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1.
Foods ; 11(5)2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267364

RESUMO

Vacuum impregnation is considered a cold formulation technology since it allows the incorporation of a desired functional compound into porous plant tissue without applying any heat. It is widely used in combination with the drying process to obtain added-value snacks. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two trehalose concentrations (5 and 10% w/w) on: (i) the water state and texture evolution during the air drying (50 °C, 8 h) of apple snacks vacuum impregnated with blueberry juice, and on (ii) the colour of the final dried apple snacks. The results of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that trehalose affects the water mobility of the samples during drying especially after 200-300 min of drying. In terms of textural properties, trehalose could increase the crispier characteristic of the samples impregnated with trehalose at the end of drying. Significative changes were found in terms of chroma and hue angle.

2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dry-salted cod (Gadus morhua) must be rehydrated before consumption and this step can take up to 5 days. Desalting of cod on an industrial scale poses many problems, mainly related to the long processing times and the quality of the final product. For this reason, many researchers have focused on finding new desalting methods to improve mass transfer. The application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) has been proposed as an alternative method for improving mass transfer in many food processes. However, there is no previous literature on the use of PEF to improve animal tissue rehydration. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of two PEF pre-treatments [PEF (1) 500 V cm-1 and PEF (2) 1000 V cm-1 ] on mass transport kinetics during the rehydration process of salted cod. The rehydration process was carried out under static conditions for 6 days, immersing dry-salted cod samples in tap water (5 ± 0.5 °C). RESULTS: The results show that the use of PEF technology increases the rate of the rehydration process of dry-salted cod and influences the redistribution of salt. In general, the samples pre-treated with PEF showed higher weight gain and lower salt loss than the control samples during the rehydration process. CONCLUSION: The application of PEF prior to rehydration of salted cod samples could be of interest to the food industry as a result of a higher process yield (higher weight gain) and the possibility to reduce the water renewal because less NaCl is lost in the wastewater. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

3.
Foods ; 11(3)2022 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159569

RESUMO

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a non-thermal technology that could be applied for food decontamination from both biological (microorganisms) and chemical (pesticides, food allergens, mycotoxins) contaminants, thanks to the production of reactive species (RS). However, RS could also promote the onset and the progress of food lipid oxidation, which may limit the quality and acceptability of the final products. The aim of this work was to assess the oxidation degree of pistachio kernels after treatment in a surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD). Two different operative conditions for CAP generation were investigated, resulting in the production of high (800 ppm) or low (300 ppm) concentrations of ozone. Limited amounts of hydroperoxides (3.00-4.22 mEq O2/kg), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, 0.072-0.600 mg TEP/g oil), and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs, 14.43-17.20 µg/g) were observed in lipids of both control and plasma processed pistachios. Plasma treatments did not significantly affect the total fatty acid composition and the amounts of identified unsaponifiable matter constituents (4-desmethylsterols, 4,4-dimethylsterols, 4-methylsterols), except for an unexpected significant increase of γ-tocopherol content in extracted oils. These findings contribute to gaining further knowledge for the scale-up of CAP technology to industrial processing.

4.
Foods ; 11(3)2022 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35159638

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different solutions for vacuum impregnation (VI) of fresh-cut (FC) apples through an innovative multi-analytical approach. In particular, the individual and synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and calcium lactate on the preservation of freshness of FC apples was assessed through color, texture, microscopy, isothermal calorimetry, and time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) evaluations. The analysis was performed immediately after VI and after 24 h of refrigerated storage. The obtained results showed a good preservation of color and higher firmness in the impregnated samples. Concerning the metabolic heat production, a decrease following the VI treatment was observed, especially when the combined solution was used for the impregnation. The TD-NMR studies showed higher changes in terms of signal intensity and transversal relaxation time T2 after 24 h of storage, evidencing the meta-stability of the plant material for its dynamic tissue nature, and the dewatering/impregnation processes evolution until the achievement of dynamic equilibrium.

5.
Foods ; 11(2)2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35053942

RESUMO

This research aimed to evaluate the impact of atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) treatment on the fungal spores naturally present in sundried tomatoes, as well as their influence on the physico-chemical properties and antioxidant activity. ACP was performed with a Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge (SDBD), applying 6 kV at 23 kHz and exposure times up to 30 min. The results showed a significant reduction of mesophilic aerobic bacteria population and of filamentous fungi after the longer ACP exposure. In particular, the effect of the treatment was assessed on Aspergillus rugulovalvus (as sensible strain) and Aspergillus niger (as resistant strain). The germination of the spores was observed to be reliant on the species, with nearly 88% and 32% of non-germinated spores for A. rugulovalvus and A. niger, respectively. Fluorescence probes revealed that ACP affects spore viability promoting strong damage to the wall and cellular membrane. For the first time, the sporicidal effect of ACP against A. rugulovalvus is reported. Physicochemical parameters of sundried tomatoes such as pH and water activity (aw) were not affected by the ACP treatment; on the contrary, the antioxidant activity was not affected while the lycopene content was significantly increased with the increase in ACP exposure time (p ≤ 0.05) probably due to increased extractability.

6.
Molecules ; 26(24)2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34946772

RESUMO

Plasma activated water (PAW) has proven to be a promising alternative for the decontamination of rocket leaves. The impact of PAW on the volatile profile, phytosterols, and pigment content of rocket leaves was studied. Leaves were treated by PAW at different times (2, 5, 10, and 20 min). Compounds of the headspace were detected and quantified using GC-MS analysis. A total of 52 volatile organic compounds of different chemical classes were identified. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products are the major chemical class. PAW application induced some chemical modifications in the volatile compounds. Changes in the content of the major compounds varied with the increase or decrease in the treatment time. However, PAW-10 and -2 were grouped closely to the control. A significant decrease in the content of ß-sitosterol and campesterol was observed after PAW treatment, except for PAW-10, which showed a non-significant reduction in both compounds. A significant increase in ß carotene, luteolin, and chlorophyll b was observed after the shortest treatment time of PAW-2. A reduction in chlorophyll content was also observed, which is significant only at longer treatment, or PAW-20. Overall, PAW has proven to be a safe alternative for rocket decontamination.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Gases em Plasma/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Água/química
7.
Foods ; 10(9)2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574140

RESUMO

The crustacean processing industry has experienced significant growth over recent decades resulting in the production of a great number of by-products. Crustacean by-products contain several valuable components such as proteins, lipids, and carotenoids, especially astaxanthin and chitin. When isolated, these valuable compounds are characterized by bioactivities such as anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-cancer ones, and that could be used as nutraceutical ingredients or additives in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Different innovative non-thermal technologies have appeared as promising, safe, and efficient tools to recover these valuable compounds. This review aims at providing a summary of the main compounds that can be extracted from crustacean by-products, and of the results obtained by applying the main innovative non-thermal processes for recovering such high-value products. Moreover, from the perspective of the circular economy approach, specific case studies on some current applications of the recovered compounds in the seafood industry are presented. The extraction of valuable components from crustacean by-products, combined with the development of novel technological strategies aimed at their recovery and purification, will allow for important results related to the long-term sustainability of the seafood industry to be obtained. Furthermore, the reuse of extracted components in seafood products is an interesting strategy to increase the value of the seafood sector overall. However, to date, there are limited industrial applications for this promising approach.

8.
Foods ; 10(2)2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504106

RESUMO

Pulsed electric field (PEF) is a non-thermal technology which is increasingly drawing the interest of the meat industry. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of PEF on the main technological properties of chicken meat, by investigating the role of the most relevant process parameters such as the number of pulses (150 vs. 300 and 450 vs. 600) and the electric field strength (0.60 vs. 1.20 kV/cm). Results indicated that PEF does not exert any effect on meat pH and just slightly affects lightness and yellowness. Low-intensity PEF treatments improved the water holding capacity of chicken meat by significantly (p < 0.001) reducing drip loss up to 28.5% during 4 days of refrigerated storage, without damaging proteins' integrity and functionality. Moreover, from the analysis of the process parameters, it has been possible to highlight that increasing the number of pulses is more effective in reducing meat drip loss rather than doubling the electric field strengths. From an industrial point of view, the results of this explorative study suggested the potential of PEF to reduce the undesired liquid inside the package, thus improving consumer acceptance.

9.
Heliyon ; 7(1): e05947, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33490691

RESUMO

A combined effect of pulsed electric field application and salting in a brine with 5 and 10% w/w NaCl on oxidative stability of lipids and proteins, as well as color characteristics of sea bass samples, was assessed in the study. The applied intensity of the current was set at 10 and 20 A corresponding to 300 and 600 V cm-1, respectively. Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment led to a significant (p < 0.05) increase in primary and secondary lipid oxidation products expressed as peroxide value, conjugated dienes and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in PEF-treated samples compared to untreated ones. Conjugated dienes, as unstable primary oxidation products, correlated with b∗-value (p < 0.05, R = 0.789), suggesting their contribution to the yellowness of the fish flesh due to fast decomposition and conversion into secondary oxidation products yielding yellow pigmentation. However, none of the fish samples treated at the higher current intensity of 20 A exceeded the acceptable level of 5 meq active oxygen/kg lipid according to the requirements of the Standard for fish oils CODEX STAN 329-2017, suggesting acceptable oxidative status quality of sea bass samples after the treatment. PEF-treated fish samples also showed a significant increase in Schiff bases and total carbonyls on day 5 and day 8 of brine salting compared to non-treated samples, revealing a strong effect of electroporation on protein oxidation.

10.
Food Chem ; 343: 128514, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187741

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the coffee roasting process on both toxic and some beneficial antioxidant compounds, applying a systematic and broad approach. Arabica and Robusta green coffee beans were roasted in a lab-scale roaster for different times in order to achieve five roasting degrees (from light to dark) and to assess the evolution of acrylamide (AA), trigonelline, nicotinic acid and caffeoylquinic acids contents (determined by HPLC) as well as antioxidant activity (evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu, FRAP, DPPH, ABTS assays). The results confirmed that the AA levels and antioxidant activity reached a maximum in the first coffee roasting degrees and then decreased prolonging the heating process, both in Arabica and Robusta samples. Nevertheless, the thermal reduction observed was greater for AA compared to antioxidant activity, which was only slightly reduced due to the balance between the degradation and the neoformation of antioxidant compounds.


Assuntos
Acrilamida/química , Antioxidantes/química , Coffea/química , Café/química , Acrilamida/análise , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Temperatura Alta , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/análise , Ácido Quínico/química
11.
Foods ; 9(10)2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080879

RESUMO

Despite their high nutritional value, high quantities of fish caught in the Adriatic Sea are underused or discarded for their insignificant economic value. Mechanical separation of flesh represents an opportunity for developing innovative semi-finished products, even if it can promote an increased quality degradation rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate physico-chemical modifications of mechanically separated mantis shrimp flesh during deep-freezing storage. Flesh samples obtained using a belt-drum separator, frozen and vacuum-packed, were stored at 3 temperatures (industrial: -26 °C; domestic: -18 °C and abuse: -10 °C) for 12 months. During storage, qualitative (color, water content, pH, fatty acids (FA) and lipid oxidation) were evaluated. Fish freshness parameters (e.g., trimethylamine (TMA), dimethylamine (DMA) and amino acids) were assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). The mechanical separation process accelerated the initial oxidation phenomena, promoting color alterations, compared to manual separation. The main degradation phenomena during storage were significantly affected by temperature and were related to changes in luminosity, oxidation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), increased lipolysis with release of free FA, production of TMA and DMA by residual enzymatic activity, and changes in amino acids due to proteolysis. The inter-disciplinary approach permitted important findings to be made, in terms of the extent of different degradative phenomena, bound to processing and storage conditions of mechanically separated mantis flesh.

12.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(22): 3807-3821, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905027

RESUMO

It is widely known that acrylamide, present in some different heat-treated foods, is an important toxic compound to humans. Coffee beverage is one of the most important sources of acrylamide, because the raw bean contains the reaction substrates and it is processed at very high temperature during roasting. Due to its high consumption all over the world, it is necessary to find applicable solutions to decrease the concentration of this undesired Maillard reaction product.The present review summarizes the advance made in understanding the acrylamide formation and describes the potential acrylamide reduction strategies along all coffee production steps, from raw material to coffee brew preparation with a dominant focus on roasting stage.Currently, it is quite established that the selection of the highest quality Arabica green coffee variety, high roasting thermal input and shortest brewing techniques lead to low final acrylamide levels. There are also few innovative interventions proposed for acrylamide control in coffee such as enzymatic treatments of raw material, vacuum or steam roasting, roasted beans supercritical fluid extraction, final beverage treatments like yeast fermentation and amino acids/additive additions. However, for these strategies the impact on the desired sensorial and nutritional coffee brew properties must be evaluated and some proposed procedures are still difficult to be applied at real industrial scale. Furthermore, in-depth studies are needed in order to find appropriate and practical solutions for acrylamide mitigation in coffee with a holistic risk/benefit approach.


Assuntos
Coffea , Café , Acrilamida/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Vapor
13.
J Food Sci Technol ; 56(10): 4404-4416, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686672

RESUMO

Vacuum impregnation (VI) has been recognized as a promising tool for the introduction of solutes into the internal structure of some porous food products. The enrichment of minimally processed potatoes with aromatic compounds could represent an interesting method for product innovation. This study was aimed at applying VI with rosemary essential oil on a minimally processed potato product in order to obtain an innovative fresh-cut potato product, and to evaluate its influence on the physico-chemical, sensorial and microbiological properties of potato sticks during refrigerated storage and after frying. A pressure of 60 mbar was applied for 30 min followed by a relaxation time at atmospheric pressure of 30 min to potato sticks immersed in rosemary oil solutions in concentration between 0 and 12%. Prepared samples were packed and stored at 4 °C for 14 days. Analytical determinations were carried out on the fresh and fried product. The weight gain of potatoes promoted by VI was in the range of 6-14%, depending on the concentration of rosemary essential oil. The rosemary essential oil concentration gradients of impregnated potato sticks were detected by GC analysis and sensorial test, evidencing their persistency during storage and after frying. The treatment seemed to improve microbiological stability, not affecting the texture, moisture, but slightly deteriorating the product color. Results obtained in the present study confirm the potentiality of VI for fresh products innovation.

14.
J Food Sci Technol ; 56(10): 4714-4721, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686703

RESUMO

Various innovative materials are already present on the market, but there is scarce knowledge on their performances when used in real food system. In this study, two innovative packaging materials were investigated for the evaluation during storage of biscuits formulated with sunflower oil and compared to a traditional one. To this aim, three different flexible and composite film containing a metalized plastic layer and a paper layer were used. The control included orientated polypropylene (OPP), while the innovative materials contained poly-lactic acid or OPP with a pro-oxidant additive, ethylene vinyl acetate. The physical (moisture, water activity, hardness/crispness) and chemical (peroxide value, conjugated dienes and trienes, and hexanal and nonanal formation) changes of biscuits were monitored during accelerated storage (35 °C and 50% of relative humidity for 105 days). Packaging materials did not have significant impact on textural quality of biscuits. Instead remarkable differences were observed during storage in the evolution of different lipid oxidation compounds, moisture content and water activity among differently packed biscuits. A new ecofriendly packaging showed the best performances in terms of physico-chemical quality of biscuits. The obtained results provide useful information for industrial application.

15.
Foods ; 8(11)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766141

RESUMO

Nowadays, one of the main objectives of the fruit and vegetable industry is to develop innovative novel products with high quality, safety, and optimal nutritional characteristics in order to respond with efficiency to the increasing consumer expectations. Various emerging, unconventional technologies (e.g., pulsed electric field, pulsed light, ultrasound, high pressure, and microwave drying) enable the processing of fruits and vegetables, increasing their stability while preserving their thermolabile nutrients, flavour, texture, and overall quality. Some of these technologies can also be used for waste and by-product valorisation. The application of fast noninvasive methods for process control is of great importance for the fruit and vegetable industry. The following Special Issue "Safety, Quality, and Processing of Fruits and Vegetables" consists of 11 papers, which provide a high-value contribution to the existing knowledge on safety aspects, quality evaluation, and emerging processing technologies for fruits and vegetables.

16.
Foods ; 8(7)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284456

RESUMO

Beetroot is a root vegetable rich in different bioactive components, such as vitamins, minerals, phenolics, carotenoids, nitrate, ascorbic acids, and betalains, that can have a positive effect on human health. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the pulsed electric field (PEF) at different electric field strengths (4.38 and 6.25 kV/cm), pulse number 10-30, and energy input 0-12.5 kJ/kg as a pretreatment method on the extraction of betalains from beetroot. The obtained results showed that the application of PEF pre-treatment significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds from beetroot. The highest increase in the content of betalain compounds in the red beet's extract (betanin by 329%, vulgaxanthin by 244%, compared to the control sample), was noted for 20 pulses of electric field at 4.38 kV/cm of strength. Treatment of the plant material with a PEF also resulted in an increase in the electrical conductivity compared to the non-treated sample due to the increase in cell membrane permeability, which was associated with leakage of substances able to conduct electricity, including mineral salts, into the intercellular space.

17.
Food Chem ; 294: 260-266, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126461

RESUMO

This work studied water state of honey during crystallization, obtained statically and dynamically, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), water activity (aw) assessment and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR). Crystallization was induced by adding 5% of crystallized honey to three honey samples with different fructose/glucose ratio, the key characteristic for honey crystallization. Samples were stored at 14 °C. Dynamic crystallization was obtained by using an impeller. DSC showed that the dynamic crystallization was faster than the static one, the latter characterized by two phases, showing different rates. The crystallization rate did not affect aw, that remained below 0.600. TD-NMR allowed to separately observe two kinds of protons, both pertaining to liquid sugars, one chemically exchanging with water and one not exchanging with it. The combination of techniques allowed speculating that the two crystallization methods led to crystals of different size and shape.


Assuntos
Mel/análise , Água/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cristalização , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
18.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837971

RESUMO

The increasing competition within the food industry sector makes the requisite of innovation in processes and products essential, leading to focus the interest on the application of new processing technologies including high pressure homogenization (HPH) and ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH). In this context, the present research aimed at evaluating the effects of two UHPH treatments performed at 200 MPa for 2 and 3 cycles on quality and functionality of organic kiwifruit juice stored at three different temperatures, i.e., 5, 15, and 25°C. The results showed that only the treatment performed at 200 MPa for 3 cycles was able to significantly increase the shelf-life of organic kiwifruit juices when stored at refrigeration temperature, avoiding also phase separation that occurred in the sample treated at 0.1 MPa (control) after 20 days of refrigerated storage. The obtained data showed also that the highest applied pressure was able to increase some quality parameters of the juice such as viscosity and luminosity (L∗) and increased the availability of total phenol content consequently enhancing the juice total antioxidant activity. The application of a treatment at 200 MPa for 3 cycles allowed to obtain a stable kiwifruit juice for more than 40 days under refrigerated storage. A challenge to implement this technology in food process as full alternative to thermal treatment could be represented by the adoption of pressure level up to 400 MPa followed by the packaging in aseptic conditions.

19.
Food Res Int ; 115: 234-240, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599937

RESUMO

The most commonly used method for fish freshness determination is the sensory inspection; alternative sensory methods such as the Quality Index Method (QIM), based on the significant sensory parameters of one specific species, have been recently suggested. Considering that most of the sensory parameters are based on chromatic and morphological visual impression, the set-up of an objective method using computer vision techniques is very promising. The objective of this research was to characterize the changes in eye chromatic and morphological characteristics of European hake (Merluccius merluccius) during 13 days of storage on ice, using a tailored computer vision technique and a 3D scanner. Results obtained by multivariate statistical analysis of the colour spectra of eye images and by the eye concavity index using a 3D scanner permitted to estimate fish unacceptability after 7 days of storage, in agreement with results obtained by QIM sensory analysis. Moreover, 1H NMR was used to evaluate the production of trimethylamine (TMA) and the Ki index, confirming a good correlation with eye chromatic and morphological features. This preliminary study showed the high potentiality of the developed method as a non-destructive technique for raw fish freshness characterization / prediction, being a promising approach to create a robust portable instrument for the evaluation of fish freshness in real transport and marketing conditions.


Assuntos
Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Gadiformes , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Cor , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Metilaminas/análise , Paladar , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Food Res Int ; 115: 268-275, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599941

RESUMO

The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with unconventional gas mixtures on the main qualitative parameters of sardine fillets during refrigerated storage was investigated. Four different atmospheres conditions were tested: air; 30% CO2 + 70% N2; 30% CO2 + 70% N2O and 30% CO2 + 70% Ar. All samples were packaged in polypropylene trays sealed with a high barrier film and stored at 2-4 °C for 12 days. The quality and the freshness of sardine fillets packed in MAP were evaluated by microbiological, physical and chemical analyses after 0, 1, 2, 5, 6, 8 and 12 days of the storage period. The 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values for MAP samples were lower compared to air samples, reaching a final value of 1.09 mg malonaldehyde (MA)/kg and 3.39 mg MA/kg, respectively. The samples packed in Ar reached the fixed threshold for total mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria after 12 days of storage, resulting the best MAP condition adopted, able to increase the sardine shelf-life of 3 days with respect to the other tested conditions. Air packed samples showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) Hx content (50 mg/kg) compared to the rest of the MAP samples (20 mg/kg). At the end of the storage period, the sample packed in Ar showed a significantly lower value (p < 0.05) (around 40 mg/kg), than the other MAP conditions.


Assuntos
Argônio/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Refrigeração , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Atmosfera/análise , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Hipoxantina/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Nitrogênio/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise , Fatores de Tempo
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