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1.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790348

RESUMO

Biocompatible nanoscale probes for sensitive detection of paramagnetic species and molecules associated with their (bio)chemical transformations would provide a desirable tool for a better understanding of cellular redox processes. Here, we describe an analytical tool based on quantum sensing techniques. We magnetically coupled negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) with nitroxide radicals present in a bioinert polymer coating of the NDs. We demonstrated that the T1 spin relaxation time of the NV centers is very sensitive to the number of nitroxide radicals, with a resolution down to ∼10 spins per ND (detection of approximately 10-23 mol in a localized volume). The detection is based on T1 shortening upon the radical attachment, and we propose a theoretical model describing this phenomenon. We further show that this colloidally stable, water-soluble system can be used dynamically for spatiotemporal readout of a redox chemical process (oxidation of ascorbic acid) occurring near the ND surface in an aqueous environment under ambient conditions.

2.
Chemistry ; 25(53): 12342-12348, 2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322767

RESUMO

Structural modularity of polymer frameworks is a key advantage of covalent organic polymers, however, only C, N, O, Si, and S have found their way into their building blocks so far. Here, the toolbox available to polymer and materials chemists is expanded by one additional nonmetal, phosphorus. Starting with a building block that contains a λ5 -phosphinine (C5 P) moiety, a number of polymerization protocols are evaluated, finally obtaining a π-conjugated, covalent phosphinine-based framework (CPF-1) through Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. CPF-1 is a weakly porous polymer glass (72.4 m2 g-1 BET at 77 K) with green fluorescence (λmax =546 nm) and extremely high thermal stability. The polymer catalyzes hydrogen evolution from water under UV and visible light irradiation without the need for additional co-catalyst at a rate of 33.3 µmol h-1 g-1 . These results demonstrate for the first time the incorporation of the phosphinine motif into a complex polymer framework. Phosphinine-based frameworks show promising electronic and optical properties, which might spark future interest in their applications in light-emitting devices and heterogeneous catalysis.

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(28): 9394-9398, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070846

RESUMO

Triazine-based graphitic carbon nitride (TGCN) is the most recent addition to the family of graphene-type, two-dimensional, and metal-free materials. Although hailed as a promising low-band-gap semiconductor for electronic applications, so far, only its structure and optical properties have been known. Here, we combine direction-dependent electrical measurements and time-resolved optical spectroscopy to determine the macroscopic conductivity and microscopic charge-carrier mobilities in this layered material "beyond graphene". Electrical conductivity along the basal plane of TGCN is 65 times lower than through the stacked layers, as opposed to graphite. Furthermore, we develop a model for this charge-transport behavior based on observed carrier dynamics and random-walk simulations. Our combined methods provide a path towards intrinsic charge transport in a direction-dependent layered semiconductor for applications in field-effect transistors (FETs) and sensors.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(10): 5661-5673, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794275

RESUMO

Transient and fuzzy intermolecular interactions are fundamental to many biological processes. Despite their importance, they are notoriously challenging to characterize. Effects induced by paramagnetic ligands in the NMR spectra of interacting biomolecules provide an opportunity to amplify subtle manifestations of weak intermolecular interactions observed for diamagnetic ligands. Here, we present an approach to characterizing dynamic interactions between a partially flexible dimeric protein, HIV-1 protease, and a metallacarborane-based ligand, a system for which data obtained by standard NMR approaches do not enable detailed structural interpretation. We show that for the case where the experimental data are significantly averaged to values close to zero the standard fitting of pseudocontact shifts cannot provide reliable structural information. We based our approach on generating a large ensemble of full atomic models, for which the experimental data can be predicted, ensemble averaged and finally compared to the experiment. We demonstrate that a combination of paramagnetic NMR experiments, quantum chemical calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations offers a route towards structural characterization of dynamic protein-ligand complexes.


Assuntos
Boranos/química , Protease de HIV/química , Metais/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligantes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Teoria Quântica
5.
Org Lett ; 21(1): 114-119, 2019 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582822

RESUMO

We report a system with ethylene-bridged flavinium salt 2b which catalyzes the aerobic oxidation of toluenes and benzyl alcohols with high oxidation potential ( Eox > +2.5 V vs SCE) to give the corresponding benzoic acids under visible light irradiation. This is caused by the high oxidizing power of excited 2b ( E(2b*) = +2.67 V vs SCE) involved in photooxidation and by the accompanying dark organocatalytic oxygenation provided by the in situ formed flavin hydroperoxide 2b-OOH.

6.
ChemSusChem ; 12(1): 194-199, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335905

RESUMO

Crystalline and amorphous organic materials are an emergent class of heterogeneous photocatalysts for the generation of hydrogen from water, but a direct correlation between their structures and the resulting properties has not been achieved so far. To make a meaningful comparison between structurally different, yet chemically similar porous polymers, two porous polymorphs of a triazine-based graphdiyne (TzG) framework are synthesized by a simple, one-pot homocoupling polymerization reaction using as catalysts CuI for TzGCu and PdII /CuI for TzGPd/Cu . The polymers form through irreversible coupling reactions and give rise to a crystalline (TzGCu ) and an amorphous (TzGPd/Cu ) polymorph. Notably, the crystalline and amorphous polymorphs are narrow-gap semiconductors with permanent surface areas of 660 m2 g-1 and 392 m2 g-1 , respectively. Hence, both polymers are ideal heterogeneous photocatalysts for water splitting with some of the highest hydrogen evolution rates reported to date (up to 972 µmol h-1 g-1 with and 276 µmol h-1 g-1 without Pt cocatalyst). Crystalline order is found to improve delocalization, whereas the amorphous polymorph requires a cocatalyst for efficient charge transfer. This will need to be considered in future rational design of polymer catalysts and organic electronics.

7.
J Org Chem ; 83(10): 5474-5479, 2018 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652151

RESUMO

We report the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of the radical cation and radical anion of 1,2,2,3-tetramethyl-2,3-dihydro-1 H-naphtho[2,3- d]imidazole-4,9-dione (1) and its doubly 13C labeled analogue 2, of interest for singlet fission. The hyperfine coupling constants are in excellent agreement with density functional theory calculations and establish the structures beyond doubt. Unlike the radical cation 1•+, the radical anion 1•- and its parent 1 have pyramidalized nitrogen atoms and inequivalent methyl groups 15 and 16, in agreement with the calculations. The distinction is particularly clear with the labeled analogue 2•-.

8.
Adv Mater ; 29(40)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859235

RESUMO

Design and synthesis of ordered, metal-free layered materials is intrinsically difficult due to the limitations of vapor deposition processes that are used in their making. Mixed-dimensional (2D/3D) metal-free van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures based on triazine (C3 N3 ) linkers grow as large area, transparent yellow-orange membranes on copper surfaces from solution. The membranes have an indirect band gap (Eg,opt = 1.91 eV, Eg,elec = 1.84 eV) and are moderately porous (124 m2 g-1 ). The material consists of a crystalline 2D phase that is fully sp2 hybridized and provides structural stability, and an amorphous, porous phase with mixed sp2 -sp hybridization. Interestingly, this 2D/3D vdW heterostructure grows in a twinned mechanism from a one-pot reaction mixture: unprecedented for metal-free frameworks and a direct consequence of on-catalyst synthesis. Thanks to the efficient type I heterojunction, electron transfer processes are fundamentally improved and hence, the material is capable of metal-free, light-induced hydrogen evolution from water without the need for a noble metal cocatalyst (34 µmol h-1 g-1 without Pt). The results highlight that twinned growth mechanisms are observed in the realm of "wet" chemistry, and that they can be used to fabricate otherwise challenging 2D/3D vdW heterostructures with composite properties.

9.
Chemistry ; 23(53): 13023-13027, 2017 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727178

RESUMO

Donor-acceptor dyads hold the key to tuning of electrochemical properties and enhanced mobility of charge carriers, yet their incorporation into a heterogeneous polymer network proves difficulty owing to the fundamentally different chemistry of the donor and acceptor subunits. A family of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing porous polymers (SNPs) are obtained via Sonogashira-Hagihara cross-coupling and combine electron-withdrawing triazine (C3 N3 ) and electron-donating, sulfur-containing linkers. Choice of building blocks and synthetic conditions determines the optical band gap (from 1.67 to 2.58 eV) and nanoscale ordering of these microporous materials with BET surface areas of up to 545 m2 g-1 and CO2 capacities up to 1.56 mmol g-1 . Our results highlight the advantages of the modular design of SNPs, and one of the highest photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rates for a cross-linked polymer without Pt co-catalyst is attained (194 µmol h-1 g-1 ).

10.
Org Lett ; 18(15): 3734-7, 2016 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27437559

RESUMO

3-Halo-3-phenyl-3H-diazirines (halogen = Br or Cl) undergo a dissociative single-electron transfer from alkyllithiums (RLi) in THF-based solvent mixtures. The resulting 3-phenyldiazirinyl radical, observed by EPR spectroscopy, is eventually transformed to benzonitrile. In Et2O, 2 equiv of RLi add to both nitrogens of halodiazirine N═N bond, affording N,N'-dialkylbenzamidines. The nitrenoid reactivity of some N-alkyl-1H-diazirine intermediates is manifested by their insertion into the α-C-H bond of THF or Et2O.

11.
J Org Chem ; 81(9): 3780-9, 2016 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27028616

RESUMO

The effect of push-pull interactions in a series of variously substituted 5-nitrosopyrimidines on the strength of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, the height of rotational barriers around formally single bonds, UV-vis spectra and electrochemical behavior is explored. Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) leads to a shift of electron density from electron-donating substituents, which is readily observable by NMR spectroscopy. The 5-nitroso group is able to form strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds with neighboring amino substituents. As a result, two rotamers with reversed orientation of the 5-nitroso group are observed for compounds with two different hydrogen-bond donors in neighboring positions. The barriers of interconversion between the two rotamers are strongly influenced by ICT, whereas the ratio of such rotamers depends primarily on the character of the hydrogen-bond donors. The ICT also significantly affects the position of UV-vis absorption maxima, which can be tuned in a broad range of 100 nm by the selection of appropriate substituents. Finally, ICT influences oxidation potential of the 5-nitrosopyrimidines and the stability of the resulting nitroso radical cations, the structures of which are determined by EPR spectroscopy.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(35): 11349-64, 2015 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26280907

RESUMO

A combined electrochemical and theoretical study of a series of pyridinium-based electrophores, consisting of reference N-alkyl-2,4,6-triarylpyridiniums (1-3) and N-aryl-expanded pyridiniums (EPs), i.e. N-aryl-2,4,6-triarylpyridiniums (4-10), is presented with the aim of elucidating multifaceted mechanisms underpinning the complex electrophoric activity of fluxional EP systems. Series 1-10 constitutes a library of model electrophores showing an incremental variation of their composition, charge, and steric hindrance. By kinetic mapping of the first two heterogeneous electron transfers (ETs) of 1-10 and computational mapping, at the density functional theory level, of their electronic and geometrical features in various redox states, it is established that, depending on whether EPs are made of one (4, 5) or two "head-to-tail"-connected pyridinium rings (6-10), the nature of the redox-triggered distortions (when allowed) is different, namely, N-pyramidalization due to hybridization change in the former case versus saddle-shaped distortion originating from conflicting intramolecular interactions in the latter case (8-10). When skeletal relaxations are sterically hampered, zwitterionic states and electron delocalization with quinoidal features are promoted as alternative relaxation modes. It follows that "potential compression" is changed to "potential expansion" (i.e., a further separation of redox potentials) in single-pyridinium EPs (4, 5), whereas "potential inversion" (i.e., single-step two-electron transfer; 8-10) is changed to stepwise ETs of the Weitz type for two-pyridinium EPs (6, 7). Overall, kinetic rate constants not only consistently indicate the most prominent mechanistic aspects of the reduction pathways of EPs, but they are also instrumental in establishing EPs as a unique class of electrophores.

13.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0120682, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25798914

RESUMO

Tuberculosis, the second leading infectious disease killer after HIV, remains a top public health priority. The causative agent of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which can cause both acute and clinically latent infections, reprograms metabolism in response to the host niche. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck) is the enzyme at the center of the phosphoenolpyruvate-pyruvate-oxaloacetate node, which is involved in regulating the carbon flow distribution to catabolism, anabolism, or respiration in different states of Mtb infection. Under standard growth conditions, Mtb Pck is associated with gluconeogenesis and catalyzes the metal-dependent formation of phosphoenolpyruvate. In non-replicating Mtb, Pck can catalyze anaplerotic biosynthesis of oxaloacetate. Here, we present insights into the regulation of Mtb Pck activity by divalent cations. Through analysis of the X-ray structure of Pck-GDP and Pck-GDP-Mn2+ complexes, mutational analysis of the GDP binding site, and quantum mechanical (QM)-based analysis, we explored the structural determinants of efficient Mtb Pck catalysis. We demonstrate that Mtb Pck requires presence of Mn2+ and Mg2+ cations for efficient catalysis of gluconeogenic and anaplerotic reactions. The anaplerotic reaction, which preferably functions in reducing conditions that are characteristic for slowed or stopped Mtb replication, is also effectively activated by Fe2+ in the presence of Mn2+ or Mg2+ cations. In contrast, simultaneous presence of Fe2+ and Mn2+ or Mg2+ inhibits the gluconeogenic reaction. These results suggest that inorganic ions can contribute to regulation of central carbon metabolism by influencing the activity of Pck. Furthermore, the X-ray structure determination, biochemical characterization, and QM analysis of Pck mutants confirmed the important role of the Phe triad for proper binding of the GDP-Mn2+ complex in the nucleotide binding site and efficient catalysis of the anaplerotic reaction.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/química , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Catálise , Cátions Bivalentes , Ativação Enzimática , Gluconeogênese , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Cinese , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxiquinase (ATP)/genética , Conformação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Chemistry ; 20(27): 8477-82, 2014 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24889552

RESUMO

A cobalt-mediated [2+2+2] cycloisomerisation of ynedinitriles to helical pyridazines in good to high yields was developed. The construction of the pyridazine nucleus from one alkyne and two nitrile units is proposed to follow either a conventional organometallic mechanism or to be triggered by a single-electron transfer from a Co(II) species. Various [5]-, [6]- and [7]helicene pyridazines were prepared.

15.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 58(6): 3224-32, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24663020

RESUMO

Iron-sulfur flavoproteins (Isf) are flavin mononucleotide (FMN)- and FeS cluster-containing proteins commonly encountered in anaerobic prokaryotes. However, with the exception of Isf from Methanosarcina thermophila, which participates in oxidative stress management by removing oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, none of these proteins has been characterized in terms of function. Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted eukaryotic parasite of humans, was found to express several iron-sulfur flavoprotein (TvIsf) homologs in its hydrogenosomes. We show here that in addition to having oxygen-reducing activity, the recombinant TvIsf also functions as a detoxifying reductase of metronidazole and chloramphenicol, both of which are antibiotics effective against a variety of anaerobic microbes. TvIsf can utilize both NADH and reduced ferredoxin as electron donors. Given the prevalence of Isf in anaerobic prokaryotes, we propose that these proteins are central to a novel defense mechanism against xenobiotics.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/metabolismo , Trichomonas vaginalis/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antitricômonas/farmacologia , Catálise , Resistência a Medicamentos , Ferredoxinas/metabolismo , Flavoproteínas/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos , Metronidazol/química , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , NAD/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(31): 10826-9, 2014 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24597856

RESUMO

Two-step redox switching in enantiopure helquat system [P-1](2+) ⇌ [P-1](•+) ⇌ [P-1](0) is demonstrated. The viologen-type electroactive unit embedded directly in the helical scaffold of 1 is responsible for the prominent chiroptical switching at 264 nm. This process is associated with a marked sign-reversal of Cotton effect ramping between Δε = +35 M(-1) cm(-1) for [P-1](2+) and Δε = -100 M(-1) cm(-1) for [P-1](0). This helically chiral system features the most intense chiroptical switch response documented in the field of helicenoids.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 51(20): 10819-24, 2012 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22994310

RESUMO

The syntheses of all 16 CB(11)(CH(3))(n)(CD(3))(12-n)(•) radicals with 5-fold substitution symmetry are described. The variation in the width of their broad and featureless electron paramagnetic resonance signals as a function of the deuteriation pattern is used to deduce the relative values of the average hyperfine coupling constants a(H) of the hydrogen atoms in the ipso (1), ortho (2-6), meta (7-11), and para (12) methyl groups, a(H)(i):a(H)(o):a(H)(m):a(H)(p) = (0.18 ± 0.09):(0.71 ± 0.02):(1.00 ± 0.03):(0.52 ± 0.05), and these can be compared with ratios expected from a B3LYP/EPRII calculation, 0.04:0.55:1:0.51.

18.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 26(19): 2287-94, 2012 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22956320

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Heavy metals are both a problem for the environment and an important resource for industry. Their selective extraction by means of organic ligands therefore is an attractive topic. The coordination of three thiacrown ethers to late 3d-metal ions was investigated by a combination of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). METHODS: The mass spectrometric experiments were carried out in an ion trap mass spectrometer with an ESI source. Absolute binding constants were estimated by comparison with data for 18-crown-6/Na(+). EPR spectroscopy was used as a complementary method for investigating the Cu(I) /Cu(II) redox couple. RESULTS: The study found that thiacrown ethers preferentially bind traces of copper even at an excess of other metal ions (Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)). The absolute association constants of the Cu(I) complexes were about 10(8) M(-1), and about two orders of magnitude lower for the other 3d-metal cations. The EPR spectra demonstrated that the reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(I) upon formation of the [(thiacrown)Cu](+) species takes place in solution. CONCLUSIONS: ESI-MS demonstrated that the three thiacrown ligands examined had high binding constants as well as good selectivities for copper(I) at low concentrations, and in the presence of other metal ions. By a combination of ESI-MS and EPR spectrometry it was shown that the reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(I) occurred in solution.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 133(8): 2444-51, 2011 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21291264

RESUMO

Electrospray ionization of an aqueous solution of nickel(II) sulfate provides direct experimental evidence for the formation of triple ions of the type [Ni(2)(SO(4))(H(2)O)(n)](2+) and [Ni(SO(4))(2)](2-), whose existence in aqueous solution has previously been proposed based on relaxation spectroscopy [Chen et al. J. Sol. Chem. 2005, 34, 1045]. Formally, these triple ions are formed by aggregation of the solvated ions Ni(2+) and SO(4)(2-), respectively, with the neutral ion pair NiSO(4). In addition, also higher adducts are observed, e.g. the "pentuple ions" [Ni(3)(SO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(n)](2+) (n = 7-9) and [Ni(2)(SO(4))(3)](2-), of which the dicationic is extensively hydrated, whereas the anionic is not. The structures of the dinuclear nickel clusters are derived from ab initio calculations and their infrared spectra are compared with experimental data obtained for the gaseous ions [Ni(2)SO(4)(H(2)O)(5)](2+) and [Ni(2)(SO(4))(3)](2-), respectively. The calculations show that the structures are crucially controlled by the degree of solvation of nickel ion. Explicit consideration of solvating water molecules within the first coordination sphere suggest that the dicationic triple ion [Ni(2)SO(4)](aq)(2+) is bent and thus bears a permanent dipole moment, whereas the [Ni(SO(4))(2)](aq)(2-) dianion tends to be quasi-linear. The experimental and theoretical data for the gaseous ions thus support the elegant, but indirect, deductions previously made based on solution-phase studies.


Assuntos
Níquel/química , Gases/química , Íons/química , Soluções , Água/química
20.
J Phys Chem A ; 114(43): 11545-51, 2010 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20932036

RESUMO

The influence of the molecular structure on the stabilization of charged states was studied in detail by in situ ESR UV-vis NIR spectroelectrochemistry at a novel α,ω-dicyano substituted ß,ß'-dibutylquaterthiophene (DCNDBQT) and the electrochemically generated cation and anion radicals have been proved for the first time. The voltammetry of DCNDBQT results in two separate oxidation steps with the reversible first one. The experimental absorption maxima at 646 and 1052 nm together with the calculated ones (by DFT method) as well as an ESR signal at the first anodic step prove the presence of a radical cation. Three additional optical bands (554, 906, and 1294 nm for CT-transition) can be attributed to the formation of cation radical dimer. The dicationic structure formed in the second oxidation step is not stable. The stabilization proceeds via a dimer formation in two chemical follow-up reactions. The existence of the dimeric structures was proved by ex situ MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. As the substitution by cyano groups opens the route to cathodic reductions, DCNDBQT shows a single quasi-reversible reduction step. Here, the in situ ESR UV-vis NIR spectroelectrochemical measurements and theoretical calculations let us confirm the electrochemical generation of an anion radical. As we found a low number of anion radicals by quantitative ESR spectroelectrochemistry and an appearance of additional bands in the UV-vis NIR absorption spectra, the formation of dimeric structures must be considered and was corroborated by mass spectrometry. The role of dimerization in the reaction mechanism of the DCNDBQT oxidation and reduction are discussed in general. The experimental results were interpreted using the quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory.


Assuntos
Teoria Quântica , Tiofenos/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
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