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2.
Life Sci Alliance ; 7(8)2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830771

RESUMO

Dengue fever, a neglected tropical arboviral disease, has emerged as a global health concern in the past decade. Necessitating a nuanced comprehension of the intricate dynamics of host-virus interactions influencing disease severity, we analysed transcriptomic patterns using bulk RNA-seq from 112 age- and gender-matched NS1 antigen-confirmed hospital-admitted dengue patients with varying severity. Severe cases exhibited reduced platelet count, increased lymphocytosis, and neutropenia, indicating a dysregulated immune response. Using bulk RNA-seq, our analysis revealed a minimal overlap between the differentially expressed gene and transcript isoform, with a distinct expression pattern across the disease severity. Severe patients showed enrichment in retained intron and nonsense-mediated decay transcript biotypes, suggesting altered splicing efficiency. Furthermore, an up-regulated programmed cell death, a haemolytic response, and an impaired interferon and antiviral response at the transcript level were observed. We also identified the potential involvement of the RBM39 gene among others in the innate immune response during dengue viral pathogenesis, warranting further investigation. These findings provide valuable insights into potential therapeutic targets, underscoring the importance of exploring transcriptomic landscapes between different disease sub-phenotypes in infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue Grave , Humanos , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Adulto , Dengue Grave/genética , Dengue Grave/imunologia , Dengue Grave/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transcriptoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Dengue/genética , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Adulto Jovem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia
3.
Med Mycol ; 62(7)2024 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857886

RESUMO

Acrophialophora is implicated in superficial and invasive infections, especially in immunosuppressed individuals. The present study was undertaken to provide clinical, microbiological, phylogenetic, and antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) profile of Acrophialophora isolated from India. All the isolates identified as Acrophialophora species at the National Culture Collection for Pathogenic Fungi, Chandigarh, India were revived. Phenotypic and molecular characterization was performed, followed by temperature studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and AFST. We also performed systematic review of all the cases of Acrophialophora species reported till date. A total of nine isolates identified as Acrophialophora species were identified by molecular method as A. fusispora (n = 8) and A. levis (n = 1), from brain abscess (n = 4), respiratory tract (n = 3), and corneal scraping (n = 2). All patients but two had predisposing factors/co-morbidities. Acrophialophora was identified as mere colonizer in one. Temperature studies and SEM divulged variation between both species. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA and beta-tubulin loci could distinguish species, while the LSU ribosomal DNA locus could not. AFST showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for triazoles and the highest for echinocandins. Systematic literature review revealed 16 cases (11 studies), with ocular infections, pulmonary and central nervous system infections, and A. fusispora was common species. All the patients except three responded well. High MICs were noted for fluconazole, micafungin, and caspofungin. This is the first study delineating clinical, phenotypic, and genotypic characteristics of Acrophialophora species from India. The study highlights microscopic differences between both species and emphasizes the role of molecular methods in precise identification. Triazoles appear to be the most effective antifungals for managing patients.


We describe clinical, phenotypic, and genotypic characteristics of Acrophialophora species. This species causes mild infection to fatal infection in immunosuppressed individuals. Triazoles are effective in treating such infections.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Micoses , Filogenia , Índia , Humanos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Adulto , Masculino , Micoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/classificação , DNA Fúngico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fenótipo , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Criança
4.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 49: 100608, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723717

RESUMO

Timely diagnosis and treatment of sepsis is a major challenge faced by critical care specialists around the world. The traditional blood culture methods have a significant turnaround time which delays targeted therapy leading to poor prognosis. In the current study, we highlight the clinical utility of a genomics solution for diagnosis and management of bloodstream infections by combining the real-time DNA sequencing of Oxford Nanopore Technology with an automated genomic data analysis software. We identify a carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae directly from a blood sample in <24 hours and thereby prove the effectiveness of the test in early diagnosis of sepsis.


Assuntos
Carbapenêmicos , Genômica , Infecções por Klebsiella , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Genômica/métodos , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/genética , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/diagnóstico , Masculino
5.
iScience ; 27(6): 109846, 2024 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770134

RESUMO

Both host and viral RNA editing plays a crucial role in host's response to infection, yet our understanding of host RNA editing remains limited. In this study of in-house generated RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data of 211 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with PreVOC, Delta, and Omicron variants, we observed a significant differential editing frequency and patterns in long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), with Delta group displaying lower RNA editing compared to PreVOC/Omicron patients. Notably, multiple transcripts of UGDH-AS1 and NEAT1 exhibited high editing frequencies. Expression of ADAR1/APOBEC3A/APOBEC3G and differential abundance of repeats were possible modulators of differential editing across patient groups. We observed a shift in crucial infection-related pathways wherein the pathways were downregulated in Delta compared to PreVOC and Omicron. Our genomics-based evidence suggests that lncRNA editing influences stability, miRNA binding, and expression of both lncRNA and target genes. Overall, the study highlights the role of lncRNAs and how editing within host lncRNAs modulates the disease severity.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1307859, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38107870

RESUMO

Introduction: Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus that has emerged as a global health threat, characterized by either asymptomatic or mild self-limiting febrile illness, but a subset of DENV outbreaks have been associated with severe disease. Studies have looked into the host immune response and dengue viral load during infection. However, it remains unknown how the active microbial isolates modulate the dengue viral infection. In this study, we demonstrate the significance of in-depth analysis of microbiota composition in the serum samples of dengue-infected patients. Materials and methods: RNA was extracted from the serum samples collected from 24 dengue positive patients. The human mapped reads generated through RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) were removed, while the unmapped (non-human) reads were employed for microbial taxonomic classification using Kraken2 and Bracken2. Further, we assessed the initial blood parameters analyzing the complete blood count (CBC) profile of the patients. Results: Findings revealed differential abundance of commensals and pathogenic microbes in the early febrile period of hospitalized dengue patients, segregated into, High Viral Reads (HVR) and Low Viral Reads (LVR). The Campylobacter genus was abundant in the HVR whereas Lactobacillus dominated the LVR patients. At species level, the microbiota of HVR exhibited higher abundance of unique potential opportunistic microbes, compared to the commensal microbes' enrichment in the LVR patients'. We hypothesize that the DENV might alter the microbiota composition as observed by the increase in preponderance of opportunistic pathogens and an absence of commensals in the HVR. The presence of commensals in the LVR might explain, i) overall lower dengue viral reads compared to the HVR, and ii) shift in lymphocytes (high) and neutrophils (low) counts; resulting in a comparatively milder clinical manifestation in this group. Our findings may help in understanding the co-infection aspect that will be important to develop dengue therapeutics and vaccines. Discussion: This study highlights the potential of the unexplored roles of the TAMs in modulating the dengue disease severity using the metatranscriptomic sequencing. This study serves to enhance our understanding of the distinctive microbial and hematologic signatures in the early infection stage that differentiate patients with high viral reads patients from those with low dengue viral reads.

7.
iScience ; 26(12): 108336, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38025778

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic saw emergence of multiple SAR-CoV-2 variants. Exacerbated risk of severe outcome and hospital admissions led us to comprehend differential host-immune kinetics associated with SARS-CoV-2 variants. Longitudinal investigation was conducted through different time periods of Pre-VOC and VOCs (Delta & Omicron) mapping host transcriptome features. Robust antiviral type-1 interferon response marked Omicron infection, which was largely missing during Pre-VOC and Delta waves. SARS-CoV-2-host protein-protein interactions and docking complexes highlighted N protein to interact with HNRNPA1 in Pre-VOC, demonstrating its functional role for enhanced viral replication. Omicron revealed enhanced binding efficiency of LARP1 to N protein, probably potentiating antiviral effects of LARP1. Differential expression of zinc finger protein genes, especially in Omicron, mechanistically support induction of strong IFN (Interferon) response, thereby strengthening early viral clearance. Study highlights eventual adaptation of host to immune activation patterns that interrupt virus evolution with enhanced immune-evasion mutations and counteraction mechanisms, delimiting the next phase of COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
iScience ; 26(10): 107779, 2023 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37701571

RESUMO

Emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 VOCs jeopardize global vaccine and herd immunity safeguards. VOCs interactions with host microbiota might affect clinical course and outcome. This longitudinal investigation involving Pre-VOC and VOCs (Delta & Omicron) holo-transcriptome based nasopharyngeal microbiome at taxonomic levels followed by metabolic pathway analysis and integrative host-microbiome interaction. VOCs showed enrichment of Proteobacteria with dominance of Pseudomonas. Interestingly, Proteobacteria with superiority of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter, were highlights of Delta VOC rather than Omicron. Common species comprising the core microbiome across all variants, reiterated the significance of Klebsiella pneumoniae in Delta, and its association with metabolic pathways enhancing inflammation in patients. Microbe-host gene correlation network revealed Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Pseudomonas aeuroginosa modulating immune pathways, which might augment clinical severity in Delta. Importantly, opportunistic species of Acinetobacter, Enterococcus, Prevotella, and Streptococcus were abundant in Delta-mortality. The study establishes a functional association between elevated nasal pathobionts and dysregulated host response, particularly for Delta.

9.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0135123, 2023 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37604131

RESUMO

Like single-stranded RNA viruses, SARS-CoV-2 hijacks the host transcriptional machinery for its own replication. Numerous traditional differential gene expression-based investigations have examined the diverse clinical symptoms caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The virus, on the other hand, also affects the host splicing machinery, causing host transcriptional dysregulation, which can lead to diverse clinical outcomes. Hence, in this study, we performed host transcriptome sequencing of 125 hospital-admitted COVID-19 patients to understand the transcriptomic differences between the severity sub-phenotypes of mild, moderate, severe, and mortality. We performed transcript-level differential expression analysis, investigated differential isoform usage, looked at the splicing patterns within the differentially expressed transcripts (DET), and elucidated the possible genome regulatory features. Our DTE analysis showed evidence of diminished transcript length and diversity as well as altered promoter site usage in the differentially expressed protein-coding transcripts in the COVID-19 mortality patients. We also investigated the potential mechanisms driving the alternate splicing and discovered a compelling differential enrichment of repeats in the promoter region and a specific enrichment of SINE (Alu) near the splicing sites of differentially expressed transcripts. These findings suggested a repeat-mediated plausible regulation of alternative splicing as a potential modulator of COVID-19 disease severity. In this work, we emphasize the role of scarcely elucidated functional role of alternative splicing in influencing COVID-19 disease severity sub-phenotypes, clinical outcomes, and its putative mechanism. IMPORTANCE The wide range of clinical symptoms reported during the COVID-19 pandemic inherently highlights the numerous factors that influence the progression and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. While several studies have investigated the host response and discovered immunological dysregulation during severe infection, most of them have the common theme of focusing only up to the gene level. Viruses, especially RNA viruses, are renowned for hijacking the host splicing machinery for their own proliferation, which inadvertently puts pressure on the host transcriptome, exposing another side of the host response to the pathogen challenge. Therefore, in this study, we examine host response at the transcript-level to discover a transcriptional difference that culminates in differential gene-level expression. Importantly, this study highlights diminished transcript diversity and possible regulation of transcription by differentially abundant repeat elements near the promoter region and splicing sites in COVID-19 mortality patients, which together with differentially expressed isoforms hold the potential to elaborate disease severity and outcome.

10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 14170, 2023 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37644081

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV), known to cause viral infection, belongs to the family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes (DENV1-4) that spreads by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. India has been suffering from dengue outbreaks annually with widespread epidemics by prevalence of all the four DENV serotypes. The diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations in dengue infection, mild to severe forms, makes the need of timely diagnosis and prompt treatment an essence. The identification of a dengue host response signature in serum can increase the understanding of dengue pathogenesis since most dengue NS1 Ag tests have been developed and evaluated in serum samples. Here, to understand the same, we undertook a dual RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) based approach from the serum samples of dengue-infected patients. The results thus yield the early transcriptional signatures that discriminated the high viral reads patients from patients who had low dengue viral reads. We identified a significant upregulation of two sets of genes, key antiviral (IFIT3, RSAD2, SAT1) and vascular dysfunction (TNFS10, CXCL8) related genes in the high viral reads group. Deeper delving of this gene profile revealed a unique two-way response, where the antiviral genes can mediate the disease course to mild, contrarily the increased expression of the other gene set might act as pointers of severe disease course. Further, we explored the hematologic parameters from the complete blood count (CBC), which suggests that lymphocytes (low) and neutrophils (high) might serve as an early predictor of prognosis in dengue infection. Collectively, our findings give insights into the foundation for further investigation of the early host response using the RNA isolated from dengue patients' serum samples and opens the door for careful monitoring of the early clinical and transcriptome profiles for management of the dengue patients.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Animais , Humanos , Transcriptoma , Gravidade do Paciente , Aedes/genética , Antivirais , Dengue/genética
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 151: e127, 2023 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37293986

RESUMO

Evolutionary studies on Dengue virus (DENV) in endemic regions are necessary since naturally occurring mutations may lead to genotypic variations or shifts in serotypes, which may lead to future outbreaks. Our study comprehends the evolutionary dynamics of DENV, using phylogenetic, molecular clock, skyline plots, network, selection pressure, and entropy analyses based on partial CprM gene sequences. We have collected 250 samples, 161 in 2017 and 89 in 2018. Details for the 2017 samples were published in our previous article and that of 2018 are presented in this study. Further evolutionary analysis was carried out using 800 sequences, which incorporate the study and global sequences from GenBank: DENV-1 (n = 240), DENV-3 (n = 374), and DENV-4 (n = 186), identified during 1944-2020, 1956-2020, and 1956-2021, respectively. Genotypes V, III, and I were identified as the predominant genotypes of the DENV-1, DENV-3, and DENV-4 serotypes, respectively. The rate of nucleotide substitution was found highest in DENV-3 (7.90 × 10-4 s/s/y), followed by DENV-4 (6.23 × 10-4 s/s/y) and DENV-1 (5.99 × 10-4 s/s/y). The Bayesian skyline plots of the Indian strains revealed dissimilar patterns amongst the population size of the three serotypes. Network analyses showed the presence of different clusters within the prevalent genotypes. The data presented in this study will assist in supplementing the measures for vaccine development against DENV.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Humanos , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Sorogrupo , Dengue/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , Genótipo
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0429222, 2023 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37022180

RESUMO

Globally, COVID-19 vaccines have emerged as a boon, especially during the severe pandemic phases to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, saving millions of lives. However, mixed responses to vaccination with breakthrough challenges provided a rationale to explore the immune responses generated postvaccination, which plausibly alter the subsequent course of infection. In this regard, we comprehensively profiled the nasopharyngeal transcriptomic signature of double-dose-vaccinated individuals with breakthrough infections in comparison to unvaccinated infected persons. The vaccinated individuals demonstrated a gross downregulation of ribosomal proteins along with immune response genes and transcription/translational machinery that methodically modulated the entire innate immune landscape toward immune tolerance, a feature of innate immune memory. This coordinated response was orchestrated through 17 transcription factors captured as differentially expressed in the vaccination breakthroughs, including epigenetic modulators of CHD1 and LMNB1 and several immune response effectors, with ELF1 emerging as one of the important transcriptional regulators of the antiviral innate immune response. Deconvolution algorithm using bulk gene expression data revealed decreased T-cell populations with higher expression of memory B cells in the vaccination breakthroughs. Thus, vaccination might synergize the innate immune response with humoral and T-cell correlates of protection to more rapidly clear SARS-CoV-2 infections and reduce symptoms within a shorter span of time. An important feature invariably noted after secondary vaccination is downregulation of ribosomal proteins, which might plausibly be an important factor arising from epigenetic reprogramming leading to innate immune tolerance. IMPORTANCE The development of multiple vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection is an unprecedented milestone achieved globally. Immunization of the mass population is a rigorous process for getting the pandemic under control, yet continuous challenges are being faced, one of them being breakthrough infections. This is the first study wherein the vaccination breakthrough cases of COVD-19 relative to unvaccinated infected individuals have been explored. In the context of vaccination, how do innate and adaptive immune responses correspond to SARS-CoV-2 infection? How do these responses culminate in a milder observable phenotype with shorter hospital stay in vaccination breakthrough cases compared with the unvaccinated? We identified a subdued transcriptional landscape in vaccination breakthroughs with decreased expression of a large set of immune and ribosomal proteins genes. We propose a module of innate immune memory, i.e., immune tolerance, which plausibly helps to explain the observed mild phenotype and fast recovery in vaccination breakthroughs.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Imunidade Inata , Infecções Irruptivas
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(2): e1011160, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36800345

RESUMO

The development of COVID 19 vaccines as an effort to mitigate the outbreak, has saved millions of lives globally. However, vaccination breakthroughs have continuously challenged the vaccines' effectiveness and provided incentives to explore facets holding potential to alter vaccination-induced immunity and protection from subsequent infection, especially VOCs (Variants Of Concern). We explored the functional dynamics of nasopharyngeal transcriptionally active microbes (TAMs) between vaccination breakthroughs and unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Microbial taxonomic communities were differentially altered with skewed enrichment of bacterial class/genera of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria with grossly reduced phylum Bacteroidetes in vaccination breakthrough individuals. The Bacillus genus was abundant in Firmicutes in vaccination breakthrough whereas Prevotella among Bacteroides dominated the unvaccinated. Also, Pseudomonas and Salmonella of Gammaproteobacteria were overrepresented in vaccination breakthrough, whilst unvaccinated showed presence of several genera, Achromobacter, Bordetella, Burkholderia, Neisseria, Hemophilus, Salmonella and Pseudomonas, belonging to Proteobacteria. At species level, the microbiota of vaccination breakthrough exhibited relatively higher abundance of unique commensals, in comparison to potential opportunistic microbes enrichment in unvaccinated patients' microbiota. Functional metabolic pathways like amino acid biosynthesis, sulphate assimilation, fatty acid and beta oxidation, associated with generation of SCFAs (short chain fatty acids), were enriched in vaccination breakthroughs. Majorly, metabolic pathways of LCFAs biosynthesis (long chain fatty acids; oleate, dodecenoate, palmitoleate, gondoate) were found associated with the unvaccinated. Our research highlights that vaccination decreases the microbial diversity in terms of depleting opportunistic pathogens and increasing the preponderance of commensals with respect to unvaccinated patients. Metabolic pathway analysis substantiates the shift in diversity to functionally modulate immune response generation, which may be related to mild clinical manifestations and faster recovery times during vaccination breakthroughs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gammaproteobacteria , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Vacinação , Bacteroidetes , Ácidos Graxos
14.
Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol ; 13(2): 108-114, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38222946

RESUMO

Aim and background: Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) cause significant hospitalizations every year. Also, RVIs caused by either influenza or noninfluenza group of viruses can have adverse outcomes, especially among immunosuppressed patients. Regular and timely supervision is needed for accurate etiological identification, to prevent inappropriate use of antibiotics in patients with nonbacterial etiology. This study aimed to identify the spectrum of RVIs and clinical characteristics among liver disease patients with influenza-like illness (ILI). Materials and methods: In this study, medical records of patients with ILI, whose requests for respiratory viral testing came from September 2016 to December 2022 were retrospectively reviewed. Respiratory viruses were identified using FilmArray 2.0 respiratory panel (BioFire Diagnostics, USA). Results: Of the 1,577 liver disease patients with ILI, the overall prevalence of RVI was 28% (n = 449). Infection by noninfluenza viruses (NIVs) was detected in 329 patients (73%), higher than those infected with influenza viruses. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, female gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-4.2], infection with influenza B (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.09-9.9) and decompensated cirrhosis (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.7-8.5) were independent risk factors for mortality. Regarding seasonality, influenza peaked in monsoons and winters, whereas NIVs circulated throughout the year. Conclusion: Overall, this study adds new knowledge regarding the incidence of RVI and the distribution of respiratory viral etiologies among liver disease patients with ILI. The findings highlight that female gender, decompensated cirrhosis, and influenza B infection are independently associated with poor clinical outcomes. Early etiological identification of viral causes of ILI could aid in an enhanced understanding of the prevalence of ILI and the timely management of the patients. Clinical significance: Respiratory viral infections can cause severe illness in individuals with underlying liver disease. Accurate diagnosis and risk stratification is crucial in mitigating the adverse health effects. How to cite this article: Samal J, Prabhakar T, Prasad M, et al. Prevalence and Predictors for Respiratory Viral Infections among Liver Disease Patients. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2023;13(2):108-114.

15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1035111, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466827

RESUMO

Introduction: The emergence of multiple variants of concerns (VOCs) with higher number of Spike mutations have led to enhanced immune escape by the SARS-CoV-2. With the increasing number of vaccination breakthrough (VBT) infections, it is important to understand the possible reason/s of the breakthrough infections. Methods: We performed transcriptome sequencing of 57 VBT and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients, followed by differential expression and co-expression analysis of the lncRNAs and the mRNAs. The regulatory mechanism was highlighted by analysis towards repeat element distribution within the co-expressed lncRNAs, followed by repeats driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the promoter regions of genes from the same topologically associated domains (TAD). Results: We identified 727 differentially expressed lncRNAs (153 upregulated and 574 downregulated) and 338 mRNAs (34 up- and 334 downregulated) in the VBT patients. This includes LUCAT1, MALAT1, ROR1-AS1, UGDH-AS1 and LINC00273 mediated modulation of immune response, whereas MALAT1, NEAT1 and GAS5 regulated inflammatory response in the VBT. LncRNA-mRNA co-expression analysis highlighted 34 lncRNAs interacting with 267 mRNAs. We also observed a higher abundance of Alu, LINE1 and LTRs within the interacting lncRNAs of the VBT patients. These interacting lncRNAs have higher interaction with the promoter region of the genes from the same TAD, compared to the non-interacting lncRNAs with the enrichment of Alu and LINE1 in the gene promoter. Discussion: Significant downregulation and GSEA of the TAD gene suggest Alu and LINE1 driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the TAD genes as a possible mechanism of lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response. The lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response might explain the SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections with milder symptoms in the VBT. Besides, the study also highlights repeat element mediated regulation of genes in 3D as another possible way of lncRNA-mediated immune-regulation modulating vaccination breakthroughs milder disease phenotype and shorter hospital stay.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Longo não Codificante , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Baixo , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19/genética , Vacinação , RNA Mensageiro , Imunidade Inata/genética , Inflamação/genética
16.
J Lab Physicians ; 14(1): 21-26, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36186256

RESUMO

Introduction Delhi is hyperendemic for dengue virus (DENV) where all the four DENV have previously been reported. A constant vigilance of circulating DENV serotypes is important in surveillance, since the introduction of a new variant to areas affected by preexisting serotypes constitutes a risk factor for dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Objectives This retrospective study was performed with an objective to determine the circulating serotype and genotype of DENV in acute phase blood samples of patients who have reported to a tertiary liver care hospital in New Delhi during the last 2 years (2017-2018). Methods The data of clinician-initiated testing for dengue nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen (Ag) was searched in the institutional hospital information system. The serum sample of dengue NS1 Ag-positive cases confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; PANBIO, Gyeonggi-do, ROK) and a fever duration of less than 5 days were retrieved from the laboratory archive. The DENV serotyping on these sample was performed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was done for the capsid premembrane (CprM) region to determine the genotype. Results A total of 440 acute-phase samples were received. Twenty one (4.77%) were positive for dengue NS1 Ag with a mean age of 35.1 years and male-to-female ratio of 1.1:1. Eight cases (38.09%) were positive by dengue RT-PCR and all belonged to DENV-3 serotypes. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed DENV-3 clustered to genotype III with 100% homology with 2008 Indian subcontinent strain. Conclusion This study revealed circulation of DENV-3, genotype III in Delhi from 2017 to 2018, similar to the 2008 viral type. Virological surveillance is an important exercise to be done for viral infections with public threat and outbreak potential.

17.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(4): 552-556, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Scrub typhus (ST) is a zoonotic disease, caused by O. tsutsugamushi is a major cause of acute febrile illness (AFI) in India. There is a need to study the prevalence and risk factors in various regions of India. METHODS: A study to estimate the prevalence and study the risk factors of ST in patients presenting with acute febrile illness (AFI) was performed. All patients underwent serology for IgM antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi (In Bios International Inc, Seattle, WA) as per the manufacturers' protocol. Following this, Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) (real time SYBR green based targeting groEL gene and conventional PCR targeting 56 â€‹kDa type specific antigen gene) was performed from stored serum samples. RESULTS: During the study period, 473 patients were admitted. Of these 56 (11.8%) patients were ST positive by IgM serology. The conventional PCR targeting 56 â€‹kDa type specific antigen gene of O. tsutsugamushi was positive in six patients while Ot groEL SYBR green based PCR) was positive in five. PCR was positive in patients who had demonstrated a higher OD value in ELISA. Conventional PCR positive amplicons were sent for Sanger sequencing and confirmed to be O. tsutsugamushi. The mean age of the patients was 49 â€‹± â€‹18.3 years and males constituted a higher number of patients (67.9%, n â€‹= â€‹38). The pathognomonic eschar was present in 7 (12.5%) patients. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that sequences clustered close to Kato-like Hualein-20 strain and Karp-like Linh DT strains. All patients were administered doxycycline in our study. Mortality was recorded in 8.9% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients presenting with acute febrile illness, ST should be considered as a differential diagnosis, especially in post-monsoon season. Along with serology, serum can also be used as sample for PCR in an intracellular bacterium like O. tsutsugamushi.


Assuntos
Orientia tsutsugamushi , Tifo por Ácaros , Adulto , Idoso , Benzotiazóis , Diaminas , Doxiciclina , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Quinolinas , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Tifo por Ácaros/microbiologia
19.
Microbiol Res ; 262: 127099, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs at different time points through COVID-19 pandemic raised concern for increased transmissibility, infectivity and vaccination breakthroughs. METHODS: 1567 international travellers plus community transmission COVID-19 cases were analysed for mutational profile of VOCS, that led to notable waves in India, namely Alpha, Delta, and Omicron. Spike mutations in Linkage Disequilibrium were investigated for potential impact on structural and functional changes of Spike-ACE2. RESULTS: ORF1ab and spike harboured diverse mutational signatures for each lineage. B.1.617.2 and AY. * demonstrated comparable profile, yet non-clade defining mutations were majorly unique between international vs community samples. Contrarily, Omicron lineages showed substantial overlap in non-clade defining mutations, signifying early phase of transmission and evolution within Indian community. Mutations in LD for Alpha [N501Y, A570D, D1118H, S982A], Delta [P681R, L452R, EFR:156-158 G, D950N, G142D] and Omicron [P681H, D796Y, N764K, N969K, N501Y, S375F] resulted in decreased binding affinity of Spike-ACE2 for Alpha and BA.1 whereas Delta, Omicron and BA.2 demonstrated strong binding. CONCLUSION: Genomic surveillance tracked spread of VOCs in international travellers' vs community transmission. Behavioural transmission patterns of variants, based on selective advantage incurred by spike mutations, led us to predict sudden takeover of Delta over Alpha and BA.2 over BA.1 in India.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Mutação , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
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