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1.
JCI Insight ; 4(24)2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852848

RESUMO

Distinct subsets of Tregs reside in nonlymphoid tissues where they mediate unique functions. To interrogate the biology of tissue Tregs in human health and disease, we phenotypically and functionally compared healthy skin Tregs with those in peripheral blood, inflamed psoriatic skin, and metastatic melanoma. The mitochondrial enzyme, arginase 2 (ARG2), was preferentially expressed in Tregs in healthy skin, increased in Tregs in metastatic melanoma, and reduced in Tregs from psoriatic skin. ARG2 enhanced Treg suppressive capacity in vitro and conferred a selective advantage for accumulation in inflamed tissues in vivo. CRISPR-mediated deletion of this gene in primary human Tregs was sufficient to skew away from a tissue Treg transcriptional signature. Notably, the inhibition of ARG2 increased mTOR signaling, whereas the overexpression of this enzyme suppressed it. Taken together, our results suggest that Tregs express ARG2 in human tissues to both regulate inflammation and enhance their metabolic fitness.

2.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(3): 431-440, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Adoptive Treg cell therapy has great potential to treat autoimmune disease. Currently, very little is known about how these cells impact inflamed tissues. This study was undertaken to elucidate how autologous Treg cell therapy influences tissue inflammation in human autoimmune disease. METHODS: We describe a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patient with active skin disease who received adoptive Treg therapy. We comprehensively quantified Treg cells and immune activation in peripheral blood and skin, with data obtained at multiple time points posttreatment. RESULTS: Deuterium tracking of infused Treg cells revealed the transient presence of cells in peripheral blood, accompanied by increased percentages of highly activated Treg cells in diseased skin. Flow cytometric analysis and whole transcriptome RNA sequencing revealed that Treg cell accumulation in skin was associated with a marked attenuation of the interferon-γ pathway and a reciprocal augmentation of the interleukin-17 (IL-17) pathway. This phenomenon was more pronounced in skin relative to peripheral blood. To validate these findings, we investigated Treg cell adoptive transfer of skin inflammation in a murine model and found that it also resulted in a pronounced skewing away from Th1 immunity and toward IL-17 production. CONCLUSION: We report the first case of a patient with SLE treated with autologous adoptive Treg cell therapy. Taken together, our results suggest that this treatment leads to increased activated Treg cells in inflamed skin, with a dynamic shift from Th1 to Th17 responses.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11368, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054515

RESUMO

It has long been recognized that anatomic location is an important feature for defining distinct subtypes of plaque psoriasis. However, little is known about the molecular differences between scalp, palmoplantar, and conventional plaque psoriasis. To investigate the molecular heterogeneity of these psoriasis subtypes, we performed RNA-seq and flow cytometry on skin samples from individuals with scalp, palmoplantar, and conventional plaque psoriasis, along with samples from healthy control patients. We performed differential expression analysis and network analysis using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). Our analysis revealed a core set of 763 differentially expressed genes common to all sub-types of psoriasis. In contrast, we identified 605, 632, and 262 genes uniquely differentially expressed in conventional, scalp, and palmoplantar psoriasis, respectively. WGCNA and pathway analysis revealed biological processes for the core genes as well as subtype-specific genes. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a shared increase in the percentage of CD4+ T regulatory cells in all psoriasis subtypes relative to controls, whereas distinct psoriasis subtypes displayed differences in IL-17A, IFN-gamma, and IL-22 production. This work reveals the molecular heterogeneity of plaque psoriasis and identifies subtype-specific signaling pathways that will aid in the development of therapy that is appropriate for each subtype of plaque psoriasis.


Assuntos
Citometria de Fluxo , Psoríase/genética , Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Transcriptoma/genética
4.
J Clin Invest ; 128(7): 2966-2978, 2018 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889098

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors TLR7 and TLR9 are both implicated in the activation of autoreactive B cells and other cell types associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis. However, Tlr9-/- autoimmune-prone strains paradoxically develop more severe disease. We have now leveraged the negative regulatory role of TLR9 to develop an inducible rapid-onset murine model of systemic autoimmunity that depends on T cell detection of a membrane-bound OVA fusion protein expressed by MHC class II+ cells, expression of TLR7, expression of the type I IFN receptor, and loss of expression of TLR9. These mice are distinguished by a high frequency of OVA-specific Tbet+, IFN-γ+, and FasL-expressing Th1 cells as well as autoantibody-producing B cells. Unexpectedly, contrary to what occurs in most models of SLE, they also developed skin lesions that are very similar to those of human cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) as far as clinical appearance, histological changes, and gene expression. FasL was a key effector mechanism in the skin, as the transfer of FasL-deficient DO11gld T cells completely failed to elicit overt skin lesions. FasL was also upregulated in human CLE biopsies. Overall, our model provides a relevant system for exploring the pathophysiology of CLE as well as the negative regulatory role of TLR9.


Assuntos
Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/deficiência , Animais , Autoanticorpos/biossíntese , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/metabolismo , Lúpus Eritematoso Cutâneo/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo
5.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 77(3): 417-424, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28624119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from adult psoriasis studies implicates an imbalance between regulatory and effector T cells, particularly TH-17-producing T cells, in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Little is known about the immunopathology of psoriasis in children. OBJECTIVE: We sought to functionally characterize the inflammatory cell profiles of psoriatic plaques from pediatric patients and compare them with healthy, age-matched controls and adult psoriasis patients. METHODS: Skin samples from pediatric psoriasis patients and healthy controls were analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry to determine the dominant immune cell subsets present and cytokines produced. RESULTS: Lesional tissue from pediatric psoriasis patients had significantly increased interleukin (IL) 22 derived from CD4+ and CD8+ cells compared with the tissues from healthy pediatric controls and adult psoriasis patients. Tissue from pediatric psoriasis patients had significantly less elevation of IL-17 derived from CD4+ and CD8+ cells compared with the tissue from adult psoriasis patients. In contrast with the lesions from adult patients, lesional skin in pediatric patients with psoriasis did not have increases in regulatory T cells. LIMITATIONS: This is a pilot study, thus the sample size is small. CONCLUSION: Significant differences in IL-17 and IL-22 expression were observed in the pediatric psoriasis patients compared with pediatric healthy controls and adult psoriasis patients. IL-22 might be relevant in the pathogenesis of pediatric psoriasis and represents a potential treatment target unique to pediatric psoriasis.


Assuntos
Interleucina-17/biossíntese , Interleucinas/biossíntese , Psoríase/imunologia , Psoríase/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
6.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 1343, 2017 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28465541

RESUMO

Human skin consists of multiple cell types, including epithelial, immune, and stromal cells. Transcriptomic analyses have previously been performed from bulk skin samples or from epithelial and immune cells expanded in cell culture. However, transcriptomic analysis of bulk skin tends to drown out expression signals from relatively rare cells while cell culture methods may significantly alter cellular phenotypes and gene expression profiles. To identify distinct transcriptomic profiles of multiple cell populations without substantially altering cell phenotypes, we employed a fluorescence activated cell sorting method to isolate keratinocytes, dendritic cells, CD4+ T effector cells, and CD8+ T effector cells from healthy skin samples, followed by RNA-seq of each cell population. Principal components analysis revealed distinct clustering of cell types across samples, while differential expression and coexpression network analyses revealed transcriptional profiles of individual cell populations distinct from bulk skin, most strikingly in the least abundant CD8+ T effector population. Our work provides a high resolution view of cutaneous cellular gene expression and suggests that transcriptomic profiling of bulk skin may inadequately capture the contribution of less abundant cell types.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Pele/citologia , Transcriptoma
7.
Cell ; 169(6): 1119-1129.e11, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28552347

RESUMO

The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is critically dependent on the function of tissue-resident immune cells and the differentiation capacity of tissue-resident stem cells (SCs). How immune cells influence the function of SCs is largely unknown. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin preferentially localize to hair follicles (HFs), which house a major subset of skin SCs (HFSCs). Here, we mechanistically dissect the role of Tregs in HF and HFSC biology. Lineage-specific cell depletion revealed that Tregs promote HF regeneration by augmenting HFSC proliferation and differentiation. Transcriptional and phenotypic profiling of Tregs and HFSCs revealed that skin-resident Tregs preferentially express high levels of the Notch ligand family member, Jagged 1 (Jag1). Expression of Jag1 on Tregs facilitated HFSC function and efficient HF regeneration. Taken together, our work demonstrates that Tregs in skin play a major role in HF biology by promoting the function of HFSCs.


Assuntos
Folículo Piloso/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Animais , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Camundongos
8.
J Clin Invest ; 126(9): 3447-52, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27525433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade is revolutionizing therapy for advanced cancer, but many patients do not respond to treatment. The identification of robust biomarkers that predict clinical response to specific checkpoint inhibitors is critical in order to stratify patients and to rationally select combinations in the context of an expanding array of therapeutic options. METHODS: We performed multiparameter flow cytometry on freshly isolated metastatic melanoma samples from 2 cohorts of 20 patients each prior to treatment and correlated the subsequent clinical response with the tumor immune phenotype. RESULTS: Increasing fractions of programmed cell death 1 high/cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 high (PD-1hiCTLA-4hi) cells within the tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cell subset strongly correlated with response to therapy (RR) and progression-free survival (PFS). Functional analysis of these cells revealed a partially exhausted T cell phenotype. Assessment of metastatic lesions during anti-PD-1 therapy demonstrated a release of T cell exhaustion, as measured by an accumulation of highly activated CD8+ T cells within tumors, with no effect on Tregs. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the relative abundance of partially exhausted tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells predicts response to anti-PD-1 therapy. This information can be used to appropriately select patients with a high likelihood of achieving a clinical response to PD-1 pathway inhibition. FUNDING: This work was funded by a generous gift provided by Inga-Lill and David Amoroso as well as a generous gift provided by Stephen Juelsgaard and Lori Cook.


Assuntos
Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/citologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Fenótipo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
9.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 74(3): 470-6, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26778012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metastases to the skin are found with increased frequency at certain sites, such as the scalp, but the biological factors that influence this distribution are not understood. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the proportional frequency of metastases at various cutaneous locations with the immunologic microenvironments at those sites. METHODS: We retrospectively identified all biopsy specimens of cutaneous metastases diagnosed at our institution from 1991 to 2014 (n = 1984) and mapped their anatomic distribution while controlling for regional surface area. Using a separate, mapped cohort of normal-appearing skin samples (n = 140), we measured the density of regulatory T cells, CD4(+) effector T cells, and CD8(+) T cells by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Per unit surface area, cutaneous metastases arise most commonly on the head and neck, followed by the trunk, upper extremities, and lower extremities, respectively. Sites with more frequent metastases tend to contain a greater density of regulatory T cells and a lower proportion of CD8(+) T cells (P < .05). LIMITATIONS: Immunologic factors were only assessed in control tissue and were not measured from patients with metastatic disease in this correlative single-center study. CONCLUSION: The distribution of cutaneous metastases follows the distribution of regulatory and effector T cells in skin. Further studies are required to prove a mechanistic association between local immunologic factors and the development of cutaneous metastases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
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