HIF-1α expression (r = 0.779, 0.572). Dslow, MD, MK, and f values showed significant differences between the high- and low-expression groups. The MK value showed the best diagnostic ability. The optimal cut-off MK value of 0.604 was associated with 78.3% sensitivity and 88.2% specificity (area under the curve, 0.867). CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study demonstrated the association of IVIM and DKI parameters with the expression of HIF-1α in STS. KEY POINTS: • IVIM and DKI parameters are correlated with the expression of HIF-1α in STS. • The MRI-pathology control method can be used in clinical studies to ensure correspondence between MRI slices and pathology sections.

4.
Exp Cell Res ; 399(2): 112482, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434531

RESUMO

IL-6-triggered Th17 cell expansion is responsible for the pathogenesis of many immune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Traditionally, IL-6 induces Th17 cell differentiation through JAK-STAT3 signaling. In the present work, PKA inhibition reduces in vitro induction of Th17 cells, while IL-6 stimulation of T cells facilitates the internalization of A3AR and increased cAMP production in a GRK2 dependent manner. Inhibition of GRK2 by paroxetine (PAR) or genetic depletion of GRK2 restored A3AR distribution and prevented Th17 cell differentiation. Furthermore, in vivo PAR treatment effectively reduced the splenic Th17 cell proportion in a rat model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) which was accompanied by a significant improvement in clinical manifestations. These results indicate that IL-6-induced Th17 cell differentiation not only occurs through JAK-STAT3-RORγt but is also mediated through GRK2-A3AR-cAMP-PKA-CREB/ICER-RORγt. This elucidates the significance of GRK2-controlled cAMP signaling in the differentiation of Th17 cells and its potential application in treating Th17-driven immune diseases such as RA.

7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303577

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak caused by SARS-CoV-2 challenges the medical system by interfering with routine therapies for many patients with chronic diseases. In patients with cancer receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), difficulties also arise from the incomplete understanding of the intricate interplay between their routine treatment and pathogenesis of the novel virus. By referring to previous ICI-based investigations, we speculate that ICIs themselves are not linked to high-infection risks of respiratory diseases or inflammation-related adverse effects in patients with cancer. Moreover, ICI treatment may even enhance coronavirus clearance in some patients with malignant tumor by boosting antiviral T-cell responsiveness. However, the 'explosive' inflammation during COVID-19 in some ICI-treated patients with cancer was illustrated as exuberant immunopathological damage or even death. In case of the COVID-19 immunopathogenesis fueled by ICIs, we propose a regular monitor of pathogenic T-cell subsets and their exhaustion marker expression (eg, Th17 and interleukin (IL)-6-producing Th1 subsets with surface programmed death 1 expression) to guide the usage of ICI. Here we aimed to address these considerations, based on available literature and experience from our practice, that may assist with the decision-making of ICI administration during the pandemic.

9.
Am J Med Sci ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the associations between the complement factor H (CFH) rs6677604 and clinico-pathological characteristics of lupus nephritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 188 patients with lupus nephritis with complete clinico-pathological data were enrolled and genotyping of CFH rs6677604 was conducted by TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Patients were divided into two groups by rs6677604-AA/AG or -GG, and the clinico-pathological features between the two groups were further compared. RESULTS: We found that patients with rs6677604-AA/AG presented with lower prevalence of anti-dsDNA antibody (12/24 [50.0%] vs 121/164 [73.8%], P = 0.028), higher level of plasma C3a (2642.96 ± 1575.05 vs 1640.01 ± 1209.40, ng/ml, P = 0.024), and a tendency for higher level of plasma CFH (505.76 ± 169.28 vs 397.67 ± 179.11, µg/ml, P = 0.087). Patients with rs6677604-AA/AG had milder renal histopathological features, including total activity indices score (4.5[0, 13] vs 8[0, 19], P = 0.013), endocapillary hypercellularity (1.5[0, 3] vs 3[0, 3], P = 0.013), sub-endothelial hyaline deposits (0.5[0, 3] vs 1[0,3], P = 0.021), glomerular leukocyte infiltration (0.5[0, 1] vs 1[0, 12], P = 0.023) and tubular atrophy (1[0, 1] vs 1[0, 3], P = 0.027) than those with rs6677604-GG, which was further confirmed by the stratified analysis. The rs6677604-A was not a risk factor for patients' renal outcomes (hazard ratio=0.898; 95% CI: 0.264-3.059, P = 0.863). CONCLUSIONS: The rs6677604-A genotype in CFH was associated with milder renal pathological features in lupus nephritis, and its protective effect on the pathogenesis of the disease remained to be elucidated.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5629, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159080

RESUMO

Recently, stretchable electronics combined with wireless technology have been crucial for realizing efficient human-machine interaction. Here, we demonstrate highly stretchable transparent wireless electronics composed of Ag nanofibers coils and functional electronic components for power transfer and information communication. Inspired by natural systems, various patterned Ag nanofibers electrodes with a net structure are fabricated via using lithography and wet etching. The device design is optimized by analyzing the quality factor and radio frequency properties of the coil, considering the effects of strain. Particularly, the wireless transmission efficiency of a five-turn coil drops by approximately only 50% at 10 MHz with the strain of 100%. Moreover, various complex functional wireless electronics are developed using near-field communication and frequency modulation technology for applications in content recognition and long-distance transmission (>1 m), respectively. In summary, the proposed device has considerable potential for applications in artificial electronic skins, human healthcare monitoring and soft robotics.

11.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between the creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) and the prognosis of patients, and compared with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: We retrospectively collected information of patients with SLE who were first hospitalized between 1999 and 2009 in Jiangsu Province, China, and followed up in 2010 and 2015. Ccr was calculated and dichotomized into normal group (Ccr ≥ 70) and decreasing group (Ccr < 70). The clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared and Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Among 1990 SLE patients, we observed 437 (22.0%) with decreased Ccr, including 237 cases (11.9%) with mild renal dysfunction, 136 cases (6.8%) with moderate renal dysfunction, and 64 cases (3.2%) with severe renal dysfunction. Compared to normal Ccr, decreasing Ccr had a higher risk for mortality with adjusted HR (95% CI) of 2.21 (1.59-3.06). Dose-response relationships were significantly found between increased mortality of SLE and decreased Ccr (p for trend < 0. 001), as well as eGFR. Positive associations were consistently observed in subgroups, such as systemic lupus disease activity index (SLEDAI) ≥ 15, without comorbidities and abnormal laboratory indexes. Decreasing Ccr was positively associated with mortality from infection and renal failure with HR (95% CI) of 1.80 (1.02-3.19) and 6.84 (3.05-15.36). CONCLUSIONS: A significant association has been observed between decreased Ccr and increased risk for mortality of SLE patients. Early clinical interventions to modulate the Ccr of SLE patients may be beneficial to their survival. Key points • Decreasing creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) was positively associated with an overall mortality of SLE patients, with a dose-response relationship. • Moreover, decreasing Ccr was associated with elevated mortality primarily due to infection and renal failure.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association and dose-response pattern between antimalarial drugs and overall and cause specific mortality in SLE patients. METHODS: Medical records including information on HCQ/chloroquine (CQ) prescription were extracted from Jiangsu Lupus database. The database was designed to collect data from SLE patients that first-hospitalized during 1999-2009 in Jiangsu province, China, and a follow-up for survival status was performed in 2010 and 2015. Cox and restricted cubic spline models were used to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% CI. RESULTS: We identified 221 deaths among 2446 SLE patients in total. Compared with non-users, decreased overall mortality was associated with either HCQ or CQ users, with adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.49 (0.35, 0.67) and 0.49 (0.27, 0.87), respectively. The association between HCQ/CQ and overall mortality was similar across subgroups, such as patients with comorbidities and organ involvements. Interestingly, both the time and the daily dosage of HCQ/CQ use were related to decreased mortality of SLE in a linear dose-response relationship. In cause specific analyses, HCQ/CQ was inversely associated with death from renal insufficiency and other organ (cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal and haematological) involvements, with adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.23 (0.09, 0.55) and 0.25 (0.10, 0.62), respectively, yet it was not significantly associated with mortality from infection and neuropsychiatric involvements. CONCLUSION: Antimalarial drugs were associated with lower risk of SLE mortality, especially renal insufficiency- and other organ involvement-related death. The protective effects for survival might be augmented by adherence and full dosage of these drugs.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; : 142945, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127148

RESUMO

Understanding ecological processes that drive metacommunity dynamics is essential for elucidating the mechanisms of community assembly and for guiding biodiversity conservation. This is especially important in dammed rivers. Here, we examined the taxonomic and functional beta diversity of macroinvertebrates and their underlying drivers in a dammed tropical river and compared the patterns with those in an adjacent undammed river. We found that both taxonomic and functional beta diversities were higher in the dammed river than in the undammed river across wet and dry seasons. The replacement component contributed most to the overall beta diversity for both taxonomic and functional facets, and this component was higher in the dammed river than in the undammed river. In addition, the taxonomic richness difference component was significantly higher in the dammed river in the dry season, but the functional richness difference component showed no difference between the two rivers and between the two seasons. Environmental filtering was the primary driver of total beta diversity and its replacement component, whereas the richness difference component was mainly explained by spatial factors, but these drivers varied in the dammed river in different seasons. Overall, our results indicated that damming induced changes in physiochemical variables (e.g., temperature, conductivity, and nutrients), accompanied by alterations in flow regime and longitudinal connectivity, increased replacement and loss of taxa or traits. These changes have consequently led to alteration of macroinvertebrate taxonomic and functional community dissimilarity and affected the relative effects of environmental and spatial factors on beta diversity and its components. Our study helps understand the ecological processes associated with dam impacts on macroinvertebrate biodiversity and the conservation potential of undammed rivers. In addition, our results showed that taxonomic and functional beta diversities can provide complementary information about dam impacts on riverine biodiversity.

14.
Theranostics ; 10(24): 11197-11214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042278

RESUMO

Rationale: The development of a highly effective and tumor-specific therapeutic strategy, which can act against the primary tumor and also condition the host immune system to eliminate distant tumors, remains a clinical challenge. Methods: Herein, we demonstrate a facile yet versatile ZnO-capping and Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded multifunctional nanocomposite (AuNP@mSiO2@DOX-ZnO) that integrates photothermal properties of gold nanoparticles (NPs), pH-responsive properties and preferential selectivity to tumor cells of ZnO QDs and chemotherapeutic agent into a single NP. The photothermal performance, pH-triggered release and preferential phagocytic ability were assessed. The induced anti-tumor immunity was determined by analyzing immune cell profile in tumor in vivo and molecular mechanism were identified by detecting expression of immunogenic cell death (ICD) markers in vitro. Moreover, mice models of unilateral and bilateral subcutaneous melanoma and lung metastasis were established to evaluate the antitumor effects. Results: As an efficient drug carrier, ZnO-capped NPs guarantee a high DOX payload and an in vitro, efficient release of at pH 5.0. In murine melanoma models, the nanocomposite can significantly inhibit tumor growth for a short period upon low-power laser irradiation. Importantly, ZnO NPs not only demonstrate preferential selectivity for melanoma cells but can also induce ICD. Meanwhile, AuNP@mSiO2-based photothermal therapy (PTT) and DOX are directly cytotoxic towards cancer cells and demonstrate an elevated ICD effect. The induced ICD promotes maturation of dendritic cells, further stimulating the infiltration of effector T cells into tumor sites, preventing tumor growth and distant lung metastases. Conclusions: This study highlights the novel mechanism of ZnO-triggered anti-tumor immunity via inducing ICD. Additionally, we shed light on the multifunctionality of nanocomposites in delivering localized skin tumor therapy as well as inhibiting metastatic growth, which holds great promise in clinical applications.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17400, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060809

RESUMO

Smoking has been identified as a risk factor for atopic dermatitis and hand eczema, but less is known about the association of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) with hand eczema. The study aimed to investigate the association of SHS exposure with hand eczema and atopic dermatitis in a group of adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study among first-year college students. SHS exposure was measured by a self-administered questionnaire. Skin diseases were diagnosed by dermatologists in the field survey. Mixed models were used to estimate the associations. A total of 20,129 participants that underwent skin examination and a questionnaire survey were included in the analyses. The prevalence rates of atopic dermatitis and hand eczema were 3.86% and 3.35%, respectively. Crude and adjusted estimates consistently showed that exposure to SHS was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis and hand eczema in a dose-response manner. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder mediated minimal or no effect of SHS on hand eczema and atopic dermatitis. Subgroup analysis by type of hand eczema, and sensitivity analysis by excluding data with center effect showed consistent results. Exposure to SHS is an independent but modifiable risk factor for hand eczema and atopic dermatitis in adolescents.

16.
Circ J ; 84(9): 1587-1598, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) inhibitor, paroxetine, has been approved to ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). GRK2 is also involved in regulating T cell functions; the potential modifications of paroxetine on the immune response to DCM is unclear.Methods and Results:DCM mouse was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. A remarkable reduction in the regulatory T (Treg) cell subset in DCM mouse was found by flow cytometry, with impaired cardiac function evaluated by echocardiography. The inhibited Treg differentiation was attributable to insulin chronic stimulation in a GRK2-PI3K-Akt signaling-dependent manner. The selective GRK2 inhibitor, paroxetine, rescued Treg differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, heart function, as well as the activation of excitation-contraction coupling proteins such as phospholamban (PLB) and troponin I (TnI) was effectively promoted in paroxetine-treated DCM mice compared with vehicle-treated DCM mice. Blockade of FoxP3 expression sufficiently inhibited the proportion of Treg cells, abolished the protective effect of paroxetine on heart function as well as PLB and TnI activation in HFD-fed mice. Neither paroxetine nor carvedilol could effectively ameliorate the metabolic disorder of HFD mice. CONCLUSIONS: The impaired systolic heart function of DCM mice was effectively improved by paroxetine therapy, partially through restoring the population of circulating Treg cells by targeting the GRK2-PI3K-Akt pathway.

17.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855529

RESUMO

ß-arrestin2 (ß-arr2) is, a key protein that mediates desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors and participates in inflammatory and immune responses. Deficiency of ß-arr2 has been found to exacerbate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) through unclear mechanisms. In this study we tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying ß-arr2 depletion-induced exacerbation of CAIA. CAIA was induced in ß-arr2-/- and wild-type (WT) mice by injection of collagen antibodies and LPS. The mice were sacrificed on d 13 after the injection, spleen, thymus and left ankle joints were collected for analysis. Arthritis index (AI) was evaluated every day or every 2 days. We showed that ß-arr2-/- mice with CAIA had a further increase in the percentage of plasma cells in spleen as compared with WT mice with CAIA, which was in accordance with elevated serum IgG1 and IgG2A expression and aggravating clinical performances, pathologic changes in joints and spleen, joint effusion, and joint blood flow. Both LPS stimulation of isolated B lymphocytes in vitro and TNP-LPS challenge in vivo led to significantly higher plasma cell formation and antibodies production in ß-arr2-/- mice as compared with WT mice. LPS treatment induced membrane distribution of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on B lymphocytes, accordingly promoted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and the transcription of Blimp1. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that more TLR4 colocalized with ß-arr2 in B lymphocytes in response to LPS stimulation. Depletion of ß-arr2 restrained TLR4 on B lymphocyte membrane after LPS treatment and further enhanced downstream NF-κB signaling leading to additional increment in plasma cell formation. In summary, ß-arr2 depletion exacerbates CAIA and further increases plasma cell differentiation and antibody production through inhibiting TLR4 endocytosis and aggravating NF-κB signaling.

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