Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 103
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137436, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112952

RESUMO

Several studies reported that conservation programs worldwide have profoundly reshaped participants' livelihoods and influenced other socio-economic processes. A fully understanding of how such conservation programs influence human lives is, therefore, crucial for their success. There, however, is little robust evidence of the effect of China's grain-for-green program (GGP), the largest conservation program in the world, on participants' livelihoods. That is, we do not know whether the program fulfills its goal of, at the very least, doing no harm to the lives of participants while simultaneously enhancing their environmental perception. To help fill this gap, we used a sustainable livelihood approach and structural equation modeling, based on household survey data from China's northern Shaanxi province, to compare the livelihood components of participants and non-participants in the GGP. We then characterized the interactions and pathways between their livelihood components and environmental perception. We found that the GGP indeed does no harm to participants' lives. Although participants suffer from a small reduction in natural capital due to a sharp decrease in their landholdings, they have much more off-farm income, subsidies, and financial and social assets than non-participants. Respondents commonly held positive attitudes toward the program's environmental benefits, but they had weak perceptions of the social and direct economic benefits of the GGP. Respondents' environmental perceptions of the GGP were significantly influenced by the number of available laborers, their education and health levels, off-farm income, subsidies, and the accessibility of transportation. Therefore, further resources should be dedicated to improving education as well as rural health care and infrastructure in order to create more off-farm job opportunities for GGP participants. In addition, decision makers should carefully redesign supporting policies, such as payments for ecosystem services, to help poor participants rebuild their livelihoods.

2.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-32, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213215

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and foetal growth restriction (FGR). We hypothesized that parathyroid hormone (PTH) may be an underlying factor relevant to this potential association. In a prospective birth cohort study, descriptive statistics were evaluated for the demographic characteristics of 3407 pregnancies in the second trimester from three antenatal clinics in Hefei, China. The association of the combined status of VD and PTH with birth weight and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) was assessed by a multivariate linear and binary logistic regression. We found that declined status of 25(OH) D are associated with the lower birth weight (for moderate VDD : adjusted ß=-49.4 g, 95% CI: -91.1, -7.8, P <0.05; for severe VDD: adjusted ß=-79.8 g, 95% CI: -127.2, -32.5, P <0.01), as well as ascended levels of PTH (for elevated PTH: adjusted ß=-44.5 g, 95% CI: -82.6, -6.4, P <0.05). Compared to the non-VDD group with non-elevated PTH, pregnancies with severe VDD and elevated PTH had the lowest neonatal birthweight (adjusted ß=-124.7 g, 95% CI: -194.6, -54.8, P <0.001) and the highest risk of SGA (adjusted RR=3.36, 95% CI: 1.41, 8.03, P <0.01). Notably, the highest risk of less calcium supplementation were founded in severe VDD group with elevated PTH (adjusted RR=4.67, 95% CI: 2.78, 7.85, P <0.001).In conclusion, elevated PTH induced by less calcium supplementation would further aggravate the risk of FGR in pregnancies with severe VDD through impaired maternal calcium metabolism homeostasis.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e19000, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer are of a high level risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is recommended as the normal treatment for cancer-associated venous thrombosis. Recently, some studies suggest that patients with cancer-associated venous thrombosis can get a good efficacy and safety profile from treating with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) compared with other anticoagulants. However, when it comes to the efficacy of DAOCs in preventing VTE in patient with cancer, the data are limited. Thus, we performed such a meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of DOACs in preventing VTE in patient with cancer compared with LMWHs. METHODS: Medline/PubMed and CENTRAL (The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were systematically searched for relevant studies. For each trial, data on VTE, major bleeding, or bleeding were extracted by 2 reviewers independently. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) were calculated by using Review Manager 5.3 software and the significance was determined by the Z test. RESULTS: A total of 6 studies with 7185 patients were included in our meta-analysis. DOACs (RR = 0.55, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.34-0.90, I = 31%) had a similar prevention effect of VTE to LMWH (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.95, I = 59%). DOACs (RR = 1.52, 95% CI: 0.99-2.33, I = 0%) yielded a similar bleeding occurrence rate compared with LMWH (RR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.07-1.70, I = 35%). DOACs (RR = 1.95, 95% CI: 0.88-4.30, I = 0%) showed a sight higher major bleeding occurrence rate than LMWH (RR = 1.38, 95% CI: 0.88-2.14, I = 0%). CONCLUSION: DOACs show comparable efficacy to LMWH in cancer patients without VTE with a slightly higher major bleeding occurrence rate. DOACs are inclined to be an alternative thromboprophylaxis strategy in cancer patients as they have superiorities compared to traditional anticoagulation agents. Further studies are still demanded as exiting relevant researches are limited.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006087

RESUMO

Results of a preclinical study suggested that the anticonvulsant drug ethosuximide may elicit ketamine-like rapid-acting antidepressant actions. We evaluated the antidepressant efficacy of ethosuximide versus placebo in non-medicated adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included patients at three mental health centers in China. Eighty eligible adults (aged 18-65 years) met the DSM-5 criteria for MDD. Patients in the acute single study received three doses (500, 1000, or 1500 mg) of ethosuximide or placebo. Patients in the repeated study received ethosuximide (1500 mg/day) or placebo for 2 weeks. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were used to assess antidepressant and antianxiety responses to ethosuximide. No significant reductions in depression and anxiety rating scale scores were observed after a single oral administration of ethosuximide, in comparison with placebo. Furthermore, patients receiving ethosuximide for 2 weeks did not show reductions in depression and anxiety rating scale scores. There were no serious adverse events. Responses to the study's primary and secondary outcome measures, the clinician-rated HAM-D and MADRS, showed no change from baseline to the end of treatment, with either ethosuximide or placebo. These results suggest that ethosuximide does not produce ketamine-like robust antidepressant actions in adult patients with MDD.

5.
J Biomed Sci ; 27(1): 19, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The FDA approved drug granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) displays anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory properties with neurogenesis and angiogenic functions. It is known to demonstrate neuroprotective mechanisms against ischemic global stroke. Autophagy is a method for the degradation of intracellular components and in particular, unrestrained autophagy may lead to uncontrolled digestion of affected neurons as well as neuronal death in cerebral ischemia. Mitochondrial dynamics is vital for the regulation of cell survival and death after cerebral ischemia and an early upstream event in neuronal death is mitochondrial fission. We examined the pro-survival mechanisms of G-CSF against apoptosis resulting from autophagy, mitochondrial stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. METHODS: Male Swiss Webster mice (20 weeks of age) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 30 min. After occlusion, mice were injected with G-CSF (50 µg/kg) subcutaneously for 4 days. Behavioral analysis was carried out using the corner test and locomotor activity test before animals were sacrificed on day 4 or day 7. Key proteins in ER stress, autophagy and mitochondrial stress induced apoptosis were analyzed by immunoblotting. RESULTS: G-CSF improved neurological deficits and improved behavioral performance on corner and locomotor test. G-CSF binds to G-CSF receptors and its activation leads to upregulation of Akt phosphorylation (P-Akt) which in turn decreases levels of the ER stress sensor, GRP 78 and expression of proteins involved in ER stress apoptosis pathway; ATF6, ATF4, eIF2α, XBP1, Caspase 12 and CHOP. G-CSF treatment significantly decreased Beclin-1, an autophagy marker, and decreased mitochondrial stress biomarkers DRP1 and P53. G-CSF also up-regulated the mitochondrial fusion protein, OPA1 and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 while down-regulating the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bak and PUMA. CONCLUSIONS: G-CSF is an endogenous ligand in the CNS that has a dual activity that is beneficial both in reducing acute neuronal degeneration and adding to long-term plasticity after cerebral ischemia. G-CSF treatment exerts neuroprotective effects on damaged neurons through the suppression of the ER stress and mitochondrial stress and maintains cellular homeostasis by decreasing pro-apoptotic proteins and increasing of anti-apoptotic proteins.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 122-130, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the relation of vitamin D status and supplementation during pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Most of these studies hypothesized that 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were associated with GDM risk and glucose metabolism based on linear association models. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the associations of 25(OH)D concentrations and vitamin D supplementation with GDM risk and glucose metabolism and determine the threshold concentrations of 25(OH)D that could significantly affect glucose metabolism and GDM risk. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort study, we collected information about sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and lifestyle from 4984 pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation and 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed in the second trimester. Data from the 75-g oral-glucose-tolerance test were obtained at 24-28 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: A total of 922 (18.5%) women were diagnosed with GDM. Compared with women with 25(OH)D concentrations <25 nmol/L, the GDM risk was significantly lower in women with 25(OH)D concentrations ranging from 50 to 75 nmol/L (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.95) and >75 nmol/L (RR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.22, 0.70). The curve-fitting models suggested a significant large reduction in GDM risk, fasting plasma glucose, and area under the curve of glucose with increasing 25(OH)D concentrations only for concentrations >50 nmol/L. Consistently, GDM risk was significantly reduced only in women who took 400-600 IU vitamin D/d (RR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.97) with a mean 25(OH)D concentration of 50 nmol/L but not in women taking vitamin D sometimes with a mean 25(OH)D concentration of 40 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: GDM risk was significantly reduced only in pregnant women with 25(OH)D concentrations >50 nmol/L. Pregnant women taking 400-600 IU vitamin D/d with mean 25(OH)D concentrations of 50 nmol/L had a lower risk of GDM.

7.
J Addict ; 2019: 8586153, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662946

RESUMO

Objectives: Noninvasive estimation of cortical activity aberrance may be a challenge but gives valuable clues of mental health in patients. The goal of the present study was to characterize specificity of electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes used to assess spectral powers associated with mental health conditions of patients with opioid use disorder. Methods: This retrospective study included 16 patients who had been diagnosed with opioid use disorder in comparison with 16 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. EEG electrodes were placed in the frontal (FP1, FP2, F3, F4, F7, F8, and Fz), central (C3, C4, and Cz), temporal (T3, T4, T5, and T6), parietal (P3, P4, and Pz), and occipital scalp (O1 and O2). Spectral powers of δ, θ, α, ß, and γ oscillations were determined, and their distribution was topographically mapped with those electrodes on the scalp. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the spectral powers at low frequencies (<8 Hz; δ and θ) were increased in most electrodes across the scalp, while powers at the high frequencies (>12 Hz; ß and γ) were selectively increased only at electrodes located in the frontal and central scalp. Among 19 electrodes, F3, F4, Fz, and Cz were highly specific in detecting increases in δ, θ, ß, and γ powers of patients with opioid use disorders. Conclusion: Results of the present study demonstrate that spectral powers are topographically distributed across the scalp, which can be quantitatively characterized. Electrodes located at F3, F4, Fz, and Cz could be specifically utilized to assess mental health in patients with opioid use disorders. Mechanisms responsible for neuroplasticity involving cortical pyramidal neurons and µ-opioid receptor regulations are discussed within the context of changes in EEG microstates.

8.
Foot Ankle Surg ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of chronic calcaneal osteomyelitis is challenging. At present, there is still no widely accepted, simple, and effective surgical method to eradicate the infection and prevent osteomyelitis recurrence. The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes of one-stage treatment of chronic calcaneal osteomyelitis with a shape-preserving debridement technique combined with antibiotic-loaded calcium sulphate. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2018, 33 patients (33 limbs) with chronic calcaneal osteomyelitis were treated with a novel debridement technique, named "eggshell-like debridement", plus antibiotic-impregnated calcium sulphate. The infection remission rate, recurrence rate, and amputation rate were analyzed. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle and hindfoot score was used to assess postoperative hindfoot function. RESULTS: 26 patients (81.8%) achieved infection remission without recurrence. In the patients with osteomyelitis remission, pain, limitation of movement, sinus tracts, and typical redness and swelling were generally eliminated. Most of the patients could tolerate full weight-bearing without pain. The average AOFAS ankle and hindfoot score was 88 points (range, 67-100 points), implying the foot function was mostly restored. 6 patients (18.2%) had osteomyelitis recurrence but no amputation was required to elimilate the infection. CONCLUSIONS: Eggshell-like debridement combined with antibiotic-loaded calcium sulphate is an effective method for one-stage management of chronic calcaneal osteomyelitis. With the application of this technique, secondary autogenous bone or muscle flap grafts are unnecessary. The surgical procedure can be simplified whlie the hindfoot function is well preserved.

9.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 20(1): 47, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MDMA causes serotonin (5-HT) syndrome immediately after administration and serotonergic injury in a few days or weeks. However, a serotonin syndrome is not always followed by serotonergic injury, indicating different mechanisms responsible for two adverse effects. The goal of present study was to determine causes for two adverse events and further test that dose and environment have a differential role in initiating and intensifying MDMA neurotoxicity. METHODS: Initiation and intensification were examined by comparing neurotoxic effects of a high-dose (10 mg/kg × 3 at 2 h intervals) with a low-dose (2 mg/kg × 3) under controlled-environmental conditions. Initiation of a serotonin syndrome was estimated by measuring extracellular 5-HT, body-core temperature, electroencephalogram and MDMA concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid, while intensification determined in rats examined under modified environment. Initiation and intensification of the serotonergic injury were assessed in rats by measuring tissue 5-HT content, SERT density and functional integrity of serotonergic retrograde transportation. RESULTS: Both low- and high-dose could cause increases in extracellular 5-HT to elicit a serotonin syndrome at the same intensity. Modification of environmental conditions, which had no impact on MDMA-elicited increases in 5-HT levels, markedly intensified the syndrome intensity. Although either dose would cause the severe syndrome under modified environments, only the high-dose that resulted in high MDMA concentrations in the brain could cause serotonergic injury. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal that extracellular 5-HT is the cause of a syndrome and activity of postsynaptic receptors critical for the course of syndrome intensification. Although the high-dose has the potential to initiate serotonergic injury due to high MDMA concentrations present in the brain, whether an injury is observed depends upon the drug environment via the levels of reactive oxygen species generated. This suggests that brain MDMA concentration is the determinant in the injury initiation while reactive oxygen species generation associated with the injury intensification. It is concluded that the two adverse events utilize distinctly different mediating molecules during the toxic initiation and intensification.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/toxicidade , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Serotoninérgicos/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/veterinária , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serotonina/metabolismo
10.
Alzheimers Dement (Amst) ; 11: 405-414, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206006

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate retinal thickness as a biomarker for identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: The retinal thickness, utilizing the spectral domain optical coherence tomography, was compared among 73 patients with AD, 51 patients with MCI, 67 cognitive normal control (NC) subjects. Results: The retinal thickness of ganglion cell complex and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer decreased in both AD and MCI patients, in comparison with NC subjects (AD vs. NC, P < .01; MCI vs. NC, P < .01). The inner retinal layers in macular area in MCI exhibited significant thinning compared with NC (P < .001). Remarkable association was found between the retinal thickness and brain volume (P < .05). Better correlation was seen between the inner perifovea retinal thickness and the hippocampal and entorhinal cortex volume (r: 0.427-0.644, P < .01). Discussion: The retinal thickness, especially the inner retinal layer thickness, is a potentially early AD marker indicating neurodegeneration.

11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 246, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Managing with diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) is challenging. Even after infective bone resection and thorough debridement, DFO is still difficult to cure and has a high recurrence rate. This retrospective study aims to compare the outcomes of two treatment methods, infected bone resection combined with adjuvant antibiotic-impregnated calcium sulfate and infected bone resection alone, for the treatment of diabetic foot osteomyelitis. METHODS: Between 2015 to 2017, 48 limbs (46 patients) with DFO met the criteria were included for assessment. 20 limbs (18 patients) were included in the calcium sulfate group (the CS group) in which vancomycin and/or gentamicin-impregnated calcium sulfate was used as an adjuvant after infected bone resection while 28 limbs (28 patients) as the control group were undergone infected bone resection only. Systemic antibiotics, postoperative wound care and offloading were continued to be applied following surgery in both groups. The time to healing, healing rate, recurrence rate and amputation rate were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: In total, 90% (18/20) limbs in the CS group as compared to 78.6% (22/28) infected limbs in the control group went to heal (P = 0.513). The Mean time to healing was 13.3 weeks in the CS group and 11.2 weeks in control group (P = 0.132). Osteomyelitis recurrence rate was 0% (0/18) in the CS group and 36.4% (8/22) in the control group (P = 0.014). Postoperative leakage in calcium sulfate group was 30.0% (6/20) with a mean duration of 8.5 weeks. Amputation rate in the control group was 7.1% (2/28) compared to 0% (0/20) in the CS group (P = 0.153). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic-impregnated calcium sulfate as an adjuvant prevents the recurrence of DFO but cannot improve the healing rate, reduce the postoperative amputation rate or shorten the time to healing. Prolonged postoperative leakage as the most common complication can be managed with regular dressing. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III, Retrospective Comparative Study.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Substitutos Ósseos/administração & dosagem , Pé Diabético/terapia , Osteomielite/terapia , Osteotomia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Substitutos Ósseos/química , Sulfato de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Terapia Combinada , Pé Diabético/complicações , Feminino , , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteomielite/etiologia , Osteotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 15(4): 717-727, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841965

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer has become the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide, which has posed challenges to current conventional therapies. Hence, we propose an alternative approach to the existing therapeutics for colorectal cancer treatment. In this work, we prepared thermosensitive micelles based on poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone)poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE) copolymers (PAL-micelles) that were used to encapsulate phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) as an in situ sustained drug delivery system. In vitro experiments suggested that PAL could inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells because the depletion of local phenylalanine blocked the synthesis of corresponding proteins. In addition, the release behavior In vitro and in vivo showed that PAL could be released from PAL-micelles in a controlled manner. Moreover, a significant inhibition of tumor growth was observed in the PAL-micellestreated xenograft mouse model compared to the control groups in vivo, but the systemic toxicity was not noteworthy. The antitumor efficacy was further confirmed by histological analysis of the tumor tissues with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Ki-67 staining. The above results demonstrated that the PAL-micelles system could be considered an alternative strategy for colorectal cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Animais , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Camundongos , Micelas , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase , Poliésteres , Polietilenoglicóis
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 235: 65-74, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708032

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cynomorium songaricum Rupr. (CS) belongs to the genus of parasitic perennial flowering plants, mostly used in Chinese traditional medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment. BPH is a chronic disease in men that both androgen and estrogen play a crucial role in promoting its development via their receptors. Previously we have showed that compounds from CS have the phytoestrogenic and/or phytoandrogenic activities that may have the potential suppressive effects on BPH, while the mechanism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of CS and its derived compounds: luteolin (LUT), gallic acid (GA), protocatechuic acid (PA) and protocatechualdehyde (Pra) on inhibition of rat BPH and proliferation of BPH-1 cell line respectively, and further uncover whether it is related with the phytoestrogenic and / or phytoandrogenic activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Estradiol/testosterone (1:100) was subcutaneous injected to induce BPH in a castrated rat model, and CS was orally administrated for 45 days. Then the weights of the body and prostate were recorded, the pathogenesis changes of prostate were analyzed by Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical (IHC). The levels of 17ß-estradiol (E2), testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from rats' serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vitro, human benign prostatic epithelial cell BPH-1 was cultured and treated with or without different CS compounds and DHT or E2. MTT and CCK-8 assays were performed to detect the regulatory effects on cell proliferation. The expressions of PCNA, AR, ERα, ERß, and steroid 5-α-reductases (SRD5A1 and SRD5A2) were further analyzed by western blotting upon treatment. RESULTS: Treatment with CS significantly inhibited rat prostate enlargement, improved the pathological feature and reduced the thickness of smooth muscle layer. The up-regulated AR and ERα expressions and down-regulated ERß in BPH rat prostate were significantly blocked after CS administration. Moreover, the enhanced values of E2/testosterone and the level of DHT in serum were also strongly inhibited in CS group compared with those in BPH groups. In cellular level, LUT, GA, PA, or Pra significantly inhibited DHT- or E2- induced BPH-1 cell proliferation and PCNA expressions. Consistently with the data in vivo, compounds from CS interfered the DHT or E2-regulated AR, ERα and ERß expressions in BPH-1 cells as well. Importantly, the dramatic increased SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 expressions were observed in BPH rat prostates and DHT or E2-stimulated BPH-1 cells. However, treatment with CS in rat or with compounds isolated from CS in BPH-1 cells significantly blocked the induction of SRD5A1 and SRD5A2. CONCLUSIONS: CS suppressed BPH development through interfering with prostatic AR, ERα/ß, and SRD5A1/2 expressions, which provided evidence of CS for BPH treatment.


Assuntos
3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/genética , Cynomorium/química , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/prevenção & controle , Androgênios/isolamento & purificação , Androgênios/farmacologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Fitoestrógenos/isolamento & purificação , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Chemosphere ; 218: 487-492, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497031

RESUMO

Cobalt is an essential trace element and has been suggested to be involved in oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. However, researches have paid little attention to the association between serum cobalt levels during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth (PTB, <37 week of gestation). The purpose of this study was to determine the association between maternal and umbilical cord serum cobalt concentrations and the risk of PTB. A total of 2951, 3080, and 2698 serum samples were obtained from pregnant women in the first, the second trimester, and the umbilical cord blood, respectively. The tertile levels of ln-transformed cobalt were defined as low, medium and high levels for cobalt respectively. In our study, the rate of PTB (<37 weeks of gestation) was elevated in subjects with low cobalt levels in the first trimester of pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.58) and the second trimester of pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.54). The adjusted OR for PTB was 2.46 (95% CI: 1.34, 4.53) among subjects with low cobalt levels and 2.22 (95% CI: 1.19, 4.15) among subjects with medium cobalt levels in the umbilical cord serum. Our findings demonstrated that the lower levels in maternal and umbilical cord serum cobalt were associated with the increased the risk of PTB.


Assuntos
Cobalto/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Adulto , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/sangue , Fatores de Risco
15.
Exp Neurol ; 313: 26-36, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521789

RESUMO

Synthetic cathinones, often marketed as 'bath salts', have been reported to induce an excited delirium syndrome with characteristic symptoms such as paranoid, hallucination and even aggression. 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), is one of the psychoactive ingredients in bath salts. The present study utilized cortical EEG and brain microdialysis in rats to compare the effects of MDPV (0.25, 1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) with the hallucinogenic drugs MK-801 (0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and ketamine (5, 15 and 25 mg/kg, i.p.). Results revealed that MDPV similar to MK-801 and ketamine caused a dose-dependent increase in the cortical EEG synchronization. In addition, all three drugs produced an increase in DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex (FCx). However, there existed difference between the three drugs. In contrast to MDPV, MK-801 and ketamine had only moderate or little effects on DA efflux in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Except for ketamine, the effects of MDPV and MK-801 on EEG synchronization were blocked by the D1 receptor antagonist SCH23990 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride (100 mg/kg, i.p.). SCH23990 or sulpiride had no effect on ketamine-induced increases in EEG synchronization. In summary, the present comparative studies suggest that DA in the FCx, but unlikely the NAcc, exerts a critical role in increasing EEG synchronization associated with the excited delirium syndrome. Neural circuits consisting of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons responsible for the hallucinogenic effect are discussed in the context of hyperdopamine and dysconnection theories for hallucinatory behaviors.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Captação Adrenérgica/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Drogas Desenhadas/farmacologia , Maleato de Dizocilpina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Química Encefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Dopamina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sincronização de Fases em Eletroencefalografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Int J Surg ; 60: 194-203, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal resection extent for middle-third advanced gastric cancer (AGC) still remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the long-term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) versus laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy (LATG) for middle-third AGC. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from 464 patients who underwent LADG or LATG between September 2007 and March 2013. Propensity score matching (PSM) were used for reducing the confounding effects to compare the long-term oncologic outcomes between two groups. Cox regression analysis was performed to clarify the prognostic factors. RESULTS: After PSM was performed, a well-balanced cohort of 376 patients (188 LADG and 188 LATG) was further analyzed. Of interest, the LADG group had a significantly shorter operative time (244.6 ±â€¯28.0 vs. 259.1 ±â€¯30.1, P < 0.0001), less operative blood loss (142.9 ±â€¯50.9 vs. 157.8 ±â€¯54.1, P = 0.006), earlier day of first flatus (2.6 ±â€¯0.8 vs. 2.9 ±â€¯0.9, P = 0.014), fewer number of retrieved lymph nodes (36.5 ±â€¯7.9 vs. 41.4 ±â€¯9.8, P < 0.0001), and shorter postoperative hospital stay (9.7 ±â€¯1.3 vs. 10.7 ±â€¯1.4, P < 0.0001) than the LATG group. However, no significant differences were observed in days of eating liquid diet (P = 0.626) and days of eating soft diet (P = 0.353). The incidence of overall and severe postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ IIIa) following the LADG group were significantly fewer than the LATG group (overall, 24.5% vs. 34.6%, P = 0.032; severe, 4.8% vs. 11.2%, P = 0.022). In addition, the LADG group had significantly more favorable overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates than the LATG group (5-year OS rate, 55.6% vs. 41.8%, P = 0.002; 5-year DFS rate, 45.9% vs. 32.8%, P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, resection extent was not an independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS. CONCLUSIONS: This PSM cohort analysis has indicated LADG with D2 lymphadenectomy appeared to be safe and reasonable option for patients with middle-third AGC in general. LADG could contribute to improved survival.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Pontuação de Propensão , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(43): e12771, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder in patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery. There is some evidence that the use of pharmacological interventions may reduce the risk of developing of postoperative delirium. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of pharmacologic agents for the prevention postoperative delirium after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through a systematic literature search of electronic databases and article references up to October 2016. End points included incidence of postoperative delirium, severity of postoperative delirium, cognitive disturbances of postoperative delirium, duration of postoperative delirium, length of stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital, and short-term mortality. RESULTS: A total of 14 RCTs with an aggregate of 14,139 patients were included. The results of the present meta-analysis show that pharmacologic agents significantly decrease postoperative delirium [relative risk (RR), 0.83; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.75-0.91, P < .00001] and duration of postoperative delirium (RR = -0.37, 95% CI = -0.47 to -0.27, P < .00001) after on-pump cardiac surgery. In addition, subgroup analysis shows that dexamethasone and dexamethasone were associated with a trend toward a reduction in postoperative delirium (RR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.30-0.66, P < .0001; RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68-0.93, P = .003, respectively). However, our results fail to support the assumption that pharmacologic prophylaxis is associated with a positively reduction in short-term mortality, length of ICU, or hospital stay. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that the perioperative use of pharmacologic agents can prevent postoperative delirium development in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, there remain important gaps in the evidence base on a few small studies with multiple limitations. Further large-scale, high-quality RCTs are needed in this area.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Delírio/etiologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
18.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 138(1): 1-8, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30236540

RESUMO

Androgen-independent prostate cancer (PCa) is a developed tumor derived from the local androgen dependent PCa, which often affects elderly men. Psoralea corylifolia L, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used for PCa treatment as an important part of a common prescription, while the mechanism remains unclear. Our study was aimed to investigate the tumor-inhibitory effect of its main component bakuchiol in androgen-independent PCa cell line PC-3 cells. Bakuchiol significantly suppressed PC-3 cell proliferation and migration; the expressions of PCNA and MMP-9 were consistently down regulated as well. Meanwhile, both the constitutive and LPS-induced NF-κB activation were significantly inhibited by bakuchiol. The inhibitory effects of bakuchiol on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were recovered when LPS were added together with bakuchiol. SiRNA against androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor ß (ERß) were transfected and the regulation of bakuchiol-suppressed proliferation, invasion, NF-κB signaling and MMP-9 secretion in response to LPS were blocked. Taken together, our data demonstrated that bakuchiol inactivated NF-κB signaling via AR and ERß, which contributes to inhibition of PC-3 cell proliferation and migration, indicating that bakuchiol is one of the key component from P. corylifolia L for PCa treatment and has a potential as anti-prostate cancer drug candidates.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/fisiologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/genética , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Psoralea/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Receptores Androgênicos/genética
19.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech ; 28(6): 349-353, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30222695

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Magnesium sulfate has emerged as an important drug to alleviate the pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, the use of magnesium sulfate for pain control after laparoscopic cholecystectomy has not been well established. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of magnesium sulfate on pain control after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials are searched. Randomized controlled trials assessing the influence of magnesium sulfate treatment versus placebo on pain control after laparoscopic cholecystectomy are included. Two investigators have independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. This meta-analysis is performed using the random-effect model. RESULTS: Four randomized controlled trials involving 263 patients are included in the meta-analysis. Compared with control intervention after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, magnesium sulfate can substantially decrease pain scores at 2 hours [standard mean differences (MD)=-0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.88 to -0.02; P=0.04] and 8 hours (standard MD=-0.62; 95% CI=-0.95 to -0.28; P=0.0003), as well as reduce analgesic consumption (standard MD=-0.40; 95% CI=-0.73 to -0.07; P=0.02), but has no substantial influence on pain scores at 24 hour (standard MD=-0.38; 95% CI=-0.79 to 0.02; P=0.07) and operation duration (standard MD=-0.09; 95% CI=-0.34 to 0.15; P=0.45). CONCLUSIONS: Magnesium sulfate is effective to reduce pain intensity in early stage and anesthetic consumption after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Medição da Dor , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 303, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867316

RESUMO

Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) represent a severe, world-wide problem, and are usually comorbid with psychiatric disorders, comorbidity increases the risks associated with AUDs, and results in more serious consequences for patients. However, currently the underlying mechanisms of comorbid psychiatric disorders in AUDs are not clear. Studies investigating comorbidity could help us understand the neural mechanisms of AUDs. In this review, we explore three comorbidities in AUDs, including schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), and personality disorders (PDs). They are all co-morbidities of AUDs with rate of 33.7, 28, and 50-70%, respectively. The rate is significantly higher than other diseases. Therefore we review and analyze relevant literature to explore whether these three diseases are the risk factors of AUDs, focusing on studies assessing cognitive function and those using neural imaging. We found that memory deficits, impairment of cognitive control, negative emotion, and impulsivity may increase an individual's vulnerability to AUDs. This comorbidity may indicate the neural basis of AUDs and reveal characteristics associated with different types of comorbidity, leading to further development of new treatment approaches for AUDs.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA