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2.
Histopathology ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165992

RESUMO

AIMS: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare aggressive B-cell lymphoma that frequently arises at extranodal sites in the setting of immunosuppression. The diagnosis of PBL is complex, owing to a frequent solid or cohesive growth pattern, and an often unusual immunophenotype. Several case reports have described cytokeratin (CK) expression in PBL, introducing a diagnostic pitfall. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of CK expression in PBL in the largest series available to date. METHODS AND RESULTS: By using immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 72 PBLs, we identified CK8/18 positivity in 11 of 72 cases (15%) and AE1/3 positivity in six of 65 cases (9%), clearly contrasting with a control series of non-PBL aggressive B-cell lymphomas (one of 96 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas), as well as with data in the literature describing only occasional CK expression in haematological neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate CK expression in a substantial number (15%) of PBLs. In view of the particular morphological features of PBL and its frequent negativity for the common leukocyte antigen and B-cell markers, this feature represents a pitfall in the routine diagnostic work-up of PBL, and requires more extensive immunohistochemical and molecular characterisation of cases entering the differential diagnosis.

7.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom ; 98(5): 421-428, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Within the hematopoietic compartment, fibromodulin (FMOD) is almost exclusively expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lymphocytes. We set out to determine whether FMOD could be of help in diagnosing borderline lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD). METHODS: We established 3 flow cytometry-defined groups (CLL [n = 65], borderline LPD [n = 28], broadly defined as those with CLLflow score between 35 and -20 or discordant CD43 and CLLflow, and non-CLL LPD [n = 40]). FMOD expression levels were determined by standard RT-PCR in whole-blood samples. Patients were included regardless of lymphocyte count but with tumor burden ≥40%. RESULTS: FMOD expression levels distinguished between CLL (median 98.5, interquartile range [IQR] 37.8-195.1) and non-CLL LPD (median 0.012, IQR 0.003-0.033) with a sensitivity and specificity of 1. Most borderline LPDs were CD5/CD23/CD200-positive with no loss of B-cell antigens and negative or partial expression of CD43. 16/22 patients with available cytogenetic analysis showed trisomy 12. In 25/28 (89%) of these patients, FMOD expression levels fell between CLL and non-CLL (median 3.58, IQR 1.06-6.21). DISCUSSION: This study could suggest that borderline LPDs may constitute a distinct group laying in the biological spectrum of chronic leukemic LPDs. Future studies will have to confirm these results with other biological data. Quantification of FMOD can potentially be of help in the diagnosis of phenotypically complex LPDs.

9.
Mucosal Immunol ; 13(5): 836-848, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203062

RESUMO

Modulation of immunity and disease by glycans is increasingly recognized. However, how host glycosylation shapes and is shaped by tuberculosis remains poorly understood. We show that deficiency in the glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 1 (Gcnt1), a key enzyme for core-2 O-glycans biosynthesis, drives susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The increased susceptibility of Gcnt1 deficient mice was characterized by extensive lung immune pathology, mechanistically related to neutrophils. Uninfected Gcnt1 deficient mice presented bone marrow, blood and lung neutrophilia, which further increased with infection. Blood neutrophilia required Gcnt1 deficiency in the hematopoietic compartment, relating with enhanced granulopoiesis, but normal cellular egress from the bone marrow. Interestingly, for the blood neutrophilia to translate into susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection, Gnct1 deficiency in the stroma was also necessary. Complete Gcnt1 deficiency associated with increased lung expression of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL2. Lastly, we demonstrate that the transcript levels of various glycosyltransferase-encoding genes were altered in whole blood of active tuberculosis patients and that sialyl Lewis x, a glycan widely present in human neutrophils, was detected in the lung of tuberculosis patients. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated link between Gcnt1, neutrophilia and susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection, uncovering new players balancing the immune response in tuberculosis.

10.
Biomarkers ; 25(1): 69-75, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752540

RESUMO

Introduction: The present study evaluates CD30 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHQ) in 216 patients with de novo DLBCL.Methods: CD30 expression was assessed retrospectively in all cases by IHQ. More than >0% and >20% of CD30 expression in the malignant cells were used as a cut-off for positivity. Survival was analysed in 176 patients treated with R-CHOP/R-CHOP-like regimens.Results: CD30 expression >0% was found in 66 (31%) patients, and >20% in 41 (19%). Younger patients <60 years (p = 0.03), good performance status (p = 0.04), and non-GCB subtype (p = 0.004) correlated with CD30 expression. No significant differences were found in overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS), although there was a trend towards better PFS in CD30-positive patients (p = 0.07). Among 7 patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive-DLBCL, CD30 was expressed in 71%, and 2-year PFS significantly inferior compared with CD30-positive EBV-negative-DLBCL patients (p = 0.01).Conclusion: CD30 is expressed in 30% of DLBCL patients, in whom targeted therapy with an anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody could be explored. CD30 is expressed more frequently younger patients, with better performance status and in the non-GCB subtype and its expression trends towards a better PFS. No significant differences regarding characteristics at diagnosis or prognosis were found between groups with different cut-off for positivity.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Antígeno Ki-1/análise , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/mortalidade , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Eur J Haematol ; 104(3): 198-206, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769545

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the impact of histological grades in follicular lymphoma. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 250 patients diagnosed with FL treated with chemoimmunotherapy: 188 patients were grades 1-2 and 62 grade 3A. RESULTS: In our series, grade 3A FL patients were older, higher proportion of localised disease and lower bone marrow infiltration at diagnosis comparing grades 1-2 FL patients. Estimated six-year progression-free survival and time to progression showed no differences between both groups [grade 3A: 56% (95%CI: 39%-73%) and 51% (95%CI: 41%-61%) vs grades 1-2:55% (95%CI: 46%-63%) and 57% (95%CI: 49%-65%), P = .782 and P = .521, respectively]. Estimated six-year overall survival was lower, 76% (95%CI: 64%-88%) for the grade 3A group than grades 1-2 83% (95%CI: 77%-89%); P = .044. In addition to that, cumulative incidence curves of death not related to lymphoma at 10 years between groups were as follows: [0.26 (95%CI: 0.25-0.27) and 0.05 (95%CI: 0.04-0.06) for G3AFL and G1-2FL, respectively], P = .010. Grade 3A FL showed in PFS curve no relapses after 6 years. These results were absolutely reproduced in 199 patients receiving R-CHOP regimen as induction. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate similar long-term outcomes in terms of progression-free survival and time to progression in grades 1-2 and 3A. No relapses were observed in G3AFL group after 6 years.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Blood ; 135(4): 274-286, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738823

RESUMO

Pediatric large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs) share morphological and phenotypic features with adult types but have better prognosis. The higher frequency of some subtypes such as LBCL with IRF4 rearrangement (LBCL-IRF4) in children suggests that some age-related biological differences may exist. To characterize the genetic and molecular heterogeneity of these tumors, we studied 31 diffuse LBCLs (DLBCLs), not otherwise specified (NOS); 20 LBCL-IRF4 cases; and 12 cases of high-grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBCL), NOS in patients ≤25 years using an integrated approach, including targeted gene sequencing, copy-number arrays, and gene expression profiling. Each subgroup displayed different molecular profiles. LBCL-IRF4 had frequent mutations in IRF4 and NF-κB pathway genes (CARD11, CD79B, and MYD88), losses of 17p13 and gains of chromosome 7, 11q12.3-q25, whereas DLBCL, NOS was predominantly of germinal center B-cell (GCB) subtype and carried gene mutations similar to the adult counterpart (eg, SOCS1 and KMT2D), gains of 2p16/REL, and losses of 19p13/CD70. A subset of HGBCL, NOS displayed recurrent alterations of Burkitt lymphoma-related genes such as MYC, ID3, and DDX3X and homozygous deletions of 9p21/CDKN2A, whereas other cases were genetically closer to GCB DLBCL. Factors related to unfavorable outcome were age >18 years; activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL profile, HGBCL, NOS, high genetic complexity, 1q21-q44 gains, 2p16/REL gains/amplifications, 19p13/CD70 homozygous deletions, and TP53 and MYC mutations. In conclusion, these findings further unravel the molecular heterogeneity of pediatric and young adult LBCL, improve the classification of this group of tumors, and provide new parameters for risk stratification.


Assuntos
Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lab Med ; 51(4): 385-393, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences between follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma/high-grade B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL/HGBL) by flow cytometry are underexplored. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed flow cytometry results from 191 consecutive lymph node biopsies diagnosed with FL or DLBCL/HGBL. RESULTS: The only parameters that differed between the 2 groups in the derivation cohort were forward scatter and side scatter (P < 10-6; area under the curve [AUC], 0.75-0.8) and %CD23 (P = .004; area under the receiver characteristic operating curve, 0.64). However, since light scatter characteristics did not distinguish between grade 3 FL and DLBCL/HGBL, we set out to develop a model with high sensitivity for the exclusion of the latter. Several models, including FS and %CD23, were tested, and 2 models showed a sensitivity of >0.90, with negative predictive values of ≥0.95, albeit with low specificity (0.45 to 0.57). CONCLUSION: Two simple models enable the exclusion of DLBCL/HGBL with a high degree of confidence.

14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2464, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681334

RESUMO

The administration of a high fat content diet is an accelerating factor for metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and early type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to assess the impact of a high fat diet on tuberculosis progression and microbiota composition in an experimental animal model using a C3HeB/FeJ mouse strain submitted to single or multiple consecutive aerosol infections. These models allowed us to study the protection induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination as well as by the natural immunity induced by chemotherapy after a low dose Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Our results show that a high fat diet is able to trigger a pro-inflammatory response, which results in a faster progression toward active tuberculosis and an impaired protective effect of BCG vaccination, which is not the case for natural immunity. This may be related to dysbiosis and a reduction in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut microbiota caused by a decrease in the abundance of the Porphyromonadaceae family and, in particular, the Barnesiella genus. It should also be noted that a high fat diet is also related to an increase in the genera Alistipes, Parasuterella, Mucispirillum, and Akkermansia, which have previously been related to dysbiotic processes. As diabetes mellitus type 2 is a risk factor for developing tuberculosis, these findings may prove useful in the search for new prophylactic strategies for this population subset.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Tuberculose/fisiopatologia , Animais , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/microbiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/etiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/microbiologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4739, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628331

RESUMO

HIV viral reservoirs are established very early during infection. Resident memory T cells (TRM) are present in tissues such as the lower female genital tract, but the contribution of this subset of cells to the pathogenesis and persistence of HIV remains unclear. Here, we show that cervical CD4+TRM display a unique repertoire of clusters of differentiation, with enrichment of several molecules associated with HIV infection susceptibility, longevity and self-renewing capacities. These protein profiles are enriched in a fraction of CD4+TRM expressing CD32. Cervical explant models show that CD4+TRM preferentially support HIV infection and harbor more viral DNA and protein than non-TRM. Importantly, cervical tissue from ART-suppressed HIV+ women contain high levels of viral DNA and RNA, being the TRM fraction the principal contributor. These results recognize the lower female genital tract as an HIV sanctuary and identify CD4+TRM as primary targets of HIV infection and viral persistence. Thus, strategies towards an HIV cure will need to consider TRM phenotypes, which are widely distributed in tissues.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Colo do Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo do Útero/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Mucosa/virologia , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral/genética , Carga Viral/imunologia
16.
Hematol Oncol ; 37(5): 564-568, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475375

RESUMO

Patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) refractory to front-line immunochemotherapy (ICT) have a poor overall survival (OS). Gene mutation analysis may be more accurate than classical risk factors to pick out these patients before treatment. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of selected genetic mutations in a cohort of patients with high-risk FL. Twenty-five patients with FL refractory to front-line ICT and 10 non-refractory patients matched for age, sex, and FLIPI score were included. We sequenced 18 genes (custom targeted sequencing panel) previously reported to potentially have prognostic impact, including the seven genes necessary to determine m7FLIPI risk. The 35 patients had a median age of 62. The FLIPI and FLIPI2 were high in 27 (84%) and 14 (48%), respectively. Three-year progression-free survival (PFS) and OS probabilities were 25% (95% CI, 13%-41%) and 53% (34%-69%), respectively. There were 73 variants in the 18 genes among the 35 patients. The median number of mutations per patient was 1 (interquartile range, 0-3). The most commonly mutated genes were CREBBP (11 of 35, 31%) and EP300 (10 of 35, 29%). EP300 mutations were associated with refractoriness to treatment (10 of 25 among refractory and 0 of 10 among non-refractory). In conclusion, in this study, patients with high-risk follicular lymphoma were genetically heterogeneous.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linfoma Folicular/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma Folicular/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma Folicular/mortalidade , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(8): 1602460, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413912

RESUMO

Intravesical Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) remains the most effective treatment for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), unfortunately there is no validated biomarker to predict clinical outcome. Here we tried to explore the possibility that a combination of the density of peritumoral infiltrating cells (Th1, Th2 and PD-L1) and the composition of peripheral immune cells (neutrophil and lymphocyte counts) could generate a more reliable prognostic biomarker. Twenty-two patients with high-risk NMIBC treated with BCG (10 BCG nonresponders and 12 BCG responders) were selected. BCG responders had significantly lower level of peritumoral T-bet+ cells with an associated higher GATA-3+/T-bet+ ratio (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, the immune polarization in tissue (GATA-3+/T-bet+ ratio) adjusted for the systemic inflammation (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) showed a significantly higher association with the BCG response (p = 0.004). A survival analysis demonstrated prolonged recurrence-free survival (RFS) in patients with a lower T-bet+/Lymphocyte ratio and higher GTR/NLR (p = 0.01). No association was observed between peritumoral PD-L1+ expression and the BCG response. In conclusion, alterations in overall immune function, both local and systemic, may influence the therapeutic response to BCG, therefore a combined analysis of tumoral (Th2/Th1 ratio) and peripheral (NLR) immune composition prior to treatment may be a promising approach to predict the BCG response in high-risk NMIBC patients.

18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 825, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114569

RESUMO

Antigen presenting cells from the cervical mucosa are thought to amplify incoming HIV-1 and spread infection systemically without being productively infected. Yet, the molecular mechanism at the cervical mucosa underlying this viral transmission pathway remains unknown. Here we identified a subset of HLA-DR+ CD14+ CD11c+ cervical DCs at the lamina propria of the ectocervix and the endocervix that expressed the type-I interferon inducible lectin Siglec-1 (CD169), which promoted viral uptake. In the cervical biopsy of a viremic HIV-1+ patient, Siglec-1+ cells harbored HIV-1-containing compartments, demonstrating that in vivo, these cells trap viruses. Ex vivo, a type-I interferon antiviral environment enhanced viral capture and trans-infection via Siglec-1. Nonetheless, HIV-1 transfer via cervical DCs was effectively prevented with antibodies against Siglec-1. Our findings contribute to decipher how cervical DCs may boost HIV-1 replication and promote systemic viral spread from the cervical mucosa, and highlight the importance of including inhibitors against Siglec-1 in microbicidal strategies.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , HIV-1/fisiologia , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transporte Biológico Ativo/imunologia , Colo do Útero/patologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Membrana Mucosa/virologia
20.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 60(10): 2524-2531, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942640

RESUMO

Short responses to immunochemotherapy predict for an inferior OS in follicular lymphoma. We set out to determine whether this is also the case in marginal zone lymphoma. A group of 139 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) patients treated with front-line immuno- or immunochemotherapy (I/ICT) were categorized into I/ICT-refractory (non-response or relapse/progression within six months of treatment response assessment) or I/ICT-sensitive. Twenty-three patients (17%) were refractory. Refractory patients had inferior OS (4-yr probabilities of 57% vs. 83%, p = .0003) as did those with beta2-microglobulin (B2M)>3 mg/L (4-yr probabilities of 80% vs. 100%, p = .0029). On multivariable analysis they both showed a borderline significant correlation with OS (p = .06 and .07, respectively). B2M > 3 mg/L was also an adverse prognostic factor for progression-free survival in both univariable (4-yr probability of 61% vs. 83%, p = .02) and multivariable analysis (HR 2.9, p = .02). In conclusion, B2M and refractoriness to I/ICT may identify patients with MZL at higher risk of inferior survival.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/sangue , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/mortalidade , Microglobulina beta-2/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
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