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1.
Nanotechnology ; 31(4): 045604, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578003

RESUMO

Gallium nitride (GaN)-based nanowires (NWs) have attracted much attention for the fabrication of novel nanostructured devices. In this paper, the influence of an AlN seeding layer on the nucleation of self-assembled GaN NWs grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Si (111) substrates has been investigated. Not only is the formation of a two-dimensional compact GaN layer at the bottom of the NWs suppressed, but also a high density of vertically aligned well-separated GaN NWs originating from GaN islands are successfully obtained after introducing annealing and nitridation processes. Scanning electronic microscope and transmission electron microscope measurements show that the NWs have a high crystalline wurtzite structure nearly free of dislocations and stacking faults and the NW diameter remains constant over almost the entire length. Due to the temperature-dependent diffusion length of Ga adatoms during the nucleation process, the formation of well-separated NWs relies on the distribution and morphology of the underlying AlN seeding layer. Moreover, the SiNx layer served as mask to inhibit coalescence at the nucleation sites. The developed growth processes and the obtained results provide a viable path facilitating the use of MBE growth techniques to fabricate III-nitride NW-based materials and related devices on Si substrates.

2.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(1): e24-e28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274558

RESUMO

Pancreatoblastoma is an extremely rare malignant tumor of the pancreas. Most patients are infants and children; however, a few cases have been reported in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 49-year-old man with pancreatoblastoma and liver metastasis who underwent preoperative multimodal imaging, in which F-FDG PET/CT showed a markedly increased F-FDG uptake in the metastatic lesion and a slightly increased uptake in the primary lesion. Subsequently, the patient underwent complete resection of the primary and metastatic lesions. No recurrences or metastases were found in 2 years of follow-up.

4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793572

RESUMO

We report on the basis of DFT computations a plausible and detailed reaction mechanism for the first Pd-catalyzed decarbonylative phosphorylation of amides forming C-P bonds, which reveals, among other things, crucial events in the second coordination sphere, including ion pair and hydrogen bonding interactions as well as proton transfer.

5.
Small ; : e1906205, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793750

RESUMO

Plasmonic nanolasers based on wide bandgap semiconductors are presently attracting immense research interests due to the breaking in light diffraction limit and subwavelength mode operation with fast dynamics. However, these plasmonic nanolasers have so far been mostly realized in the visible light ranges, or most are still under optical excitation pumping. In this work, III-nitride-based plasmonic nanolasers emitting from the green to the deep-ultraviolet (UV) region by energetic electron beam injection are reported, and a threshold as low as 8 kW cm-2 is achieved. A fast decay time as short as 123 ps is collected, indicating a strong coupling between excitons and surface plasmon. Both the spatial and temporal coherences are observed, which provide a solid evidence for exciton-plasmon coupled polariton lasing. Consequently, the achievements in III-nitride-based plasmonic nanolaser devices represent a significant step toward practical applications for biological technology, computing systems, and on-chip optical communication.

6.
Org Lett ; 21(22): 9276-9279, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686514

RESUMO

An efficient in situ Pd-NHC catalytic system for regioselective arylation of B(3,6)-H bonds of o-carborane has been developed for the first time. A series of symmetric and unsymmetric 3,6-diaryl-o-carboranes anchored with active groups have been synthesized with moderate to good yields under mild conditions. This work offers an efficient protocol for selective activation of B(3,6)-H bonds and has important value in design coupling reactions for selective functionalization of o-carboranes.

7.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 243, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microglia are resident immune cells in the central nervous system and central to the innate immune system. Excessive activation of microglia after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) contributes greatly to early brain injury, which is responsible for poor outcomes. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a steroid hormone enriched in the brain, has recently been found to regulate microglial activation. The purpose of this study was to address the role of DHEA in SAH. METHODS: We used in vivo models of endovascular perforation and in vitro models of haemoglobin exposure to illustrate the effects of DHEA on microglia in SAH. RESULTS: In experimental SAH mice, exogenous DHEA administration increased DHEA levels in the brain and modulated microglial activation. Ameliorated neuronal damage and improved neurological outcomes were also observed in the SAH mice pretreated with DHEA, suggesting neuronal protective effects of DHEA. In cultured microglia, DHEA elevated the mRNA and protein levels of Jumonji d3 (JMJD3, histone 3 demethylase) after haemoglobin exposure, downregulated the H3K27me3 level, and inhibited the transcription of proinflammatory genes. The devastating proinflammatory microglia-mediated effects on primary neurons were also attenuated by DHEA; however, specific inhibition of JMJD3 abolished the protective effects of DHEA. We next verified that DHEA-induced JMJD3 expression, at least in part, through the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA)/Akt signalling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: DHEA has a neuroprotective effect after SAH. Moreover, DHEA increases microglial JMJD3 expression to regulate proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory microglial activation after haemoglobin exposure, thereby suppressing inflammation.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5186, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780655

RESUMO

The electroreduction of C1 feedgas to high-energy-density fuels provides an attractive avenue to the storage of renewable electricity. Much progress has been made to improve selectivity to C1 and C2 products, however, the selectivity to desirable high-energy-density C3 products remains relatively low. We reason that C3 electrosynthesis relies on a higher-order reaction pathway that requires the formation of multiple carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds, and thus pursue a strategy explicitly designed to couple C2 with C1 intermediates. We develop an approach wherein neighboring copper atoms having distinct electronic structures interact with two adsorbates to catalyze an asymmetric reaction. We achieve a record n-propanol Faradaic efficiency (FE) of (33 ± 1)% with a conversion rate of (4.5 ± 0.1) mA cm-2, and a record n-propanol cathodic energy conversion efficiency (EEcathodic half-cell) of 21%. The FE and EEcathodic half-cell represent a 1.3× improvement relative to previously-published CO-to-n-propanol electroreduction reports.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745764

RESUMO

Contamination source identification (CSI) is significant for water quality security and social stability when a contamination intrusion event occurs in water distribution systems (WDSs). However, in research, this is an extremely challenging task for many reasons, such as limited number of water quality sensors and their limitations in detecting contaminants. Hence, some researchers have introduced consumers' complaint information as an alternative of sensors for CSI. But the problem with this approach is that the uncertainty of complaint delay time has a great impact on the identification accuracy. To address this issue, this study constructed complaint matrices to present the spatiotemporal characteristics of consumer complaints in an intrusion event and proposed a new methodology employing convolution neural network (CNN)-a deep learning algorithm-for the purpose of pattern recognition. CNN aimed to explore the inherent characteristics of complaint patterns corresponding to different contaminant intrusion nodes and to improve the performance of identifying the contamination source based on consumer complaint information. Two case studies illustrated methodology effectiveness in WDSs of various scales, even with the high uncertainties of complaint delay time. The comparison between CNN and a back-propagation artificial neural network algorithm demonstrates that the former framework possesses stronger robustness and higher accuracy for CSI.

11.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713120

RESUMO

This article [1] is retracted at the request of Editor-in-Chief.

12.
Nature ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747679

RESUMO

The electrocatalytic carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction reaction (CO2RR) to value-added fuels and feedstocks provides a sustainable and carbon-neutral approach to the storage of intermittent renewable electricity1. The highly selective generation of economically desirable C2 products such as ethylene from CO2RR remains a challenge2. Tuning the stabilities of intermediates to favour a desired reaction pathway offers the opportunity to enhance selectivity3-5, and this has recently been explored on copper (Cu) via control over morphology6, grain boundaries7, facets8, oxidation state9 and dopants10. Unfortunately, the Faradaic efficiency for ethylene is still low in neutral media (60 per cent at a partial current density of 7 mA cm-2 in the best catalyst reported so far9), resulting in a low energy efficiency. Here we present a molecular tuning strategy-the functionalization of the surface of electrocatalysts with organic molecules-that stabilizes intermediates for enhanced CO2RR to ethylene. Using electrochemical, operando/in situ spectroscopic and computational studies, we investigate the influence of a library of molecules, derived via electro-dimerization of arylpyridiniums11, on Cu. We find that the adhered molecules improve the stabilization of an atop-bound CO intermediate, thereby favouring further reduction to ethylene. As a result of this strategy, we report the CO2RR to ethylene with a Faradaic efficiency of 72 per cent at a partial current density of 230 mA cm-2 in a liquid-electrolyte flow cell in neutral medium. We report stable ethylene electrosynthesis for 190 hours in a membrane-electrode-assembly-based system that provides a full-cell energy efficiency of 20 per cent. These findings indicate how molecular strategies can complement heterogeneous catalysts by stabilizing intermediates via local molecular tuning.

14.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated protein (CABYR) is a group of isoforms produced by alternative splicing and is overexpressed in human malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the prognostic value and biological functions of its major protein isoforms, named CABYR-a/b (combined CABYR-a and CABYR-b), in HCC remain to be established. METHODS: CABYR-a/b expression was detected in HCC tissues and cell lines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. The correlation of CABYR-a/b expression with clinical characteristics and its prognosis impact were determined by statistical analysis. Finally, the biological functions and molecular mechanism of CABYR-a/b were also investigated using molecular biology approaches. RESULTS: The present research found that CABYR-a/b was markedly elevated in HCC specimens and cell lines. Upregulated CABYR-a/b level had positive association with tumor size and differentiation in patients. Moreover, cases with elevated CABYR-a/b level had poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) than those with reduced CABYR-a/b level. Multivariate analysis and prognostic nomograms demonstrated that CABYR-a/b overexpression was an independent predictive indicator for OS and DFS. The calibration curve for the odds of OS and DFS demonstrated that the prediction by nomograms was in excellent accordance with actual situation. CABYR-a/b downregulation suppressed cell proliferation and induced G1-phase arrest via decreasing cyclin D1 and cyclin dependent kinase 4, while promoted apoptosis by reducing B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and increasing Bcl-2-associated death promoter. CONCLUSION: Our research indicates that CABYR-a/b exerts an oncogenic effect on HCC development and may become a new prognostic indicator for patients with HCC.

15.
Int J Pharm ; : 118839, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715359

RESUMO

This study intended to investigate the in vivo pulmonary fate of intratracheally dosed nanosuspensions of fluticasone propionate (FP). Three FP suspensions, including a microsuspension and two nanosuspensions with different dissolution profiles, were prepared and they exhibited comparable aerodynamic performances after nebulization via a jet nebulizer. Following intratracheal administration to rats, the microsuspension underwent extensive mucociliary clearance, leading to a limited absorption time whereas the nanosuspensions decreased the mucociliary clearance and allowed dissolution rate-limiting and extended pulmonary absorption, resulting in prolonged pulmonary retention and long-acting anti-inflammatory efficacy in a lipopolysaccharide induced lung injury model. Delaying the FP dissolution of a nanosuspension by phospholipid coating increased AUC value in lung tissues to 1.72-fold of a conventional nanosuspension, but led to a decreased pharmacological efficacy. This study demonstrated that inhalable nanosuspensions were a feasible means for the sustained pulmonary delivery of FP and the local anti-inflammatory efficacy was highly dependent on the dissolution profiles.

16.
Adv Mater ; : e1904354, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599998

RESUMO

In the last two decades, remarkable progress has been achieved in the field of optoelectronic devices based on III-nitride semiconductors. In terms of photonics applications in the visible-UV spectral range, III-nitrides are one of the most promising materials. For instance, emerging gallium nitride (GaN)-based micro-light-emitting diode (LED) technology for high-resolution display, and UV photo-detection for environmental monitoring, health, and medical applications. In this work, hybrid micro/nano-LEDs with integration of II-VI quantum dots by means of lithography and nano-imprinting patterning techniques are demonstrated, and high-performance red/green/blue and white emissions are achieved. Consequently, plasmonic nanolasers are designed and fabricated using a metal-oxide-semiconductor structure, where strong surface plasmon polariton coupling leads to the efficient lasing with a low excitation threshold from the visible to UV tunable spectral range. Furthermore, performance-improved AlGaN UV solar-blind avalanche photodiodes (APDs) with a separate absorption and multiplication structure by polarization engineering are reported. These APDs deliver a record-high avalanche gain of up to 1.6 × 105 . These newest advances in nano/micro-LEDs, nanolasers, and APDs can shed light on the emerging capabilities of III-nitride in cutting-edge applications.

17.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 209, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crouzon syndrome (CS), which results from fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutations, is associated with craniosynostosis, exophthalmos, and other symptoms. Herein, we report the genetic abnormalities detected in a Chinese family with autosomal dominant CS, combined with luxation of the eyeball. This luxation was a consequence of the trauma to the shallow orbits. CASE PRESENTATION: The proband was a 4-year-old boy. He accidentally fell, following which luxation of the bulbus oculi occurred immediately. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging clearly revealed ocular proptosis. Upon physical examination, the proband, his father, and grandfather had ocular proptosis, shallow orbits, and mid-face hypoplasia. However, their hands and feet were clinically normal. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood through a polymerase chain reaction performed for the target sequence. Genetic assessments revealed a heterozygous missense mutation (c.1012G > C, p.G338R) in exon 10 of the human FGFR2, cosegregated with the disease phenotype in this family. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of CS. DISCUSSION: CS is usually caused by FGFR2 mutations. While there are a few reports of luxation of the bulbus oculi in Chinese families with CS, the ocular proptosis, shallow orbits, combined with luxation of eyeball after trauma observed in this patient were particularly interesting. Our findings enhance the current knowledge of traumatic luxation concomitant with CS.

18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4807, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641126

RESUMO

The upgrading of CO2/CO feedstocks to higher-value chemicals via energy-efficient electrochemical processes enables carbon utilization and renewable energy storage. Substantial progress has been made to improve performance at the cathodic side; whereas less progress has been made on improving anodic electro-oxidation reactions to generate value. Here we report the efficient electroproduction of value-added multi-carbon dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from CO and methanol via oxidative carbonylation. We find that, compared to pure palladium controls, boron-doped palladium (Pd-B) tunes the binding strength of intermediates along this reaction pathway and favors DMC formation. We implement this doping strategy and report the selective electrosynthesis of DMC experimentally. We achieve a DMC Faradaic efficiency of 83 ± 5%, fully a 3x increase in performance compared to the corresponding pure Pd electrocatalyst.

19.
Int J Mol Med ; 44(5): 1844-1854, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485608

RESUMO

Long non­coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to contribute to progression and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, expression profiling and interaction of lncRNAs with messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) remain largely unknown in HCC. The expression profiling of lncRNAs, mRNA and miRNAs was obtained using microarray. The Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis were used to characterize potential functions of differentially expressed mRNAs. Cytoscape was applied to construct an lncRNA­miRNA­mRNA co­expression network and candidate lncRNAs were validated via quantitative PCR in 30 pairs of HCC and adjacent tumor­free tissues. In this study, 1,056 upregulated and 1,288 downregulated lncRNAs were identified, while 2,687 mRNAs and 6 miRNAs were aberrantly expressed in HCC compared with adjacent tumor­free tissues. Potential functions of differentially expressed mRNAs were demonstrated to significantly participate in modulating critical genes in the cell cycle, such as cyclin E1 and cyclin B2. After screening, 95 lncRNAs, 5 miRNAs and 36 mRNAs were recruited for construction of lncRNA­mRNA­miRNA co­expression network in the cell cycle pathway. Subsequently, the top 5 lncRNAs that potentially modulate critical genes in the cell cycle were selected as the candidates for further verification. Kaplan­Meier curves using the Cancer Genome Atlas database showed that 13 targeted mRNAs were associated with overall survival of HCC patients. Finally, three lncRNAs, including ENST00000522221, lnc­HACE1­6:1 and lnc­ICOSLG­11:1, are significantly upregulated in HCC tissues compared with adjacent tumor­free tissues. These findings suggest that lncRNAs play essential roles in the pathogenesis of HCC via regulating coding genes and miRNAs, and may be important targets for diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

20.
Dalton Trans ; 48(42): 15802-15809, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560356

RESUMO

Ultrashort metal-metal distances (USMMDs, dM-M < 1.900 Å) have been realized computationally between the main group metal beryllium. However, due to their ionic charge state and the insufficient stability of their electronic structures and/or thermodynamic stabilities, the known species with ultrashort Be-Be distances are unsuitable for synthesis in the condensed phase, which deters the applications of these interesting structures from being explored. In the present study, using our previously reported global minima species [XH3-Be2H3-XH3]+ (X = N and P) with ultrashort Be-Be distances and well-defined electronic structures as their parent molecules, we designed a series of neutral polygons retaining ultrashort Be-Be distances. These polygons also possess well-defined electronic structures and good thermodynamic stabilities, which are demonstrated by their large HOMO-LUMO gaps of 6.20-7.68 eV, very high vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of 8.96-11.29 eV, rather low vertical electron affinities (VEAs) of -1.21 to +1.78 eV, and unexpectedly high formation energies relative to the building blocks of E- and Be2H3+ (-105.2 to -153.2 kcal mol-1 for the formation of an E-Be bond). The good stability with regard to their electronic structures and thermochemistry reveal their high feasibility to be synthesized in the condensed phase. Thus, we anticipate experimental studies on these interesting nano-polygons to realize structures with USMMDs between main group metals and explore their possible application.

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