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1.
Environ Toxicol ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is closely associated with bone diseases. Circular RNAs are reported to be involved in BMSC differentiation. CircSmg5 (circ_0001145) has been identified to be downregulated in an osteoporosis mouse model. In this study, we aimed to explore the function and regulatory mechanism of circSmg5 in BMSC osteogenic differentiation. METHODS: The Alizarin Red staining and alkaline phosphatase staining assays were performed to explore the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. The interaction between circ_0001145, miR-194-5p, and frizzled class receptor 6 (Fzd6) was analyzed by luciferase reporter assay. The nuclear translocation of ß-catenin was assessed using immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: CircSmg5 is in stable circular structure. CircSmg5 expression was elevated in the process of BMSC osteogenic differentiation. CircSmg5 overexpression promoted the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. CircSmg5 bound with miR-194-5p, whose expression was decreased in the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. MiR-194-5p directly targeted the 3'UTR of Fzd6. The mRNA and protein levels of Fzd6 were positively modulated by circSmg5 and negatively regulated by miR-194-5p in BMSCs. CONCLUSION: CircSmg5 was demonstrated to promote the BMSC osteogenic differentiation by targeting the miR-194-5p/Fzd6 axis to activate the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling.

2.
Front Psychol ; 12: 717110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777097

RESUMO

Listeners utilize the immediate contexts to efficiently normalize variable vocal streams into standard phonology units. However, researchers debated whether non-speech contexts can also serve as valid clues for speech normalization. Supporters of the two sides proposed a general-auditory hypothesis and a speech-specific hypothesis to explain the underlying mechanisms. A possible confounding factor of this inconsistency is the listeners' perceptual familiarity of the contexts, as the non-speech contexts were perceptually unfamiliar to listeners. In this study, we examined this confounding factor by recruiting a group of native Cantonese speakers with sufficient musical training experience and a control group with minimal musical training. Participants performed lexical tone judgment tasks in three contextual conditions, i.e., speech, non-speech, and music context conditions. Both groups were familiar with the speech context and not familiar with the non-speech context. The musician group was more familiar with the music context than the non-musician group. The results evidenced the lexical tone normalization process in speech context but not non-speech nor music contexts. More importantly, musicians did not outperform non-musicians on any contextual conditions even if the musicians were experienced at pitch perception, indicating that there is no noticeable transfer in pitch perception from the music domain to the linguistic domain for tonal language speakers. The findings showed that even high familiarity with a non-linguistic context cannot elicit an effective lexical tone normalization process, supporting the speech-specific basis of the perceptual normalization process.

3.
Phys Rev E ; 104(4-1): 044909, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781509

RESUMO

We study the outflow of soft particles through quasi-two-dimensional hoppers with both experiments and simulations. The experiments utilize spheres made with hydrogel, silicone rubber, and glass. The hopper chamber has an adjustable exit width and tilt angle (the latter to control the magnitude of gravitational forcing). Our simulation mimics the experiments using purely two-dimensional soft particles with viscous interactions but no friction. Results from both simulations and experiments demonstrate that clogging is easier for reduced gravitational force or stiffer particles. For particles with low or no friction, the average number of particles in a clogging arch depends only on the ratio between hopper exit width and the mean particle diameter. In contrast, for the silicone rubber particles with larger frictional interactions, arches have more particles than the low friction cases. Additionally, an analysis of the number of particles left in the hopper when clogging occurs provides evidence for a hydrostatic pressure effect that is relevant for the clogging of soft particles, but less so for the harder (glass) or frictional (silicone rubber) particles.

4.
Bioengineered ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783295

RESUMO

Cutaneous melanoma is the leading cause of death among skin cancers despite the availability of diverse treatments. FGD1 plays an important role in multiple cancers, but how it works in cutaneous melanoma has not been illustrated. Thus, this study was intended to investigate the roles of FGD1 and its underlying mechanisms in cutaneous melanoma. Bioinformatics tools and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were used to analyze the expression of FGD1 in cutaneous melanoma. After knockdown of FGD1 in melanoma cells, the proliferation, migration and invasion of cells were analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, colony formation assay and transwell assays. Western blot was used to check the expression of key factors in PI3K/AKT pathway. In addition, nude mice models were used to study the role of FGD1 in melanoma development and metastasis in vivo. The data demonstrated that FGD1 was up-regulated and predicted a poor clinical outcome for cutaneous melanoma patients. Knockdown of FGD1 inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The expressions of p-PI3K and p-AKT were significantly decreased while the expressions of PI3K and AKT showed no marked difference in the knockdown group. Meanwhile, knockdown of FGD1 suppressed the development of melanoma in vivo. This study suggested that knockdown of FGD1 could block melanoma formation and proliferation by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. FGD1 might be a promising threptic target for melanoma.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 734564, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722281

RESUMO

Background: Growing evidence suggests that circulating tumor cell (CTC) clusters may be an important factor in the metastatic process, but their role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. This study aimed to characterize the molecular and clinical features of CTC cluster-positive human HCC and to assess its prognostic value in HCC patients. Methods: The CTCs and CTC clusters were evaluated in 204 HCC patients using CellSearch™ System. The counts of CTCs and CTC clusters were correlated with different clinical features, while their associations with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated integrally and hierarchically by Kaplan-Meier estimates or Cox proportional regression analysis. Five cases each of CTC cluster-negative and cluster-positive patients were selected for RNA-sequencing analysis. The results of gene enrichment analysis were further verified using tissue microarray (TMA) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: CTCs and CTC clusters were detected in 76 (37.3%) and 19 (9.3%) of 204 preoperative samples, respectively. CTC cluster-positive HCC represented an aggressive HCC phenotype with larger tumor size, more frequent microvascular invasion, and higher tumor stages. The survival of HCC patients utilizing CTCs and CTC clusters individually showed prognostic significance, while joint analysis revealed patients in Group III (CTC ≥ 2 and CTC cluster > 0) had the worst outcome. Stratified analysis of outcomes in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stages indicated that patients with CTC clusters had significantly poorer prognosis in each stage than those without CTC clusters. Moreover, the RNA sequencing and TMA staining results showed that CTC cluster-positive HCCs were usually associated with Wnt/ß-catenin signaling activation. Conclusion: The presence of CTC clusters characterizes an aggressive HCC subtype. CTC clusters may be used as a biomarker in predicting the prognosis on each stage of malignancy in HCC, which provides evidence for formulating therapeutic strategies for more precise treatment.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151820, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813808

RESUMO

Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is a novel CO2 utilization technology. Biocatalysts in this process may use electrons obtained from a photovoltaic system to reduce CO2 to chemicals and realize energy conversion from solar energy to chemical energy. The photoelectric material CuO/g-C3N4 was directly introduced into the MES system using mixed culture as biocatalyst in this study. CuO/g-C3N4 can effectively absorb light and presents satisfactory electron and hole separation ability. Photogenerated electrons from CuO/g-C3N4 enhanced the electron transfer rate and reduced cathodic charge transfer resistance. CuO/g-C3N4 mainly improved the electron supply of electroautotrophic microorganisms through direct electron transfer rather than indirect electron transfer via hydrogen. Photogenerated holes can combine electrons from anode and provide extra driving force to improve the MES performance. Furthermore, the CuO/g-C3N4 photocathode also improved the biocatalytic activity by increasing the total amount of biocatalyst and regulating cathodic microbial community composition. Acetate production rate in MES with the CuO/g-C3N4 photocathode was 2.6 times higher than that of the control group. This study provides a new strategy for semiconductor photocathodes to improve the MES performance with mixed culture.

7.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 491, 2021 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between low birth weight (LBW) and dental caries is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of LBW with dental caries in permanent teeth in children of Ningbo city. METHODS: A total of 1975 children aged 11-to-13 years in Ningbo, China were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. LBW was defined as a birthweight< 2500 g. Ten dentists assessed the status of dental caries in permanent teeth in line with the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria and guidelines. Decayed, missing or filled teeth were considered to have dental caries. Parental questionnaires were used to collect child information. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Dental caries in permanent teeth was found in 610 children (30.9%), with a mean DMFS of 2.09 (SD = 1.2). The adjusted ORs for dental caries in permanent teeth was 1.46 (95% CI 1.00, 2.13) for LBW. CONCLUSIONS: LBW was not associated with dental caries in permanent teeth in the study population.

8.
Pathogens ; 10(11)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832661

RESUMO

Guangdong province, located in South China, is an important economic hub with a large domestic migrant population and was among the earliest areas to report COVID-19 cases outside of Wuhan. We conducted a cross-sectional, age-stratified serosurvey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 after the emergence of COVID-19 in Guangdong. We tested 14,629 residual serum samples that were submitted for clinical testing from 21 prefectures between March and June 2020 for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a magnetic particle based chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay and validated the results using a pseudovirus neutralization assay. We found 21 samples positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG, resulting in an estimated age- and sex-weighted seroprevalence of 0.15% (95% CI: 0.06-0.24%). The overall age-specific seroprevalence was 0.07% (95% CI: 0.01-0.24%) in persons up to 9 years old, 0.22% (95% CI: 0.03-0.79%) in persons aged 10-19, 0.16% (95% CI: 0.07-0.33%) in persons aged 20-39, 0.13% (95% CI: 0.03-0.33%) in persons aged 40-59 and 0.18% (95% CI: 0.07-0.40%) in persons ≥60 years old. Fourteen (67%) samples had pseudovirus neutralization titers to S-protein, suggesting most of the IgG-positive samples were true-positives. Seroprevalence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was low, indicating that there were no hidden epidemics during this period. Vaccination is urgently needed to increase population immunity to SARS-CoV-2.

9.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 22(10): 866-875, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636189

RESUMO

Gradual distraction with an external fixator is a widely used treatment for severe postburn ankle contracture (SPAC). However, application of external fixators is complex, and conventional two-dimensional (2D) imaging-based surgical planning is not particularly helpful due to a lack of spatial geometry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical planning process for this procedure with patient-specific three-dimension-printed models (3DPMs). In this study, patients coming from two centers were divided into two cohorts (3DPM group vs. control group) depending on whether a 3DPM was used for preoperative surgical planning. Operation duration, improvement in metatarsal-tibial angle (MTA), range of motion (ROM), the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores, complications, and patient-reported satisfaction were compared between two groups. The 3DPM group had significantly shorter operation duration than the control group ((2.0±0.3) h vs. (3.2±0.3) h, P<0.01). MTA, ROM, and AOFAS scores between the two groups showed no significant differences pre-operation, after the removal of the external fixator, or at follow-up. Plantigrade feet were achieved and gait was substantially improved in all patients at the final follow-up. Pin-tract infections occurred in two patients (one in each group) during distraction and were treated with wound care and oral antibiotics. Patients in the 3DPM group reported higher satisfaction than those in the control group, owing to better patient-surgeon communication. Surgical planning using patient-specific 3DPMs significantly reduced operation duration and increased patient satisfaction, while providing similar improvements in ankle movement and function compared to traditional surgical planning for the correction of SPAC with external fixators.

10.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 259, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both genetic and cardiovascular factors contribute to the risk of developing heart failure (HF), but whether idea cardiovascular health metrics (ICVHMs) offset the genetic association with incident HF remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the genetic association with incident HF as well as the modification effect of ICVHMs on such genetic association in Chinese and British populations. METHODS: An ICVHMs based on smoking, drinking, physical activity, diets, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, and blood lipids, and a polygenic risk score (PRS) for HF were constructed in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) of 96,014 participants and UK Biobank (UKB) of 335,782 participants which were free from HF and severe chronic diseases at baseline. RESULTS: During the median follow-up of 11.38 and 8.73 years, 1451 and 3169 incident HF events were documented in CKB and UKB, respectively. HF risk increased monotonically with the increase of PRS per standard deviation (CKB: hazard ratio [HR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07, 1.32; UKB: 1.07; 1.03, 1.11; P for trend < 0.001). Each point increase in ICVHMs was associated with 15% and 20% lower risk of incident HF in CKB (0.85; 0.81, 0.90) and UKB (0.80; 0.77, 0.82), respectively. Compared with unfavorable ICVHMs, favorable ICVHMs was associated with a lower HF risk, with 0.71 (0.44, 1.15), 0.41 (0.22, 0.77), and 0.48 (0.30, 0.77) in the low, intermediate, and high genetic risk in CKB and 0.34 (0.26, 0.44), 0.32 (0.25, 0.41), and 0.37 (0.28, 0.47) in UKB (P for multiplicative interaction > 0.05). Participants with low genetic risk and favorable ICVHMs, as compared with high genetic risk and unfavorable ICVHMs, had 56~72% lower risk of HF (CKB 0.44; 0.28, 0.70; UKB 0.28; 0.22, 0.37). No additive interaction between PRS and ICVHMs was observed (relative excess risk due to interaction was 0.05 [-0.22, 0.33] in CKB and 0.04 [-0.14, 0.22] in UKB). CONCLUSIONS: In CKB and UKB, genetic risk and ICVHMs were independently associated with the risk of incident HF, which suggested that adherence to favorable cardiovascular health status was associated with a lower HF risk among participants with all gradients of genetic risk.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , China/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Chemosphere ; 288(Pt 2): 132487, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626651

RESUMO

The effects of and main contributors in rhizosphere and plant species on the degradation of sulfonamides (SAs) in constructed wetland (CW) models for the treatment of domestic wastewater are currently unclear. To investigate the degradation and key rhizosphere factors of mixed SAs with sulfadiazine (SDZ), sulfapyridine (SPD), sulfamerazine (SMZ1), sulfamethazine (SMZ2), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) at millimeter distances from the root surface, a multi-interlayer rhizobox experiment planted with Cyperus alternifolius, Juncus effusus, Cyperus papyrus, and an unvegetated control was conducted. There was a higher O2 saturation and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and a lower SA content in the rhizosphere and near/moderate-rhizosphere (0-3 and 3-8 mm from rhizosphere) than the far/non-rhizosphere (8-40 and 40-90 mm from rhizosphere). Bacterial abundance and community composition was indicative of the microbial degradation of SAs. Both the O2 and DOC contents promoted total bacterial abundance in different zones from CW rhizoboxes. The relative abundance of the most dominant bacteria was significantly correlated with O2, DOC, and SAs, except SMX, which also indicates other dissipation processes for SMX in the rhizosphere. Furthermore, more metabolites and aerobic SA-degrading bacteria were observed in the rhizosphere and near/moderate-rhizosphere than in the far/non-rhizosphere zones, suggesting that the effect of O2 in the rhizosphere is important in the degradation of SAs in CWs.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5926, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635672

RESUMO

Enormous enhancement of superconducting pairing temperature (Tg) to 65 K in FeSe/SrTiO3 has made it a spotlight. Despite the effort of interfacial engineering, FeSe interfaced with TiOx remains the unique case in hosting high Tg, hindering a decisive understanding on the general mechanism and ways to further improving Tg. Here we constructed a new high-Tg interface, single-layer FeSe interfaced with FeOx-terminated LaFeO3. Large superconducting gap and diamagnetic response evidence that the superconducting pairing can emerge near 80 K, highest amongst all-known interfacial superconductors. Combining various techniques, we reveal interfacial charge transfer and strong interfacial electron-phonon coupling (EPC) in FeSe/LaFeO3, showing that the cooperative pairing mechanism works beyond FeSe-TiOx. Intriguingly, the stronger interfacial EPC than that in FeSe/SrTiO3 is likely induced by the stronger interfacial bonding in FeSe/LaFeO3, and can explain the higher Tg according to recent theoretical calculations, pointing out a workable route in designing new interfaces to achieve higher Tg.

13.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2102662, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716676

RESUMO

Active mechanical metamaterials (AMMs) (or smart mechanical metamaterials) that combine the configurations of mechanical metamaterials and the active control of stimuli-responsive materials have been widely investigated in recent decades. The elaborate artificial microstructures of mechanical metamaterials and the stimulus response characteristics of smart materials both contribute to AMMs, making them achieve excellent properties beyond the conventional metamaterials. The micro and macro structures of the AMMs are designed based on structural construction principles such as, phase transition, strain mismatch, and mechanical instability. Considering the controllability and efficiency of the stimuli-responsive materials, physical fields such as, the temperature, chemicals, light, electric current, magnetic field, and pressure have been adopted as the external stimuli in practice. In this paper, the frontier works and the latest progress in AMMs from the aspects of the mechanics and materials are reviewed. The functions and engineering applications of the AMMs are also discussed. Finally, existing issues and future perspectives in this field are briefly described. This review is expected to provide the basis and inspiration for the follow-up research on AMMs.

14.
HGG Adv ; 2(2)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604815

RESUMO

Genomic discovery and characterization of risk loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been conducted primarily in individuals of European ancestry. We conducted a multiethnic genome-wide association study of T2D among 53,102 cases and 193,679 control subjects from African, Hispanic, Asian, Native Hawaiian, and European population groups in the Population Architecture Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) and Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) Consortia. In individuals of African ancestry, we discovered a risk variant in the TGFB1 gene (rs11466334, risk allele frequency (RAF) = 6.8%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.27, p = 2.06 × 10-8), which replicated in independent studies of African ancestry (p = 6.26 × 10-23). We identified a multiethnic risk variant in the BACE2 gene (rs13052926, RAF = 14.1%, OR = 1.08, p = 5.75 × 10-9), which also replicated in independent studies (p = 3.45 × 10-4). We also observed a significant difference in the performance of a multiethnic genetic risk score (GRS) across population groups (pheterogeneity = 3.85 × 10-20). Comparing individuals in the top GRS risk category (40%-60%), the OR was highest in Asians (OR = 3.08) and European (OR = 2.94) ancestry populations, followed by Hispanic (OR = 2.39), Native Hawaiian (OR = 2.02), and African ancestry (OR = 1.57) populations. These findings underscore the importance of genetic discovery and risk characterization in diverse populations and the urgent need to further increase representation of non-European ancestry individuals in genetics research to improve genetic-based risk prediction across populations.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5251, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475392

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) is an epigenetic regulator of gene expression and a hallmark of gene-environment interaction. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we have surveyed DNAm in 344 samples of human postmortem brain tissue from neurotypical subjects and individuals with schizophrenia. We identify genetic influence on local methylation levels throughout the genome, both at CpG sites and CpH sites, with 86% of SNPs and 55% of CpGs being part of methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs). These associations can further be clustered into regions that are differentially methylated by a given SNP, highlighting the genes and regions with which these loci are epigenetically associated. These findings can be used to better characterize schizophrenia GWAS-identified variants as epigenetic risk variants. Regions differentially methylated by schizophrenia risk-SNPs explain much of the heritability associated with risk loci, despite covering only a fraction of the genomic space. We provide a comprehensive, single base resolution view of association between genetic variation and genomic methylation, and implicate schizophrenia GWAS-associated variants as influencing the epigenetic plasticity of the brain.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Genoma Humano , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fatores Etários , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigênese Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(18): 12652-12663, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478283

RESUMO

The microbial characteristics related to nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were investigated in three pilot scale constructed wetlands (CWs). Compared to horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) and surface flow (SF) CWs, the aerobic vertical flow (VF) CW enriched more functional bacteria carrying genes for nitrification (nxrA, amoA), denitrification (nosZ), dephosphorization (phoD), and methane oxidation (mmoX), while the removal of COD, total P, and total N increased by 33.28%, 255.28%, and 299.06%, respectively. The co-occurrence network of functional bacteria in the HSSF CW was complex, with equivalent bacterial cooperation and competition. Both the VF and SF CWs exhibited a simple functional topological structure. The VF CW reduced functional redundancy by forming niche differentiation, which filtered out keystone species that were closely related to each other, thus achieving effective sewage purification. Alternatively, bacterial niche overlap protected a single function in the SF CW. Compared with the construction type, temperature, and plants had less effect on nutrient removal in the CWs from this subtropical region. Partial least-squares path modeling (PLS-PM) suggests that high dissolved oxygen and oxidation-reduction potential promoted a diverse bacterial community and that the nonkeystone bacteria reduced external stress for functional bacteria, thereby indirectly promoting nutrient removal.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Áreas Alagadas , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Desnitrificação , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 699821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568255

RESUMO

This paper aims to determine the existence of convergence in health expenditures among Association for South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries. Based on the SPSM procedure and panel KSS unit root test results, the public health expenditures (PUHE) in Indonesia, Lao PDR, Cambodia, the Philippines, and Myanmar are converging, while that of Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, and Thailand are diverging. In addition, the sequences of private health expenditures (PRHE) in ASEAN member states are stationary, which implies convergence. This finding is in accordance with Wagner's law, that is, as nations develop, they are forced to expand public expenditure. Specifically, countries with low levels of PUHE tend to catch up with the high health spending countries. This research has policy implications with regard to the convergence of health expenditure across countries. The government in low- and lower-middle income countries should raise PUHE to provide access to health services for those who are unaffordable individuals.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Filipinas , Tailândia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529577

RESUMO

Domain adaptation techniques have been widely applied to the problem of cross-scene hyperspectral image (HSI) classification. Most existing methods use convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to extract statistical features from data and often neglect the potential topological structure information between different land cover classes. CNN-based approaches generally only model the local spatial relationships of the samples, which largely limits their ability to capture the nonlocal topological relationship that would better represent the underlying data structure of HSI. In order to make up for the above shortcomings, a Topological structure and Semantic information Transfer network (TSTnet) is developed. The method employs the graph structure to characterize topological relationships and the graph convolutional network (GCN) that is good at processing for cross-scene HSI classification. In the proposed TSTnet, graph optimal transmission (GOT) is used to align topological relationships to assist distribution alignment between the source domain and the target domain based on the maximum mean difference (MMD). Furthermore, subgraphs from the source domain and the target domain are dynamically constructed based on CNN features to take advantage of the discriminative capacity of CNN models that, in turn, improve the robustness of classification. In addition, to better characterize the correlation between distribution alignment and topological relationship alignment, a consistency constraint is enforced to integrate the output of CNN and GCN. Experimental results on three cross-scene HSI datasets demonstrate that the proposed TSTnet performs significantly better than some state-of-the-art domain-adaptive approaches. The codes will be available from the website: https://github.com/YuxiangZhang-BIT/IEEE_TNNLS_TSTnet.

20.
Biometrics ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586638

RESUMO

A generalized case-control (GCC) study, like the standard case-control study, leverages outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) to extend to nonbinary responses. We develop a novel, unifying approach for analyzing GCC study data using the recently developed semiparametric extension of the generalized linear model (GLM), which is substantially more robust to model misspecification than existing approaches based on parametric GLMs. For valid estimation and inference, we use a conditional likelihood to account for the biased sampling design. We describe analysis procedures for estimation and inference for the semiparametric GLM under a conditional likelihood, and we discuss problems with estimation and inference under a conditional likelihood when the response distribution is misspecified. We demonstrate the flexibility of our approach over existing ones through extensive simulation studies, and we apply the methodology to an analysis of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old study, which motives our research. The proposed approach yields a simple yet versatile solution for handling ODS in a wide variety of possible response distributions and sampling schemes encountered in practice.

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