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1.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053953

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features, distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Nocardia species isolated from pulmonary nocardiosis cases in tertiary hospital in China. The species were collected from January 1, 2018 to May 31, 2019 and identified using MALDI-TOF MS or PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the broth microdilution method. Within the 44 Nocardia species, N. farcinica was the most frequently identified species (n = 36), followed by N. nova (n = 5), N. otitidiscaviarum (n = 1), N. cyriacigeorgica (n = 1), and N. transvalensis (n = 1). The top three predisposing factors of pulmonary nocardiosis were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (45.5%), hypertension (34.1%), and tuberculosis (31.8%). All 44 Nocardia strains were susceptible to amikacin, trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid. The resistance rates of Nocardia to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, ceftriaxone, tobramycin, and imipenem were 4.5%, 9.1%, 79.5%, 72.7%, 63.6%, and 38.6%, respectively. Two Nocardia strains had decreased sensitivity to trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole. In conclusion, N. farcinica was the most frequently isolated Nocardia species in the First Hospital of Changsha. All isolated clinical Nocardia strains showed susceptible to amikacin, trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid, suggesting that these drugs can be primary therapeutic choices for treating Nocardia infections.

2.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 281, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii has traditionally been considered an opportunistic pathogen with low virulence. In this study, we characterized the carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent A. baumannii (CR-hvAB) stains isolated from our hospital in mid-south region of China. RESULTS: Blood samples collected between January 2017 and May 2019 were used for virulence experiments and biofilm assays of individual carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CR-AB) strains, performed using a Galleria mellonella infection model and crystal violet staining method, respectively. CR-AB isolates that induced high mortality in the G. mellonella infection model were subjected to genotyping, susceptibility testing, and clinical data analysis, and the genetic characterization of these isolates was performed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Among the 109 CR-AB clinical strains, the survival rate of G. mellonella larvae infected with 7 (6.4%) CR-AB isolates (number of strains with mortality of 0, 10 and 20% was 4, 1, and 2, respectively), was significantly lower than that of A. baumannii ATCC 19606 (100.0%) and the remaining CR-AB isolates (> 80.0%). Consistent with these results, patients infected with these seven isolates had an average 7-day mortality rate of 42.9%, suggesting that the isolates were CR-hvAB. These seven isolates belonged to four sequence types (STs): ST457, ST195, ST369, and ST2088 (a new ST), and mainly ST457 (n = 4). The results of the biofilm study showed that eight strains had powerful biofilm ability (strong [n = 1] and moderate [n = 7] biofilm producers) including these seven CR-hvAB isolates. CONCLUSIONS: CR-hvAB isolates that induced a high mortality rate were cloned in our hospital, most of which belonged to ST457; thus, monitoring of these strains, particularly ST457, should be strengthened in the future. Meanwhile, A. baumannii, which was isolated from blood specimens and found to powerful biofilm-forming ability, is a probable hvAB isolate.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Acinetobacter baumannii/patogenicidade , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/etiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Criança , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mariposas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Virulência/genética , Adulto Jovem
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 60, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China still suffers heavily from rabies, although reported human cases continue to decrease year over year. There are far fewer laboratory-confirmed human cases than clinically diagnosed cases, which is a big problem that needs to be addressed. In this report, we summarize analyses of all specimens from human cases tested in our laboratory over the past 15 years, in order to promote laboratory diagnosis of rabies. METHODS: From 2005 to 2019, a total of 271 samples from 164 suspected rabies cases were collected from local hospitals by the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) in China. Saliva, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum (blood) and urine were collected for ante-mortem diagnosis, and brain tissue, neck skin tissue and cornea were collected for post-mortem diagnosis. All of the specimens were tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and brain tissues were also tested using fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The number of positive test results obtained using different fluids or tissues, and at different stages of the disease, were compared using a chi-square test and a more effective sampling program is recommended. RESULTS: As the national reference laboratory for rabies surveillance in China, our laboratory has tested 271 samples from 164 suspected rabies cases collected by local CDCs since 2005. We found that saliva gave the highest number of positive test results (32%), compared with CSF and other fluids. We also found that serum or blood specimens collected in the last 3 days of life can test positive by RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Serum or blood samples collected in the last 3 days of a patient's life can be used to measure viral RNA, which means that serum samples, as well as saliva and CSF, can be used to detect viral RNA for anti-mortem diagnosis of rabies. Because of our findings, we have modified our "National Surveillance Project for Human Rabies", by adding the collection and testing of serum samples from the end of the survival period. This will improve our national surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of human rabies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Raiva/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , China , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação
4.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 703-710, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184632

RESUMO

Purpose: Outbreaks of infection due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), including New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM)-producing Escherichia coli, have been increasingly reported worldwide, primarily in adults and rarely in children. The goal of this study was to characterize an outbreak of infection caused by NDM-5-producing E. coli in a children's hospital in China. Methods: A total of 86 CRE isolates were collected from 85 hospitalized children between June 2017 and May 2018. These isolates were subjected to multiple phenotypic and molecular tests, including in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Results: Among the 86 CRE isolates, we identified 9 NDM-5-producing E. coli isolates, with 5 of them sharing the same PFGE pattern, same MLST type (ST410), same plasmid replicon type (IncFII), and nearly the same set of additional resistance genes. All 9 isolates were resistant to most antimicrobial agents, including carbapenems, cephalosporins, and levofloxacin, while being sensitive to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, amikacin, tigecycline, and colistin. According to the clinical background, all 9 isolates were collected in a period of < 3 months from infants among whom there was overlap in the time of hospitalization. None of them had a travel history. Conclusion: Our analysis suggests an outbreak of clonal dissemination, presumably due to nosocomial transmission. This study represents the first documented outbreak of NDM-5-producing E. coli mediated by IncFII in infants. Close monitoring is urgently needed to prevent and control the spread of this difficult-to-treat superbug.

5.
BMC Microbiol ; 19(1): 219, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-hvKP) isolates is not well studied. Our goal was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of CR-hvKP strains that were isolated from a Chinese hospital. RESULTS: All clinical carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CR-KP) isolates were collected and identified from patient samples between 2014 and 2017 from a Chinese hospital. The samples were subjected to screening for CR-hvKP by string test and the detection of the aerobactin gene. CR-hvKP isolates were further confirmed through neutrophil phagocytosis and a mice lethality assay. The CR-hvKP isolates were investigated for their capsular genotyping, virulence gene profiles, and the expression of carbapenemase genes by PCR and DNA sequencing. Multilocus sequence type (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed to exclude the homology of these isolates. Twenty strains were identified as CR-hvKP. These strains were resistant to imipenem and several other antibiotics, however, most were susceptible to amikacin. Notably, two isolates were not susceptible to tigecycline. Capsular polysaccharide synthesis genotyping revealed that 17 of the 20 CR-hvKP strains belonged to the K2 serotype, while the others belonged to serotypes other than K1, K2, K5, K20, and K57. The strains were found to be positive for 10 types of virulence genes and a variety of these genes coexisted in the same strain. Two carbapenemase genes were identified: blaKPC-2 (13/20) and blaNDM-1 (1/20). PFGE typing revealed eight clusters comprising isolates that belonged to MLST types ST25, ST11 and ST375, respectively. PFGE cluster A was identified as the main cluster, which included 11 isolates that belong to ST25 and mainly from ICU department. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that hospital-acquired infections may contribute in part to the CR-hvKP strains identified in this study. It also suggests that ST25 CR-hvKP strain has a clonal distribution in our hospital. Therefore, effective surveillance and strict infection control strategies should be implemented to prevent outbreak by CR-hvKP strains in hospitals setting.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/patogenicidade , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cápsulas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Sorogrupo , Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0007036, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640911

RESUMO

Coordinated surveillance, vaccination and public information efforts have brought the Chinese rabies epizootic under control, but significant numbers of fatalities are still reported annually with some cases occurring in previously rabies free regions. Tibet has remained virtually rabies free for 16 years, but since 2015 one human rabies case has been reported each year. To better understand the origins of these cases, we sequenced three human samples and an additional sample isolated from a dog in 2012. Three genomes were sequenced from brain samples: human case 1 (reported in 2015), human case 3 (2017), and the 2012 dog case. For human case 2 (2016), the rabies N gene was sequenced from a limited saliva sample. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Case 1 (CXZ1501H) and the dog case (CXZ1201D) belong to China IV lineage (equivalent to Arctic-like-2 in global rabies), suggesting an association with a wildlife spillover event. However, Case 2 (CXZ1601H) is placed within the dominant lineage China I, and was most similar with recent strains from neighboring Yunnan province, indicating the current epizootic has finally reached Tibet. Most surprisingly however, was the finding that Case 3 (CXZ1704H) is distinct from other Chinese isolates. This isolate is placed in the Indian Subcontinent clade, similar to recent Nepal strains, indicating that cross-border transmission is a new source for rabies infections. Thus, the complex mixture of the rabies epizootic in Tibet represents a major new challenge for Tibet and national rabies control.


Assuntos
Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Adulto , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência , Tibet/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 19(1): 51-58, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020856

RESUMO

In recent years, the number of human rabies cases in China has decreased annually. However, some western provinces with no human cases for more than 10 years have begun to report rabies cases, and all of the rabies lineages that circulated in western China were found in Inner Mongolia as well. In this study, we generated a phylogenetic tree with all the Inner Mongolia rabies strains available in GenBank and our laboratory, as well as strains from western China and representative viruses from neighboring countries, based on the N gene sequence. Furthermore, the possible relationships underlying the spread of the virus within Inner Mongolia and neighboring regions were analyzed. Three of six rabies lineages of China (China I-VI) were shown to exist in Inner Mongolia, and a spatial cluster analysis supported that the China I lineage, the dominant cluster of China, likely spread to Ningxia from Inner Mongolia. Wild raccoon dog rabies (China IV/Arctic-like-2) may have spread to Inner Mongolia from Russia and likely continued to spread to Qinghai and Tibet. The red fox lineage (China III/Cosmopolitan), which likely spread from Russia and Mongolia, has been shown to circulate in Inner Mongolia and was a serious threat to Xinjiang, which is adjacent to Inner Mongolia. Thus, Inner Mongolia likely became a location where national and international rabies viruses collected and developed into a potential portal for the spread of rabies to western China. To effectively control the spread of rabies in China, both prevention and control of dog and wild animal rabies in Inner Mongolia should be a top priority.


Assuntos
Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Epidemias , Humanos , Gado , Filogenia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Zoonoses
8.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 7(1): 117, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The injection of rabies immune globulin (RIG) is of the utmost importance in the management of category III exposures to rabies-suspect animals. Because of the high cost and limited availability of existing RIG, one possible replacement for RIG is monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the rabies virus (RABV). Consequently, it is necessary to determine the neutralizing activity of the MAbs against rabies viruses, especially street rabies virus. However, the method to detect the neutralizing activity of MAbs against street rabies virus remains undefined. METHODS: To establish a method for detecting the neutralizing activity of MAbs against street rabies virus, we constructed a library consisting of 12 strains of street RABV from 11 provinces in China. Using this street RABV library and the Reed-Muench formula, we established a method for detecting the neutralizing titer of the MAbs. The reliability and repeatability of the method were evaluated by repeatedly measuring the neutralizing activity of a MAb and a post vaccination serum. RESULTS: A total of 12 strains of street RABV were chosen for inclusion in the street RABV library, which covered six Chinese lineages (China I-China VI) and grew to high titers in N2A cells (> 105 FFD50/ml). On the basis of the library, we constructed the method to detect the neutralizing activity of the MAbs. The results of repeatedly measuring the MAbs and positive serum showed excellent reliability and repeatability of the method established in this study. CONCLUSIONS: This study established a street RABV library reflecting the epidemiological features of Chinese rabies viruses, which provides a platform for detecting the neutralizing activity of MAbs against rabies viruses circulating in China.


Assuntos
Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , China/epidemiologia , Biblioteca Gênica , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Testes de Neutralização , Filogenia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia
9.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 30(11): 825-828, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216959

RESUMO

This study assesses the causes and prevention measures of rabies through epidemiological investigation and analysis. A field epidemiological survey was conducted to investigate a case of rabies by fox bite. The onset of symptoms began 50 days after the bite. The patient did not receive standard treatment, rabies vaccination, or rabies immunoglobulin injection. The fox was killed on the spot. Saliva and pre-death blood samples were collected at different periods, and only blood RT-PCR tests yielded positive results. Wild fox bite is a major risk factor of rabies infection in Xinjiang Province, China.


Assuntos
Raposas , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Adulto , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Evolução Fatal , Raposas/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Zoonoses
10.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 25(5): 1514-1517, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29070135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the phenotype and genotype of a family with congenital dysfibrinogenemia. METHODS: Assays of coagulation, including activated partial thromboplastin time(APTT), pro-thrombin time(PT)and thrombin time(TT) were carried out with Sysmex CA-7000 in the proband and his family members. The quality and quantity of fibrinogen in plasma were determined by Clauss and electrophoresis, respectively. Fibrinogen and inconstituent were analyzed by Native-PAGE. All exon and exon intron boundaries of fibringen genes were analyzed by direct sequencing. RESULTS: The proband had normal APTT, but prolonged PT and TT. The activity of fibrinogen in plasma was decreased while its quantity was normal. These abnormalities were also found in his sisters and daughter, while his wife was normal. Genetic analysis revealed heterozygous G1233A in the exon 2 of FGA which resulted in Arg16His missense mutation. CONCLUSION: Inherited dysfibrinogenemia is caused by Arg16His mutation in exon 2 of FGA.


Assuntos
Afibrinogenemia/genética , Éxons , Fibrinogênio/genética , Mutação , Humanos , Linhagem
11.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 30(5): 373-375, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28549493

RESUMO

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has proved to be the most important measure for rabies prevention and control. There is little information regarding adverse reactions to the Essen and 2-1-1 regimens in preschool children (aged 0-6). We reexamined the outcomes of 1,109 preschool children who were vaccinated using SPEEDA under the Essen regimen between January 2011 and December 2012 and 1,267 preschool children under the 2-1-1 regimen between January 2013 and December 2014. We find that, in preschool children, the febrile reaction after the first 2-dose injection in the 2-1-1 regimen was significantly higher than that induced by the first 1-dose in the Essen procedure. Thus, we recommend that the Essen regimen should still be used for rabies PEP in preschool children.


Assuntos
Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/normas , Vacinas Antirrábicas/efeitos adversos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente
12.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 29(5): 340-6, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27353708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To learn the rabies genome molecular characteristics and compare the difference of China rabies lineages. METHODS: The complete genomes of 12 strains from different China rabies lineages were amplified and sequenced, and all the China street strain genomes (total 43), Arctic and Arctic-like genomes were aligned using ClustalX2, the genome homologies were analyzed using MegAlign software, and the phylogenetic trees were constructed by MEGA 5. RESULTS: First Arctic-like rabies genome in China (CQH1202D) was reported, and we supplemented the rabies genome data of China, ensuring at least one genome was available in each China lineage. The genome size of China V (11908nt) is obviously shorter than other lineages' (11923-11925nt) for the difference of N-P non-coding regions. Among different lineages, the genome homologies are almost under 90%. CQH1202D (China IV lineage) has close relationship with strains from South Korea and they share about 95% genome similarities. CONCLUSION: The molecular characteristics of 6 different China rabies lineages were compared and analyzed from genome level, which benefits for continued comprehensive rabies surveillance, rabies prevention and control in China.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , Bovinos , China , Cães , Humanos , Filogenia , Raiva/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 29(3): 224-8, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27109134

RESUMO

The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus, which is absent from the viral particle, but highly expressed in infected cells, strongly antagonizes the interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral response. We engineered an NS1-expressing 293 (293-NS1) cell line with no response to IFN stimulation. Compared with the parental 293 cells, the IFN-nonresponsive 293-NS1 cells improved the growth capacity of various viruses, but the introduction of NS1 barely enhanced the propagation of Tahyna virus, a negative-strand RNA virus. In particular, fastidious enteric adenovirus that replicates poorly in 293 cells may grow more efficiently in 293-NS1 cells; thus, IFN-nonresponsive 293-NS1 cells might be of great value in diagnostic laboratories for the cultivation and isolation of human enteric adenoviruses.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Cultura de Vírus/métodos , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 9(10): e0004140, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26484668

RESUMO

In China, rabies remains an ongoing threat to public health. Although control efforts have been effective in reducing the number of annual cases, the virus continues to spread into new areas. Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia in western China have, until recently, reported only a handful of events. However, since 2011, there have been increasing numbers of cases recorded in these areas. In this study, we report the collection and analysis of samples collected from these regions. We find that cases originate from two different sources. Strains collected from Gansu and Ningxia are closely related to the primary lineage associated with the current epizootic, whereas those from Tibet and Qinghai are related to the Arctic-like-2 lineage that is most commonly associated with wildlife cases in China. Thus, it appears that while the epizootic is beginning to encroach into Gansu and Ningxia, Tibet and Qinghai a significant number of rabies cases originate from wildlife.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Cães , Genótipo , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogeografia , RNA Viral/genética , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 27(10): 749-62, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25341810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize two strains of street rabies virus (RABV) isolated from the brain tissue of cattle from Inner Mongolia. Differences in the histopathological and ultrastructural changes in the brain tissue of infected mice were determined to reveal variation in the pathogenesis of infection between street rabies virus strains. METHODS: Ten-day-old mice were intracranially inoculated with one of three virus strains and brain tissue harvested when the mice were moribund. Various histopathological and ultrastructural markers of disease were then compared between the groups. RESULTS: Infection with the street virus strain CNM1101C resulted in severe neuronal dendrites damage, but only mild cell apoptosis, T lymphocyte infiltration and microglial activation. Infection with the other street virus strain, CNM1103C, was characterized by cell apoptosis, T lymphocyte infiltration and microglial activation as well as dendrites damage. However, in comparison, infection with the attenuated virus strain CTN caused severe T lymphocyte infiltration, microglial activation and cell apoptosis, but left the neuronal dendrites intact. CONCLUSION: The two street rabies virus strains isolated from cattle from Inner Mongolia had different levels of virulence and caused distinct pathological changes in infected mice. Therefore, we concluded that different pathogenic mechanisms exist between different RABV strains.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia , Vírus da Raiva/patogenicidade , Raiva/patologia , Raiva/virologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Bovinos , China , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/ultraestrutura , Virulência
16.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 27(8): 627-32, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25189609

RESUMO

To understand the epidemic situation and factors influencing rabies cases in children in China, we obtained an overview of the current epidemic based on individual data of rabies cases in children and a descriptive analysis was carried on the prevalence and related factors. The results showed that the rabies cases in children accounted for 21.3% of the total number of rabies cases in China, 97.0% of these cases occurred in rural areas, they were mainly caused by dogs (81.5%), and were primarily level III exposure (47.7%). More than half of the cases were not treated with wound care, vaccination rate was extremely low (15.7%), and only 5.9% of cases were injected with antibodies. Furthermore, 25.4% of cases adopted incorrect treatments such as extruding bleed and wound closure, cases vaccinated with 5 injections accounted for only 22.5%. In conclusion, the prevalence of rabies cases in children in China remains a serious concern, the number and immune status of dogs in rural areas, and knowledge of rabies by risk populations should be considered in future rabies prevention and control programs.


Assuntos
Raiva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 20(9): 1433-42, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25144604

RESUMO

Yunnan Province in China borders 3 countries (Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar) in Southeast Asia. In the 1980s, a large-scale rabies epidemic occurred in this province, which subsided by the late 1990s. However, 3 human cases of rabies in 2000 indicated reemergence of the disease in 1 county. In 2012, rabies was detected in 77 counties; 663 persons died of rabies during this new epidemic. Fifty two rabies virus strains obtained during 2008-2012 were identified and analyzed phylogenetically by sequencing the nucleoprotein gene. Of the 4 clades identified, clades YN-A and YN-C were closely related to strains from neighboring provinces, and clade YN-B was closely related to strains from Southeast Asia, but formed a distinct branch. Rabies virus diversity might be attributed to dog movements among counties, provinces, and neighboring countries. These findings suggest that Yunnan Province is a focal point for spread of rabies between Southeast Asia and China.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Genes Virais , Variação Genética , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise Espacial
18.
J Virol ; 88(19): 11469-79, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25056890

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an arthropod-borne disease associated with the majority of viral encephalitis cases in the Asia-Pacific region. The causative agent, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), has been phylogenetically divided into five genotypes. Recent surveillance data indicate that genotype I (GI) is gradually replacing genotype III (GIII) as the dominant genotype. To investigate the mechanism behind the genotype shift and the potential consequences in terms of vaccine efficacy, human cases, and virus dissemination, we collected (i) all full-length and partial JEV molecular sequences and (ii) associated genotype and host information comprising a data set of 873 sequences. We then examined differences between the two genotypes at the genetic and epidemiological level by investigating amino acid mutations, positive selection, and host range. We found that although GI is dominant, it has fewer sites predicted to be under positive selection, a narrower host range, and significantly fewer human isolates. For the E protein, the sites under positive selection define a haplotype set for each genotype that shows striking differences in their composition and diversity, with GIII showing significantly more variety than GI. Our results suggest that GI has displaced GIII by achieving a replication cycle that is more efficient but is also more restricted in its host range. IMPORTANCE: Japanese encephalitis is an arthropod-borne disease associated with the majority of viral encephalitis cases in the Asia-Pacific region. The causative agent, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), has been divided into five genotypes based on sequence similarity. Recent data indicate that genotype I (GI) is gradually replacing genotype III (GIII) as the dominant genotype. Understanding the reasons behind this shift and the potential consequences in terms of vaccine efficacy, human cases, and virus dissemination is important for controlling the spread of the virus and reducing human fatalities. We collected all available full-length and partial JEV molecular sequences and associated genotype and host information. We then examined differences between the two genotypes at the genetic and epidemiological levels by investigating amino acid mutations, positive selection, and host range. Our results suggest that GI has displaced GIII by achieving a replication cycle that is more efficient but more restricted in host range.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/genética , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Filogenia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Ceratopogonidae , Quirópteros , Reservatórios de Doenças , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/classificação , Encefalite Japonesa/virologia , Cavalos , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , RNA Viral/genética , Sorotipagem , Suínos
19.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 34(5): 465-8, 2014 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25022120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in the efficacy on distant version of naked eye in the patients of juvenile myopia between rotating manipulation and lifting-thrusting manipulation of acupuncture. METHODS: One hundred and twenty cases (240 eyes) were randomized into a rotating manipulation group and a lifting-thrusting manipulation group, 60 cases (120 eyes) in each group. Additionally, a corrective lenses group, 60 cases (120 eyes), was set up as the control. In both manipulation groups, Cuanzhu (BL 2),Yuyao (EX-HN 4), Sizhukong (TE 23), Taiyang (EX-HN 5), Fengchi (GB 20), Zusanli (ST 36), Guangming (GB 37) and Sanyinjiao (SP 6) were punctured, but stimulated with rotating manipulation and lifting-thrusting manipulation respectively three times per week, 10 times as a treatment session and totally one session was required. In the corrective lenses group, the glasses were applied at daytime. The clinical efficacy and the changes in distant vision of naked eye before and after treatment were compared among the three groups. RESULTS: The total effective rate was 87.5% (105/120) in the rotating manipulation group, which was better than 69.2% (83/120) in the lifting-thrusting manipulation group (P < 0.05). The distant vision of naked eye was improved apparently in the rotating manipulation group and the lifting-thrusting manipulation group after treatment (both P < 0.05). But it was not improved in the corrective lenses group (P > 0.05). The distant vision of naked eye was improved more apparently after treatment in the rotating manipulation group as compared with that in the lifting-thrusting manipulation group (0.75 +/- 0.23 vs 0.68 +/- 0.24, P < 0.05). For 96 cases (192 eyes) with acupuncture treatment, in 3-month follow-up, 87.0% (167/192) of the cases maintained the stable vision as the original level and 13.0% (25/192) of them were reduced in the vision In the acupuncture groups, it was found that the improvement of distant vision of naked eye was more obvious after treatment with younger age, better basic vision and shorter duration of sickness (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture achieves the positive and sustainable clinical effect on juvenile myopia, and the results of rotating manipulation are superior to that of lifting-thrusting manipulation. Age, basic vision and duration of sickness impact the clinical efficacy.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Miopia/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura/instrumentação , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 14: 212, 2014 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24742224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies reemerged in China during the 1990s with a gradual increase in the number and geographical dispersion of cases. As a consequence, a national surveillance program was introduced in 2005 to investigate the outbreak in terms of vaccination coverage, PEP treatment, and geographical and social composition. METHODS: The surveillance program was coordinated at the national level by the Chinese Center for Disease Control (CCDC) with data collected by regional health centres and provincial CCDCs, and from other official sources. Various statistical and multivariate analysis techniques were then used to evaluate the role and significance of implemented policies and strategies related to rabies prevention and control over this period. RESULTS: From 2005-2012, 19,221 cases were reported across 30 provinces, but these primarily occurred in rural areas of southern and eastern China, and were predominantly associated with farmers, students and preschool children. In particular, detailed analysis of fatalities reported from 2010 to 2011 shows they were associated with very low rates of post exposure treatment compared to the cases with standard PEP. Nevertheless, regulation of post-exposure prophylaxis quality, together with improved management and vaccination of domesticated animals, has improved prevention and control of rabies. CONCLUSIONS: The various control policies implemented by the government has played a key role in reducing rabies incidences in China. However, level of PEP treatment varies according to sex, age, degree and site of exposure, as well as the source of infection. Regulation of PEP quality together with improved management and vaccination of domesticated animals have also helped to improve prevention and control of rabies.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Gatos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Raiva/tratamento farmacológico , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Adulto Jovem
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