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1.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125290, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759213

RESUMO

The root apex is the most active part for water and ions uptake, however, longitudinal alterations in root characteristics along root apex and consequences for metal uptake in hyperaccumulator are poorly understood. Here, we compared cadmium (Cd)-induced longitudinal alterations in root apex of two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii and assess their effects on Cd uptake. Under Cd treatment, cell death began from epidermis to the stele in non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) over time, and the number of dead cells was significantly higher than that in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE). Cd-induced the presence of border-like cells (BLCs) surrounding the root tip of NHE prevented Cd from entering roots, however, almost no BLCs were observed in the root tip of in HE. Besides, Cd-treated NHE exhibited 76% and 52% decrease in the proportions of meristematic and elongation zone, respectively, resulting in lower Cd influx and less intensive Cd-fluorescence in these zones, as compared with HE. In the differentiation zone, Cd induced earlier initiation of root hairs (RHs), lower RHs-density, shorter RHs-length, thicker RHs-radius and less trichoblasts in NHE than those in HE. These remarkable variations led to less Cd influx and lower intensity of Cd-fluorescence in RHs of NHE than those of HE. Furthermore, decline in cell wall thickness under Cd exposure resulted in less cell-wall-bond Cd in the cell wall of HE. Therefore, Cd-induced alterations in root characteristics alongside root apex contributed to the difference in Cd uptake and accumulation between two ecotypes of S. alfredii.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 136049, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874396

RESUMO

Soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon (SOC) physical sequestration is essential to regulation of anthropogenic climate change. However, relative knowledge remains elusive. The total SOC stock, aggregate stability, capacity of physically protected C, structure of macroaggregates and Al/Fe oxides under rice-wheat rotation (RW), rice-vegetable rotation (RV) and afforested land (AL) were analysed. We chose 1-2 mm macroaggregates for low-temperature ashing (LTA) treatment to mimic natural oxidation to assess the capacity of physically protected C. Using scanning electron microscopy, the N adsorption method, and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we explored the internal structure of macroaggregates under different land use types. All land use types could physically protect over 50% of SOC. AL showed the strongest capacity of C sequestration, followed by RW, which preserved 67.1% and 59.6% of SOC, respectively. After 5 h of LTA treatment, the amount of SOC removed from the macropores in cropland (RW and RV) was higher than that in AL. In micropores with further oxidation, AL and RW both lost only 5% of SOC. Fe oxides were more correlated with C dynamics than Al oxides. Free Fe oxides were associated with the easily oxidised organic matter. Soil aggregate stability significantly correlated with Al/Fe oxides (p < 0.05). The RW and AL had a greater soil aggregate stability than the RV owing to the relatively higher content of Al/Fe oxides. In conclusion, the conversion of RW to RV reduced the mechanical stability of soil aggregates and the capacity of C physical sequestration, while the conversion of RW to AL increased these two properties. Land use change affected C physical sequestration mainly via changes in surface area, pore development and the content of Fe oxides in macroaggregates.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121177, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648122

RESUMO

Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) involved in heavy metal tolerance, translocation, and accumulation in plants. However, underlying mechanism of LMWOA secretion in metal mobilization and uptake in hyperaccumulator still need to be identified. In this study, a 13C labeling rhizobox was designed to investigate the composition and distribution of LMWOA in the rhizosphere of S. alfredii. The result showed that about 2.30%, 2.25% and 2.35% of the assimilated 13C was incorporated into oxalic acid, malic acid, and tartaric acid in rhizosphere of S. alfredii after 13CO2 assimilation, respectively. Oxalic acid, malic acid, and tartaric acid were the predominant LMWOA in rhizosphere soil solution of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) S. alfredii, however, almost no tartaric acid was detected for non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Tartaric acid was identified as the unique root exudate from HE S. alfredii which was mainly distributed within the range of rhizosphere 0-6 mm. Tartaric acid significantly increased the solubility of four Cd minerals. HE S. alfredii treated with tartrate + CdCO3 had higher Cd contents and larger biomass than CdCO3 treatment. Cadmium accumulation in HE S. alfredii was promoted by the exudation of tartaric acid, which was highly efficient in Cd solubilization due to the formation of soluble Cd-tartrate complexes.

4.
Chemosphere ; 245: 125547, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864950

RESUMO

Pot-culture experiments were conducted to investigate the potential of microorganism-saponin assisted phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) co-contaminated soil using Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Results showed that B[a]P-degrading bacterium (Ochrobactrum intermedium B[a]P-16) inoculation significantly increased root (by 22.1-24.1%) and shoot (by 20.5-23.4%) biomass of S. alfredii, whereas the application of saponin had no effect on the growth of S. alfredii. The saponin solution at 2 g L-1 extracted more Cd and B[a]P than water, saponin enhanced Cd and B[a]P bioavailability in soil and thus promoted their uptake and accumulation in S. alfredii. The activity of B[a]P-16, dehydrogenase and polyphenol oxidase in co-contaminated soil was promoted by growing S. alfredii, and the application of B[a]P-16 and saponins caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in both enzyme activities. The maximum B[a]P removal rate (82.0%) and Cd phytoextraction rate (19.5%) were obtained by co-application of S. alfredii with B[a]P-16 and saponin. The B[a]P-16 and plant promoted biodegradation were the predominant contributors towards removal of B[a]P from soil. A significant (P < 0.05) synergistic effect of B[a]P-16 and saponin on B[a]P and Cd removal efficiency was observed in this study. It is suggested that planting S. alfredii with application of B[a]P-16 and saponin would be an effective method for phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and PAHs.

5.
Am J Surg ; 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of antiviral therapy on long-term survival outcomes in patients with small HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-related HCC) after liver resection is still controversial, as the impact can be overshadowed by tumor-related factors. This study investigated this impact on recurrence and survival in patients with HCC of less than 3 cm. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to further determine the impact of antiviral treatment on prognosis of patients with HCC after liver resection, to verify whether patients with cirrhosis still benefited from antiviral treatment, to study the impact of antiviral treatment on post-operative HCC recurrence, and to determine whether patients with a low preoperative HBV-DNA viral load should receive antiviral therapy. METHODS: The clinical data on patients who underwent curative liver resection for histopathologically confirmed small HCC (≤3 cm in diameter) were analyzed to determine factors which were related with HCC recurrence and survival. The disease-free and overall survival outcomes were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors of long-term survival. RESULTS: Of the 795 patients in this study, patients with high preoperative HBV-DNA levels had significantly worse DFS and OS outcomes at 1-, 3- and 5- year after liver resection when compared with those with low HBV-DNA levels (86.1%, 60.8%, 46.6% vs 90.5%, 71.3%, 51.4%; and 98.5%, 89.3%, 75.2% vs 98.8%, 91.5%, 84%, respectively). Patients who received antiviral therapy had significantly better DFS and OS outcomes at 1-, 3- and 5- year after liver resection when compared with those without (91.6%, 69.5%, 55% vs 80.2%, 56%, 44.2%; and 99.6%, 93.5%, 87% vs 96.1%, 80.5%, 61.3%, respectively). Antiviral therapy significantly improved the OS but not DFS outcomes in patients with low HBV-DNA levels. The corresponding 1-, 3- and 5- year DFS and OS outcomes were 92.6%, 73%, 59.1% vs 87.1%, 68.5%, 57.9%; and 99.5%, 95.1%, 91.1% vs 97.6%, 85.5%, 72.4%, respectively. Antiviral treatment significantly prolonged DFS and OS in patients with cirrhosis. The corresponding 1-, 3- and 5- year DFS and OS were 90.2%, 66%, 49% vs 73.9%, 46.6%, 32.8%; and 100%, 93.6%, 85% vs 93.8%, 73.3%, 52.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Antiviral therapy improved the prognosis of small HBV-related HCC of less than 3 cm. The survival benefit was also detected in patients with cirrhosis. Antiviral therapy should be considered a routine post-operative therapy for patients with HBV-related HCC.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(12): 6954-6963, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145612

RESUMO

The transmission mode of shoot-associated endophytes in hyperaccumulators and their roles in root microbiome assembly and heavy metal accumulation remain unclear. Using 16S rRNA gene profiling, we investigated the vertical transmission of shoot-associated endophytes in relation to growth and Cd/Zn accumulation of Sedum alfredii ( Crassulaceae). Endophytes were transmitted from shoot cuttings to the rhizocompartment of new plants in both sterilized (γ-irradiated) and native soils. Vertical transmission was far more efficient in the sterile soil, and the transmitted endophytes have become a dominant component of the newly established root-associated microbiome. Based on 16S rRNA genes, the vertically transmitted taxa were identified as the families of Streptomycetaceae, Nocardioidaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, and Rhizobiaceae. Abundances of Streptomycetaceae, Nocardioidaceae, and Pseudonocardiaceae were strongly correlated with increased shoot biomass and total Cd/Zn accumulation. Inoculation of S. alfredii with the synthetic bacterial community sharing the same phylogenetic relatedness with the vertically transmitted endophytes resulted in significant improvements in plant biomass, root morphology, and Cd/Zn accumulation. Our results demonstrate that successful vertical transmission of endophytes from shoots of S. alfredii to its rhizocompartments is possible, particularly in soils with attenuated microbiomes. Furthermore, the endophyte-derived microbiome plays an important role in metal hyperaccumulation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Microbiota , Sedum , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Endófitos , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Zinco
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1448-1456, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096355

RESUMO

In situ remediation and assessment of sediments contaminated with both antibiotics and heavy metals remains a technological challenge. In this study, MgCl2-modified biochar (BCM) was obtained at 500 °C through slow pyrolysis of Thalia dealbata and used for remediation of sediments contaminated by sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Cd. The BCM showed greater surface area (110.6 m2 g-1) than pristine biochar (BC, 7.1 m2 g-1). The SMX sorption data were well described by Freundlich model while Langmuir model was better for the Cd2+ sorption data. The addition of 5.0% BCM significantly increased the sorption of SMX (by 50.8-58.6%) and Cd (by 24.2-25.6%) on sediments in both single and binary systems as compared with 5.0% BC. SMX sorption in sediments was significantly improved by addition of Cd2+, whereas SMX has no influence on Cd sorption on sediments. The addition of BCM distinctly decreased both SMX (by 51.4-87.2%) and Cd concentrations (by 56.2-91.3%) in overlying water, as well as in TCLP extracts (by 55.6-86.1% and 58.2-91.9% for SMX and Cd, respectively), as compared with sediments without biochar. Both germination rate and root length of pakchoi increased with increasing doses of BCM in contaminated sediments, 5.0% BCM showed greater promotion on pakchoi growth than 5.0% BC. Overall, BCM in the sediments does not only decrease the bioavailability of SMX and Cd, but it also diminishes the phytotoxicity, and thereby shows great application potential for in situ remediation of sediments polluted with antibiotics and heavy metals.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Sulfametoxazol/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Magnésio/química , Marantaceae/química , Sulfametoxazol/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 674: 213-222, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004898

RESUMO

Biologically modified biochars derived from digestion residue of corn straw silage at different pyrolysis temperature (300-700 °C) were prepared for removing Cd from water. Compared with the pristine biochar derived from corn straw (CB), transabdominal transformation of corn straw silage (TCB) significantly increased surface area (4.24-56.58 m2 g-1), oxygen-containing functional group (COC, MgO, SiO) and mineral components (CaCO3, KCl). The sorption isotherms could be well described by Langmuir model, the kinetic data was best fitted by the Pseudo second order model. The maximum sorption capacity (Qm) obtained from Langmuir model for TCB700 (175.44 mg g-1) was 3 times of CB700 (56.82 mg g-1). Precipitation with minerals, ion exchange and complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups were the main mechanisms of Cd(II) sorption on TCB. These results imply that biologically modified biochar derived from digestion residue of corn straw silage at ≥600 °C is an effective sorbent for Cd removal from water.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Silagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zea mays
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 664: 616-625, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763842

RESUMO

Phytoextraction is an attractive strategy for remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metal (HM), yet the effects of this practice on biochemical processes involved in soil nutrient cycling remain unknown. Here we investigated the impact of successive phytoextraction with a Cd/Zn co-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii (Crassulaceae) on potential nitrification rates (PNRs), abundance and composition of nitrifying communities and functional genes associated with nitrification using archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene profiling and quantitative real-time PCR. The PNRs in rhizosphere were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than in the unplanted soils, and decreased markedly with planting time. The decrease of PNR was more paralleled by changes in numbers of copy and transcript of archaeal amoA gene than the bacterial counterpart. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that phytoextraction induced shifts in community structure of soil group 1.1b lineage-dominated ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), Nitrosospira cluster 3-like ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). A strong positive correlation was observed between amoA gene transcript numbers and PNRs, whereas root exudates showed negative effect on PNR. This effect was further corroborated by incubation test with the concentrated root exudates of S. alfredii. Partial least squares path model demonstrated that PNR was predominantly controlled by number of AOA amoA gene transcripts which were strongly influenced by root exudation and HM level in soil. Our result reveals that successive phytoextraction of agricultural soil contaminated by HMs using S. alfredii could inhibit ammonia oxidation and thereby reduce nitrogen loss.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Agricultura , Archaea , Bactérias , Betaproteobacteria , Biodegradação Ambiental , Genes Arqueais , Microbiota , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Rizosfera , Solo
10.
J Hepatol ; 70(5): 904-917, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genetic variability in the hepatitis B virus X gene (HBx) is frequently observed and is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. However, a genotype classification based on the full-length HBx sequence and the impact of genotypes on hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC prognosis remain unclear. We therefore aimed to perform this genotype classification and assess its clinical impact. METHODS: We classified the genotypes of the full-length HBx gene through sequencing and a cluster analysis of HBx DNA from a cohort of patients with HBV-related HCC, which served as the primary cohort (n = 284). Two independent HBV-related HCC cohorts, a validation cohort (n = 171) and a serum cohort (n = 168), were used to verify the results. Protein microarray assay analysis was performed to explore the underlying mechanism. RESULTS: In the primary cohort, the HBx DNA was classified into 3 genotypes: HBx-EHBH1, HBx-EHBH2, and HBx-EHBH3. HBx-EHBH2 (HBx-E2) indicated better recurrence-free survival and overall survival for patients with HCC. HBx-E2 was significantly correlated with the absence of liver cirrhosis, a small tumor size, a solitary tumor, complete encapsulation and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage A-0 tumors. Additionally, HBx-E2 served as a significant prognostic factor for patients with BCLC stage B HCC after hepatectomy. Mechanistically, HBx-E2 is unable to promote proliferation in HCC cells and normal hepatocytes. It also fails to activate the Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/STAT5 pathway. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies a novel HBx genotype that is unable to promote the proliferation of HCC cells and suggests a potential marker to preoperatively predict the prognosis of patients with BCLC stage B, HBV-associated, HCC. LAY SUMMARY: We classified a novel genotype of the full-length hepatitis B virus X gene (HBx), HBx-E2. This genotype was identified in tumor and nontumor tissues from patients with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. HBx-E2 could preoperatively predict the prognosis of patients with intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma, after resection.

11.
Plant Cell Environ ; 42(5): 1425-1440, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577078

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone underlying plant resistance to toxic metals. However, regulatory effects of ABA on apoplastic transport in roots and consequences for uptake of metal ions are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate how ABA regulates development of apoplastic barriers in roots of two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii and assess effects on cadmium (Cd) uptake. Under Cd treatment, increased endogenous ABA level was detected in roots of nonhyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) due to up-regulated expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes (SaABA2, SaNCED), but no change was observed in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE). Simultaneously, endodermal Casparian strips (CSs) and suberin lamellae (SL) were deposited closer to root tips of NHE compared with HE. Interestingly, the vessel-to-CSs overlap was identified as an ABA-driven anatomical trait. Results of correlation analyses and exogenous applications of ABA/Abamine indicate that ABA regulates development of both types of apoplastic barriers through promoting activities of phenylalanine ammonialyase, peroxidase, and expressions of suberin-related genes (SaCYP86A1, SaGPAT5, and SaKCS20). Using scanning ion-selected electrode technique and PTS tracer confirmed that ABA-promoted deposition of CSs and SL significantly reduced Cd entrance into root stele. Therefore, maintenance of low ABA levels in HE minimized deposition of apoplastic barriers and allowed maximization of Cd uptake via apoplastic pathway.

12.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2018 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of famine exposure during early life on dietary patterns, chronic diseases, and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases in adulthood. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Multivariate quantile regression and log-binomial regression were used to evaluate the impact of famine exposure on dietary patterns, chronic diseases and the interaction effect between famine exposure and dietary patterns on chronic diseases, respectively. SETTING: Hefei, China.ParticipantsAdults aged 45-60 years (n 939). RESULTS: 'Healthy', 'high-fat and high-salt', 'Western' and 'traditional Chinese' dietary patterns were identified. Early-childhood and mid-childhood famine exposure were remarkably correlated with high intake of the traditional Chinese dietary pattern. Compared with the non-exposed group (prevalence ratio (PR); 95 % CI), early-childhood (3·13; 1·43, 6·84) and mid-childhood (2·37; 1·05, 5·36) exposed groups showed an increased PR for diabetes, and the early-childhood (2·07; 1·01, 4·25) exposed group showed an increased PR for hypercholesterolaemia. Additionally, relative to the combination of non-exposed group and low-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern, the combination of famine exposure in early life and high-dichotomous high-fat and high-salt dietary pattern in adulthood had higher PR for diabetes (4·95; 1·66, 9·05) and hypercholesterolaemia (3·71; 1·73, 7·60), and significant additive interactions were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Having suffered the Chinese famine in childhood might affect an individual's dietary habits and health status, and the joint effect between famine and harmful dietary pattern could have serious consequences on later-life health outcomes.

13.
Postgrad Med J ; 94(1115): 499-507, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased serum amyloid A (SAA) levels have been investigated in various human malignancies, but a consistent perspective has not been established to date. This study systematically reviewed the association between SAA levels and cancers. METHODS: Cochrane Library, PubMed and Embase were carefully searched for available studies. The following keywords were used in database searches: 'serum amyloid A', 'SAA', 'cancer', 'tumour', 'carcinoma', 'nubble', 'knurl' and 'lump'. Pooled standard mean differences (SMDs) with corresponding 95% CIs were calculated using random-effects model analysis. RESULTS: Twenty studies, which contained 3682 cancer cases and 2424 healthy controls, were identified in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Our study suggested that the average SAA concentrations in the case groups were significantly higher than those in control groups (SMD 0.77, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.00, p<0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that continent, age and cancer location were associated with SAA level differences between case groups and control groups. Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness and credibility of our results. In addition, we further stratified analyses for cancer stages and found that the concentrations of SAA increased gradually with the aggravation of cancer stages. CONCLUSION: High circulating SAA levels were markedly associated with the developing risks of cancer, especially for participants from Asia, Oceania and Europe, or subject age more than 50, or locations in oesophageal squamous cell, ovarian, breast, lung, renal and gastric cancers. In addition, our study found that the concentrations of SAA increased with the severity of cancer stages.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias/sangue , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Humanos
14.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 13: 3975-3987, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022821

RESUMO

Background: To date, the rapid clearance from ocular surface has been a huge obstacle for using eye drops to treat glaucoma, since it has led to the short preocular residence time and low bioavailability. Methods: The novel nanoparticles (NPs) were designed for topical ophthalmic controlled drug delivery system through intercalating the BH into the interlayer gallery of Na-montmorillonite (Na+Mt) and then further enchasing chitosan nanoparticles. The resulting nanoparticles had a positive charge (+29±0.18 mV) with an average diameter of 460±0.6 nm. Results: In vitro study of drug release profiles suggested controlled release pattern. The irritation experiment analysis on both human immortalized cornea epithelial cell (iHCEC) and chorioallantoic membrane-trypan blue staining (CAM-TBS) showed good tolerance for ocular tissues. It was interestingly found that the nanoparticles could enter into iHCEC from the result of cellular uptake experiment measured by confocal layer scan microscopy (CLSM). Meanwhile, multilayered iHCEC was used to simulate the barrier of corneal epithelial cells for in vivo preocular retention capacity study, which suggested that BH-Mt/CS NPs could prolong the retention time in comparison with BH solution. The ocular pharmacokinetics studied by microdialysis sampling technique showed that AUC0-t and MRT0-t of BH-Mt/CS NPs were 1.99-fold and 1.75-fold higher than those of BH solution, indicating higher bioavailability. Moreover, the study of blood drug concentration, few researchers have reported, showed that low level drug could enter into blood, suggesting lower systematic side effect. Importantly, pharmacodynamics studies suggested that BH-Mt/CS NPs could make a significant decreased intraocular pressure on glaucomatous rabbits. Conclusion: Inspired by these advance of montmorillonite/chitosan nanoparticles, we envision that the BH-Mt/CS NPs will be a potential carrier for BH, opening up the possible applications in glaucoma therapy.


Assuntos
Bentonita/química , Betaxolol/administração & dosagem , Betaxolol/uso terapêutico , Quitosana/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Administração Tópica , Animais , Humor Aquoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Betaxolol/sangue , Betaxolol/farmacocinética , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Córnea/patologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Diálise , Portadores de Fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Glaucoma/patologia , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Soluções Oftálmicas/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Coelhos , Eletricidade Estática
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(20): 19446-19457, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728974

RESUMO

Chromic oxide nanoparticles (Cr2O3 NPs) are widely used in commercial factories and can cause serious environmental problems. However, the mechanism behind Cr2O3 NP-induced phytotoxicity remains unknown. In this study, the effects of Cr2O3 NPs on the growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, SEM-EDS analysis, and chloroplast ultrastructure of soybean (Glycine max) were investigated to evaluate its phytotoxicity. The growth of soybean treated with various Cr2O3 NP suspensions (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g L-1) was significantly inhibited. Specially, shoot and root biomass decreased by 9.9 and 46.3%, respectively. Besides, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) as well as the photochemical quenching (qP) decreased by 8-22 and 30-37%, respectively, indicating that the photosynthetic system was damaged when treated with Cr2O3 NPs. Moreover, the inhibition was confirmed by the reduction of Rubisco and MDH enzyme activity (by 54.5-86.4 and 26.7-96.5%, respectively). Overall, results indicated that the damage was caused by the destruction of chloroplast thylakoid structure, which subsequently reduced the photosynthetic rate. Our research suggests that Cr2O3 NPs can be transported and cause irreversible damage to soybean plants by inhibiting the activity of electron acceptors (NADP+) and destroying ultrastructure of chloroplasts, providing insights into plant toxicity issues. Graphical abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Compostos de Cromo/toxicidade , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Cromo/química , Nanopartículas/química , Imagem Óptica , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Soja/metabolismo
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 13: 415-428, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391798

RESUMO

Background: Glaucoma is a serious eye disease that can lead to loss of vision. Unfortunately, effective treatments are limited by poor bioavailability of antiglaucoma medicine due to short residence time on the preocular surface. Materials and methods: To solve this, we successfully prepared novel controlled-release ion-exchange microparticles to deliver betaxolol hydrochloride (BH). Montmorillonite/BH complex (Mt-BH) was prepared by acidification-intercalation, and this complex was encapsulated in microspheres (Mt-BH encapsulated microspheres [BMEMs]) by oil-in-oil emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The BH loaded into ion-exchange Mt was 47.45%±0.54%. After the encapsulation of Mt-BH into Eudragit microspheres, the encapsulation efficiency of BH into Eudragit microspheres was 94.35%±1.01% and BH loaded into Eudragit microspheres was 14.31%±0.47%. Results: Both Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that BH was successfully intercalated into acid-Mt to form Mt-BH and then Mt-BH was encapsulated into Eudragit microspheres to obtain BMEMs. Interestingly, in vitro release duration of the prepared BMEMs was extended to 12 hours, which is longer than both of the BH solution (2.5 hours) and the conventional BH microspheres (5 hours). Moreover, BMEM exhibited lower toxicity than that of BH solution as shown by the results of cytotoxicity tests, chorioallantoic membrane-trypan blue staining, and Draize rabbit eye test. In addition, both in vivo and in vitro preocular retention capacity study of BMEMs showed a prolonged retention time. The pharmacodynamics showed that BMEMs could extend the drug duration of action. Conclusion: The developed BMEMs have the potential to be further applied as ocular drug delivery systems for the treatment of glaucoma.


Assuntos
Bentonita/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Microesferas , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Animais , Betaxolol/farmacologia , Betaxolol/uso terapêutico , Disponibilidade Biológica , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Corioalantoide/metabolismo , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Diálise , Emulsões/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Epitélio Anterior/patologia , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Troca Iônica , Coelhos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
17.
Artif Organs ; 42(1): 41-48, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971487

RESUMO

The Bovine jugular vein (BJV) graft for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction (RVOT) is limited applied due to possible graft failure. In this study, we reported the clinical application of simplified hand-sewn trileaflet valved conduit as an alternative for BJV graft. We retrospectively included 68 patients underwent 76 conduits implantation including 22 new simplified hand-sewn trileaflet valved conduits (Group A) and 54 BJV grafts (Group B). For patients in Group A, a hand-sewn trileaflet valved conduit with valves made of autologous pericardium or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene was applied. Baseline, perioperative, and outcomes were analyzed. No early mortality or perioperative complication occurred in Group A, while 2 patients died and 16 patients suffered from conduits failure due to conduits stenosis (n = 11), stenosis plus regurgitation (n = 3), and regurgitation alone (n = 2) in Group B. Freedom from BJV grafts failure within 1, 3, 5, and 7 years was 98.0%, 88.2%, 83.6% and 83.6% in Group A, and 98.0%, 85.8%, 76.8% and 62.1% in Group B. Endocarditis occurred in 9 patients in Group B, but not in Group A. Subsequent analysis showed that endocarditis is the only significant predictor of BJV grafts failure (odds ratio: 6.202, 95% confidence intervals 1.237∼31.108). The novel simplified hand-sewn trileaflet valved conduits seems to be associated with lower incidences of perioperative complication, graft failure, and early-phase mortality, as compared with conventional BJV grafts.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/cirurgia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Ventrículos do Coração/cirurgia , Valva Pulmonar/cirurgia , Técnicas de Sutura , Animais , Bioprótese/efeitos adversos , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Ventrículos do Coração/anormalidades , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Veias Jugulares/transplante , Masculino , Politetrafluoretileno , Falha de Prótese/etiologia , Valva Pulmonar/anormalidades , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(2): 214-224, 2018 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106517

RESUMO

Intratumoral heterogeneity greatly hinders efficiency of target therapy in glioblastoma (GBM). To decipher the underlying mechanisms of heterogeneity, patient-derived adult GBM cells were separately isolated from margins of T1 gadolinium enhancing tumor lesions (PNCs) and T1 gadolinium enhancing core lesions (ECs). Single clone culture was conducted in ECs and U87MG cell line to screen clones with distinct biological phenotypes. Single cell clones with diverse phenotypes were simultaneously separated from ECs and U87 cell line. PNCs, GCs(H) and U87(H) exhibited longer cellular protrusion than ECs, GCs(L) and U87(L), respectively. Cell strains with longer protrusion exhibited higher invasive ability and lower sensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation. Subsequently, TPD52L2 was verified as the functional protein to regulate the cellular heterogeneity by the proteomics analysis. Downregulation of TPD52L2 enhanced cell invasion whereas inhibited cell proliferation rate and sensitivity to chemotherapy in vivo and in vitro, this condition was reversed when TPD52L2 was overexpressed. The invasiveness was facilitated by up-regulating CTNNB1/ß-catenin and SNAI1/Snail mediated EMT process. In addition, the clinical data of 88 GBM cases in our neurosurgery center was analyzed to reveal the influence of TPD52L2 in the prognosis of GBM. Low expression of TPD52L2 exacerbated prognosis of GBM patients received standard radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant TMZ (Stupp strategy). Taken together, TPD52L2 is an important biomarker influencing GBM prognosis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/mortalidade , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Camundongos SCID , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/fisiologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia
19.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 37(11): 1494-1500, 2017 Nov 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29180330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the biological function of lncRNA PTENP1 in bladder cancer. METHODS: Expressions of PTENP1, PTEN and miR-17 were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in 12 bladder cancer tissues. The expression of PTEN was examined by Western blotting in bladder cancer cell lines T24 and 5637 overexpressing PTENP1. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to confirm the targeting of miR-17 to PTENP1 and PTEN. T24 and 5637 cell lines with stable overexpression of PTENP1 and mir-17 were used to investigate effect of PTNE and miR-17 on the function of PTENP1 in bladder cancer. RESULTS: The expression of miR-17 was up-regulated and PTENP1 and PTEN were down-regulated in bladder cancer tissues, where a positive correlation was found between PTENP1 and PTEN expressions and a negative correlation between PTENP1 and miR-17 (P<0.05). Overexpression of PTENP1 in bladder cancer cell lines T24 and 5637 obviously enhanced the expression of PTEN protein. miR-17 was found to target both PTENP1 and PTEN and promote the growth of bladder cancer. miR-17 could partially restore the tumor-suppressing activity of PTENP1 in bladder cancer. CONCLUSION: By binding with miR-17, lncRNA PTENP1 functions as a PTEN competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to suppress the progression of bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Humanos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
20.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 101(21): 7961-7976, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28894921

RESUMO

Interactions between roots and microbes affect plant's resistance to abiotic stress. However, the structural and functional variation of root-associated microbiomes and their effects on metal accumulation in hyperaccumulators remain poorly understood. Here, we characterize the root-associated microbiota of a hyperaccumulating (HP) and a non-hyperaccumulating (NHP) genotype of Sedum alfredii by 16S ribosomal RNA gene profiling. We show that distinct microbiomes are observed in four spatially separable compartments: the bulk soil, rhizosphere, rhizoplane, and endosphere. Both the rhizosphere and rhizoplane were preferentially colonized by Proteobacteria, and the endosphere by Actinobacteria. The rhizosphere and endophytic microbiomes were dominated by the family of Sphingomonadaceae and Streptomycetaceae, respectively, which benefited for their survival and adaptation. The bacterial α-diversity decreases along the spatial gradient from the rhizosphere to the endosphere. Soil type and compartment were strongest determinants of root-associated community variation, and host genotype explained a small, but significant amount of variation. The enrichment of Bacteroidetes and depletion of Firmicutes and Planctomycetes in the HP endosphere compared with that of the NHP genotype may affect metal hyperaccumulation. Program PICRUSt predicted moderate functional differences in bacterial consortia across rhizocompartments and soil types. The functional categories involved in membrane transporters (specifically ATP-binding cassette transporters) and energy metabolism were overrepresented in endosphere of HP in comparison with NHP genotypes. Taken together, our study reveals substantial variation in structure and function of microbiomes colonizing different compartments, with the endophytic microbiota potentially playing an important role in heavy metal hyperaccumulation.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sedum/microbiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sedum/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo , Análise Espacial , Zinco/metabolismo
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