Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 460
Filtrar
1.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 197, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia and inflammation are closely interrelated contributors in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Disorders of lipid metabolism initiate an inflammatory and immune-mediated response in atherosclerosis, while low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering has possible pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects that extend beyond lipid lowering. MAIN TEXT: Activation of the immune system/inflammasome destabilizes the plaque, which makes it vulnerable to rupture, resulting in major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The activated immune system potentially accelerates atherosclerosis, and atherosclerosis activates the immune system, creating a vicious circle. LDL-C enhances inflammation, which can be measured through multiple parameters like high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). However, multiple studies have shown that CRP is a marker of residual risk and not, itself, a causal factor. Recently, anti-inflammatory therapy has been shown to decelerate atherosclerosis, resulting in fewer MACE. Nevertheless, an important side effect of anti-inflammatory therapy is the potential for increased infection risk, stressing the importance of only targeting patients with high residual inflammatory risk. Multiple (auto-)inflammatory diseases are potentially related to/influenced by LDL-C through inflammasome activation. CONCLUSIONS: Research suggests that LDL-C induces inflammation; inflammation is of proven importance in atherosclerotic disease progression; anti-inflammatory therapies yield promise in lowering (cardiovascular) disease risk, especially in selected patients with high (remaining) inflammatory risk; and intriguing new anti-inflammatory developments, for example, in nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat-containing pyrine receptor inflammasome targeting, are currently underway, including novel pathway interventions such as immune cell targeting and epigenetic interference. Long-term safety should be carefully monitored for these new strategies and cost-effectiveness carefully evaluated.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565735

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiovascular risk factors are used for risk stratification in primary prevention. We sought to determine if simple cardiac risk scores are associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected subclinical cerebrovascular disease including carotid wall volume (CWV), carotid intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), and silent brain infarction (SBI). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 7594 adults with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) underwent risk factor assessment and a non-contrast enhanced MRI of the carotid arteries and brain using a standardized protocol in a population-based cohort recruited between 2014 and 2018. The non-lab-based INTERHEART risk score (IHRS) was calculated in all participants; the Framingham Risk Score was calculated in a subset who provided blood samples (n = 3889). The association between these risk scores and MRI measures of CWV, carotid IPH, and SBI was determined. The mean age of the cohort was 58 (8.9) years, 55% were women. Each 5-point increase (∼1 SD) in the IHRS was associated with a 9 mm3 increase in CWV, adjusted for sex (P < 0.0001), a 23% increase in IPH [95% confidence interval (CI) 9-38%], and a 32% (95% CI 20-45%) increase in SBI. These associations were consistent for lacunar and non-lacunar brain infarction. The Framingham Risk Score was also significantly associated with CWV, IPH, and SBI. CWV was additive and independent to the risk scores in its association with IPH and SBI. CONCLUSION: Simple cardiovascular risk scores are significantly associated with the presence of MRI-detected subclinical cerebrovascular disease, including CWV, IPH, and SBI in an adult population without known clinical CVD.

3.
J Virol ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597766

RESUMO

Human herpesvirus-6A and 6B (HHV-6A, HHV-6B) are human viruses capable of chromosomal integration. Approximately 1% of the human population carry one copy of HHV-6A/B integrated into every cell in their body, referred to as inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6A/B (iciHHV-6A/B). Whether iciHHV-6A/B is transcriptionally active in vivo and how it shapes the immunological response is still unclear. Here, we screened DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq data for 650 individuals available through the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project and identified 2 iciHHV-6A and 4 iciHHV-6B positive candidates. When corresponding tissue-specific gene expression signatures were analyzed, low levels HHV-6A/B gene expression was found across multiple tissues, with the highest levels of gene expression in the brain (specifically for HHV-6A), testis, esophagus, and adrenal gland. U90 and U100 were the most highly expressed HHV-6 genes in both iciHHV-6A and iciHHV-6B individuals. To assess whether tissue-specific gene expression from iciHHV-6A/B influences the immune response, a cohort of 15,498 subjects was screened and 85 iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects were identified. Plasma samples from iciHHV-6A/B+ and age and sex matched controls were analyzed for antibodies to control antigens (CMV, EBV, FLU) or HHV-6A/B antigens. Our results indicate that iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects have significantly more antibodies against the U90 gene product (IE1) relative to non-iciHHV-6 individuals. Antibody responses against EBV and FLU antigens or HHV-6A/B gene products either not expressed or expressed at low levels, such as U47, U57 or U72, were identical between controls and iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects. CMV seropositive individuals with iciHHV-6A/B+ have more antibodies against CMV pp150, relative to CMV seropositive controls. These results argue that spontaneous gene expression from integrated HHV-6A/B leads to an increase in antigenic burden that translates into a more robust HHV-6A/B specific antibody response.IMPORTANCE HHV-6A/B are human herpesviruses that have the unique property of being able to integrate into the telomeric regions of human chromosomes. Approximately 1% of the world's population carries integrated HHV-6A/B genome in every cell of their body. Whether viral genes are transcriptionally active in these individuals is unclear. By taking advantage of a unique tissue-specific gene expression dataset, we show the majority of tissues from iciHHV-6 individuals do not show HHV-6 gene expression. Brain and testes showed the highest tissue-specific expression of HHV-6 genes in two separate datasets. Two HHV-6 genes, U90 (immediate early 1 protein) and U100 (glycoproteins Q1 and Q2), were found to be selectively and consistently expressed across several human tissues. Expression of U90 translates into an increase in antigen-specific antibody response in iciHHV-6A/B+ subjects relative to controls. Future studies will be needed to determine the mechanism of gene expression, the effects of these genes on human gene transcription networks and the pathophysiological impact of having increased viral protein expression in tissue in conjunction with increased antigen-specific antibody production.

4.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591826

RESUMO

AIMS: Ivabradine has been approved in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and elevated heart rate despite guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) to reduce cardiovascular (CV) death and hospitalization for worsening HF. The median value of 77 b.p.m. is the lower bound selected for the regulatory approval in Canada, South Africa, and Australia. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) including symptoms, quality of life, and global assessment are considered of major interest in the global plan of care of patients with HF. However, the specific impact of GDMT, and specifically ivabradine, on PRO remains poorly studied. In the subgroup of patients from the Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial (SHIFT) who had heart rate above the median of 77 b.p.m. (pre-specified analysis) and for whom the potential for improvement was expected to be larger, we aimed (i) to evaluate the effects of ivabradine on PRO (symptoms, quality of life, and global assessment); (ii) to consolidate the effects of ivabradine on the primary composite endpoint of CV death and hospitalization for HF; and (iii) to reassess the effects of ivabradine on left ventricular (LV) remodelling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Comparisons were made according to therapy, and proportional hazards models (adjusted for baseline beta-blocker therapy) were used to estimate the association between ivabradine and various outcomes. In SHIFT, n = 3357 (51.6%) patients had a baseline heart rate > 77 b.p.m. After a median follow-up of 22.9 months (inter-quartile range 18-28 months), ivabradine on top of GDMT improved symptoms (28% vs. 23% improvement in New York Heart Association functional class, P = 0.0003), quality of life (5.3 vs. 2.2 improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score, P = 0.005), and global assessment [from both patient (improved in 72.3%) and physician (improved in 61.0%) perspectives] significantly more than did placebo (both P < 0.0001). Ivabradine induced a 25% reduction in the combined endpoint of CV death and hospitalization for HF (hazard ratio 0.75; P < 0.0001), which translates into a number of patients needed to be treated for 1 year of 17. Patients under ivabradine treatment demonstrated a significant reduction in LV dimensions when reassessed at 8 months (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic HFrEF, sinus rhythm, and a heart rate > 77 b.p.m. while on GDMT, the present analysis brings novel insights into the role of ivabradine in improving the management of HFrEF, particularly with regard to PRO (ISRCTN70429960).

5.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621866

RESUMO

Approximately 1% of the world population carry a copy of the human herpesvirus 6A or 6B (HHV-6A/B) in every cell of their body. This condition is referred to as inherited chromosomally-integrated HHV-6A/B (iciHHV-6A/B). The mechanisms leading to iciHHV-6A/B chromosomal integration are yet to be identified. A recent report suggested that the rs73185306 C/T SNP represents a favorable predisposing factor leading to HHV-6A/B integration. After genotype analysis of an independent cohort (N=11,967), we report no association between rs73185306 C/T SNP and HHV-6A/B chromosomal integration (OR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.54-1.51; P=0.69).

6.
Heart ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601728

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the relationship between increasing severity of obesity, calculated risk and observed outcomes. METHODS: Patients with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease (CAD) (n=10 003) were stratified according to body mass index (BMI). We compared risk factors, pooled risk scores and physicians' perception of risk. Cox regression tested the association between BMI and (1) presence of obstructive CAD and (2) composite clinical endpoints (death, cardiovascular death, unstable angina hospitalisation and myocardial infarction). RESULTS: BMI was ≥30 kg/m2 in 48% of patients and ≥35 in 20%. Increasingly obese patients were younger, female and non-smoking but with higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, black race and sedentary lifestyle. Pooled risk estimates of CAD were highest in those with mid-range BMI. In contrast, physicians' estimation of the likelihood of significant CAD based on clinical impression increased progressively with BMI. For a 10% increase in the Diamond-Forrester probability of CAD, the adjusted OR for obstructive CAD was 1.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.5) in patients with BMI <35, but only 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3) in those with BMI ≥35 (interaction p<0.001). Framingham Risk Score increased across increasing BMI categories. However, there was a strong and consistent inverse relationship between degree of obesity and all three composite clinical endpoints over a median 25 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Despite perceptions of higher risk and higher risk scores, increasingly obese patients had obstructive CAD less frequently than predicted and had fewer adverse clinical outcomes. There is a need for risk assessment tools and guidelines that account for obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01174550.

7.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319871217, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558054

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to ascertain the relationship between level of physical activity and outcomes and to discriminate the determinants of physical activity performance or avoidance. METHODS: CLARIFY is an international prospective registry of 32,370 consecutive outpatients with stable coronary artery disease who were followed for up to five years. Patients were grouped according to the level and frequency of physical activity: i) sedentary (n = 5223; 16.1%); ii) only light physical activity most weeks (light; n = 16,634; 51.4%); iii) vigorous physical activity once or twice per week (vigorous ≤ 2×; n = 5427; 16.8%); iv) vigorous physical activity three or more times per week (vigorous >2×; n = 5086; 15.7%). The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. RESULTS: Patients performing vigorous physical activity ≤2 × had the lowest risk of the primary outcome (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.93; p = 0.0031) taking the light group as reference. Engaging in more frequent exercise did not result in further outcome benefit. All-cause death, cardiovascular death, and stroke occurred less frequently in patients performing vigorous physical activity ≤2×. However, the rate of myocardial infarction was comparable between the four physical activity groups. Female sex, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, previous myocardial infarction or stroke, pulmonary disease and body mass index all emerged as independent predictors of lower physical activity. CONCLUSION: Vigorous physical activity once or twice per week was associated with superior cardiac outcomes compared with patients performing no or a low level of physical activity in outpatients with stable coronary artery disease.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(10): 1332-1347, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conditions affecting the right heart, including diseases of the lungs and pulmonary circulation, promote atrial fibrillation (AF), but the mechanisms are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether right heart disease promotes atrial arrhythmogenesis in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and, if so, to define the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: PH was induced in male Wistar rats with a single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of monocrotaline, and rats were studied 21 days later when right heart disease was well developed. AF vulnerability was assessed in vivo and in situ, and mechanisms were defined by optical mapping, histochemistry, and biochemistry. RESULTS: Monocrotaline-treated rats developed increased right ventricular pressure and mass, along with right atrial (RA) enlargement. AF/flutter was inducible in 32 of 32 PH rats (100%) in vivo and 11 of 12 (92%) in situ, versus 2 of 32 (6%) and 2 of 12 (17%), respectively, in control rats (p < 0.001 vs. PH for each). PH rats had significant RA (16.1 ± 0.5% of cross-sectional area, vs. 3.0 ± 0.6% in control) and left atrial (LA: 11.8 ± 0.5% vs. 5.4 ± 0.8% control) fibrosis. Multiple extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen 1 and 3, fibronectin, and matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, were up-regulated in PH rat RA. Optical mapping revealed significant rate-dependent RA conduction slowing and rotor activity, including stable rotors in 4 of 11 PH rats, whereas no significant conduction slowing or rotor activity occurred in the LA of monocrotaline-treated rats. Transcriptomic analysis revealed differentially enriched genes related to hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis in RA of monocrotaline-treated rats versus control. Biochemical results in PH rats were compared with those of AF-prone rats with atrial remodeling in the context of left ventricular dysfunction due to myocardial infarction: myocardial infarction rat LA shared molecular motifs with PH rat RA. CONCLUSIONS: Right heart disease produces a substrate for AF maintenance due to RA re-entrant activity, with an underlying substrate prominently involving RA fibrosis and conduction abnormalities.

9.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504434

RESUMO

AIMS: Over the last decades, the profile of chronic coronary syndrome has changed substantially. We aimed to determine characteristics and management of patients with chronic coronary syndrome in the contemporary era, as well as outcomes and their determinants. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 32 703 patients (45 countries) with chronic coronary syndrome enrolled in the prospective observational CLARIFY registry (November 2009 to June 2010) with a 5-year follow-up, were analysed. The primary outcome [cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)] 5-year rate was 8.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.7-8.3] overall [male 8.1% (7.8-8.5); female 7.6% (7.0-8.3)]. A cox proportional hazards model showed that the main independent predictors of the primary outcome were prior hospitalization for heart failure, current smoking, atrial fibrillation, living in Central/South America, prior MI, prior stroke, diabetes, current angina, and peripheral artery disease. There was an interaction between angina and prior MI (P = 0.0016); among patients with prior MI, angina was associated with a higher primary event rate [11.8% (95% CI 10.9-12.9) vs. 8.2% (95% CI 7.8-8.7) in patients with no angina, P < 0.001], whereas among patients without prior MI, event rates were similar for patients with [6.3% (95% CI 5.4-7.3)] or without angina [6.4% (95% CI 5.9-7.0)], P > 0.99. Prescription rates of evidence-based secondary prevention therapies were high. CONCLUSION: This description of the spectrum of chronic coronary syndrome patients shows that, despite high rates of prescription of evidence-based therapies, patients with both angina and prior MI are an easily identifiable high-risk group who may deserve intensive treatment. CLINICAL REGISTRY: ISRCTN43070564.

10.
Can J Cardiol ; 35(8): 1069-1077, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compelling evidence showing a link between atrial fibrillation (AF) and cognitive decline and dementia is accumulating. METHODS: Blinded Randomized Trial of Anticoagulation to Prevent Ischemic Stroke and Neurocognitive Impairment in Atrial Fibrillation (BRAIN-AF) is a prospective, multicentric, double-blind, randomized-controlled trial, recruiting patients with nonvalvular AF and a low risk of stroke. Patients with a high risk of bleeding will be excluded from the study. Participants will be randomized to receive either rivaroxaban (15 mg daily) or standard of care (placebo in patients without vascular disease or acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg daily in patients with vascular disease). RESULTS: The primary outcome is the composite of stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cognitive decline (defined by a decrease in the Montreal Cognitive Assessment score ≥ 3 at any follow-up visit after baseline). Approximately 3250 patients will be enrolled in approximately 130 clinical sites until 609 adjudicated primary outcome events have occurred. CONCLUSIONS: BRAIN-AF determines whether oral anticoagulation therapy with rivaroxaban compared with standard of care reduces the risk of stroke, transient ischemic attack, or cognitive decline in patients with nonvalvular AF and a low risk of stroke.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220707, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is present in more than 50% of patients suffering from heart failure. LVDD animal models are limited and its underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) may cause LVDD, and we recently reported LVDD in an AVS rabbit model. Here we aimed to develop a rabbit model of LVDD without AVS. METHODS: Rabbits were fed with a 0.5% cholesterol-enriched diet (n = 9) or normal diet (n = 8) until they developed LVDD defined by a value of the echocardiographic parameter E/Em ratio higher than the mean at baseline + 2SD. Rabbits were then fed a 0.2% cholesterol-enriched diet for 4 weeks (average total diet duration: 20 weeks). Detailed cardiac structure and function measurements were assessed by echocardiography at baseline, weeks 8, 12 and 14 to 20, when applicable. Histological analyses and RT-qPCR were performed on LV samples. RESULTS: The hypercholesterolemic diet induced LVDD without systolic dysfunction or AVS, as shown by multiple echocardiographic parameters, including early filling mitral peak velocity and deceleration rate, Em/Am ratio and E/Em ratio (all p<0.05), and by increased cardiac mRNA expression of brain natriuretic peptide (Bnp). Cardiac expression of mRNA for Nox2, Vcam1, Mmp12, Mmp12/Timp1, Il1b and Col1/Col3 ratios was also higher in these rabbits (p<0.05). In contrast, cardiac Sod2 mRNA expression was reduced in hypercholesterolemic rabbits compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Rabbits fed with a cholesterol-enriched diet develop LVDD with preserved systolic function and evidence of cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress. This rabbit model may be used in future studies to test treatment strategies against LVDD.

13.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(10): 784-788, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate random forests (RFs) as a supervised machine learning algorithm to classify amyloid brain PET as positive or negative for amyloid deposition and identify key regions of interest for stratification. METHODS: The data set included 57 baseline F-florbetapir (Amyvid; Lilly, Indianapolis, IN) brain PET scans in participants with severe white matter disease, presenting with either transient ischemic attack/lacunar stroke or mild cognitive impairment from early Alzheimer disease, enrolled in a multicenter prospective observational trial. Scans were processed using the MINC toolkit to generate SUV ratios, normalized to cerebellar gray matter, and clinically read by 2 nuclear medicine physicians with interpretation based on consensus (35 negative, 22 positive). SUV ratio data and clinical reads were used for supervised training of an RF classifier programmed in MATLAB. RESULTS: A 10,000-tree RF, each tree using 15 randomly selected cases and 20 randomly selected features (SUV ratio per region of interest), with 37 cases for training and 20 cases for testing, had sensitivity = 86% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42%-100%), specificity = 92% (CI, 64%-100%), and classification accuracy = 90% (CI, 68%-99%). The most common features at the root node (key regions for stratification) were (1) left posterior cingulate (1039 trees), (2) left middle frontal gyrus (1038 trees), (3) left precuneus (857 trees), (4) right anterior cingulate gyrus (655 trees), and (5) right posterior cingulate (588 trees). CONCLUSIONS: Random forests can classify brain PET as positive or negative for amyloid deposition and suggest key clinically relevant, regional features for classification.

14.
BMJ ; 365: l1945, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) should be performed in patients with any clinical probability of coronary artery disease (CAD), and whether the diagnostic performance differs between subgroups of patients. DESIGN: Prospectively designed meta-analysis of individual patient data from prospective diagnostic accuracy studies. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and Web of Science for published studies. Unpublished studies were identified via direct contact with participating investigators. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Prospective diagnostic accuracy studies that compared coronary CTA with coronary angiography as the reference standard, using at least a 50% diameter reduction as a cutoff value for obstructive CAD. All patients needed to have a clinical indication for coronary angiography due to suspected CAD, and both tests had to be performed in all patients. Results had to be provided using 2×2 or 3×2 cross tabulations for the comparison of CTA with coronary angiography. Primary outcomes were the positive and negative predictive values of CTA as a function of clinical pretest probability of obstructive CAD, analysed by a generalised linear mixed model; calculations were performed including and excluding non-diagnostic CTA results. The no-treat/treat threshold model was used to determine the range of appropriate pretest probabilities for CTA. The threshold model was based on obtained post-test probabilities of less than 15% in case of negative CTA and above 50% in case of positive CTA. Sex, angina pectoris type, age, and number of computed tomography detector rows were used as clinical variables to analyse the diagnostic performance in relevant subgroups. RESULTS: Individual patient data from 5332 patients from 65 prospective diagnostic accuracy studies were retrieved. For a pretest probability range of 7-67%, the treat threshold of more than 50% and the no-treat threshold of less than 15% post-test probability were obtained using CTA. At a pretest probability of 7%, the positive predictive value of CTA was 50.9% (95% confidence interval 43.3% to 57.7%) and the negative predictive value of CTA was 97.8% (96.4% to 98.7%); corresponding values at a pretest probability of 67% were 82.7% (78.3% to 86.2%) and 85.0% (80.2% to 88.9%), respectively. The overall sensitivity of CTA was 95.2% (92.6% to 96.9%) and the specificity was 79.2% (74.9% to 82.9%). CTA using more than 64 detector rows was associated with a higher empirical sensitivity than CTA using up to 64 rows (93.4% v 86.5%, P=0.002) and specificity (84.4% v 72.6%, P<0.001). The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve for CTA was 0.897 (0.889 to 0.906), and the diagnostic performance of CTA was slightly lower in women than in with men (area under the curve 0.874 (0.858 to 0.890) v 0.907 (0.897 to 0.916), P<0.001). The diagnostic performance of CTA was slightly lower in patients older than 75 (0.864 (0.834 to 0.894), P=0.018 v all other age groups) and was not significantly influenced by angina pectoris type (typical angina 0.895 (0.873 to 0.917), atypical angina 0.898 (0.884 to 0.913), non-anginal chest pain 0.884 (0.870 to 0.899), other chest discomfort 0.915 (0.897 to 0.934)). CONCLUSIONS: In a no-treat/treat threshold model, the diagnosis of obstructive CAD using coronary CTA in patients with stable chest pain was most accurate when the clinical pretest probability was between 7% and 67%. Performance of CTA was not influenced by the angina pectoris type and was slightly higher in men and lower in older patients. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42012002780.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Angina Pectoris/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Probabilidade
15.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(6): e002481, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) represents one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Given the healthcare risks and societal impacts associated with CAD, their clinical management would benefit from improved prevention and prediction tools. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) based on an individual's genome sequence are emerging as potentially powerful biomarkers to predict the risk to develop CAD. Two recently derived genome-wide PRS have shown high specificity and sensitivity to identify CAD cases in European-ancestry participants from the UK Biobank. However, validation of the PRS predictive power and transferability in other populations is now required to support their clinical utility. METHODS: We calculated both PRS (GPSCAD and metaGRSCAD) in French-Canadian individuals from 3 cohorts totaling 3639 prevalent CAD cases and 7382 controls and tested their power to predict prevalent, incident, and recurrent CAD. We also estimated the impact of the founder French-Canadian familial hypercholesterolemia deletion ( LDLR delta >15 kb deletion) on CAD risk in one of these cohorts and used this estimate to calibrate the impact of the PRS. RESULTS: Our results confirm the ability of both PRS to predict prevalent CAD comparable to the original reports (area under the curve=0.72-0.89). Furthermore, the PRS identified about 6% to 7% of individuals at CAD risk similar to carriers of the LDLR delta >15 kb mutation, consistent with previous estimates. However, the PRS did not perform as well in predicting an incident or recurrent CAD (area under the curve=0.56-0.60), maybe because of confounding because 76% of the participants were on statin treatment. This result suggests that additional work is warranted to better understand how ascertainment biases and study design impact PRS for CAD. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results confirm that novel, genome-wide PRS is able to predict CAD in French Canadians; with further improvements, this is likely to pave the way towards more targeted strategies to predict and prevent CAD-related adverse events.

16.
J Hypertens ; 37(11): 2190-2199, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate national and geography-based variations in blood pressure and burden of hypertension in Cameroon, generally called 'miniature Africa'. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CINHAL, Web of Science, Popline, Scopus and BDSP were searched through November 2018, for hypertension studies among Cameroonians aged at least 18 years. Hypertension was measured as SBP at least 140 mmHg or DBP at least 90 mmHg. Random-effects meta-analysis was used. RESULTS: Twenty studies involving 46 491 participants met inclusion criteria. Overall hypertension prevalence was 30.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27.0-34.8]: 29.6% (24.1-35.1) and 32.1% (27.2-37.1) in 1994-2010 and 2011-2018, respectively. Of hypertensive participants, only 24.4% (18.9-30.0) - 31.6% (21.0-42.3) and 20.8% (14.0-27.7) in 1994-2010 and 2011-2018, respectively - were aware of their status, 15.1% (10.6-19.6) were taking antihypertensive medications and 8.8% (5.7-11.9) - 10.4% (7.5-13.3) and 8.3% (4.4-12.3) in 1994-2010 and 2011-2018, respectively - were controlled. Hypertension prevalence varied by sex: 34.3% (30.0-38.6) for men and 31.3% (26.5-36.1) for women; ethnicity: from 3.3% (0.4-6.2) among Pygmies to 56.6% (49.4-63.8) among Bamileke; urbanity: 25.4% (17.1-33.7) for rural and 31.4% (27.3-35.5) for urban dwellers; agroecological zone: from 35.1% (28.9-41.3) in Tropical highlands to 28% (20.1-35.9) in Guinea-Savannah; and subnational region: from 36.3% (27.8-44.9) in the West to 17.1% (9.9-44.2) in the South. CONCLUSION: Cameroon's hypertension prevalence is high and increasing whereas awareness, treatment and control are low and declining. Emerging patterns call urgently for effective campaigns to raise hypertension awareness alongside strategies for hypertension prevention and BP control.

17.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119260

RESUMO

AIMS: Autonomic dysfunction can promote atrial fibrillation (AF) and results from AF-related remodeling. N-type Ca2+-channels (NTCCs) at sympathetic-nerve terminals mediate Ca2+-entry that triggers neurotransmitter release. AF-associated remodeling plays an important role in AF pathophysiology but the effects of NTCC-inhibition on such remodeling is unknown. Here, we investigated the ability of a clinically available Ca2+-channel blocker (CCB) with NTCC blocking activity to suppress the arrhythmogenic effects of AF-promoting remodeling in dogs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mongrel dogs were kept in AF by right-atrial tachypacing at 600 bpm. Four groups were studied under short-term AF (7 days): 1) Shams, instrumented but without tachypacing (n = 5); 2) a placebo group, tachypaced while receiving placebo (n = 6); 3) a control tachypacing group receiving nifedipine (10 mg orally twice-daily; n = 5), an L-type CCB; and 4) a cilnidipine group, subjected to tachypacing and treatment with cilnidipine (10 mg orally twice-daily; n = 7), an N-/L-type CCB. With cilnidipine-therapy, dogs with 1-week-AF showed significantly reduced autonomic changes reflected by heart-rate variability (decreases in RMSSD and pNN50) and plasma norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, cilnidipine-treated dogs had decreased extracellular-matrix gene expression versus nifedipine-dogs. As in previous work, atrial fibrosis had not yet developed after 1-week AF, so three additional groups were studied under longer-term AF (21 days): 1) Shams, instrumented without tachypacing or drug therapy (n = 8); 2) a placebo-group, tachypaced while receiving placebo (n = 8); 3) a cilnidipine-group, subjected to tachypacing during treatment with cilnidipine (10 mg twice-daily; n = 8). Cilnidipine attenuated 3-week-AF effects on AF duration and atrial conduction, and suppressed AF-induced increases in fibrous-tissue content, decreases in connexin-43 expression and reductions in sodium-channel expression. CONCLUSIONS: Cilnidipine, a commercially available NTCC-blocking drug, prevents AF-induced autonomic, electrical and structural remodeling, along with associated AF-promotion.

18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6609, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036871

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction is a core pathophysiologic process in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We developed PulmoBind (PB), a novel imaging biomarker of the pulmonary vascular endothelium. 99mTechnetium (99mTc)-labelled PB binds to adrenomedullin receptors (AM1) densely expressed in the endothelium of alveolar capillaries. We evaluated the effect of sildenafil on AM1 receptors activity using 99mTc-PB. PAH was induced in rats using the Sugen/hypoxia model and after 3 weeks, animals were allocated to sildenafil (25 or 100 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. 99mTc-PB uptake kinetics was assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography. PAH caused right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy that was decreased by low and high sildenafil doses. Sildenafil low and high dose also improved RV function measured from the tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion. Mean integrated pulmonary uptake of 99mTc-PB was reduced in PAH (508% · min ± 37, p < 0.05) compared to controls (630% · min ± 30), but unchanged by sildenafil at low and high doses. Lung tissue expressions of the AM1 receptor components were reduced in PAH and also unaffected by sildenafil. In experimental angio-proliferative PAH, sildenafil improves RV dysfunction and remodeling, but does not modify pulmonary vascular endothelium dysfunction assessed by the adrenomedullin receptor ligand 99mTc-PB.

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(22): 2791-2802, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In time-to-first-event analyses, icosapent ethyl significantly reduced the risk of ischemic events, including cardiovascular death, among patients with elevated triglycerides receiving statins. These patients are at risk for not only first but also subsequent ischemic events. OBJECTIVES: Pre-specified analyses determined the extent to which icosapent ethyl reduced total ischemic events. METHODS: REDUCE-IT (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial) randomized 8,179 statin-treated patients with triglycerides ≥135 and <500 mg/dl (median baseline of 216 mg/dl) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >40 and ≤100 mg/dl (median baseline of 75 mg/dl), and a history of atherosclerosis (71% patients) or diabetes (29% patients) to icosapent ethyl 4 g/day or placebo. The main outcomes were total (first and subsequent) primary composite endpoint events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina) and total key secondary composite endpoint events (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke). As a pre-specified statistical method, we determined differences in total events using negative binomial regression. We also determined differences in total events using other statistical models, including Andersen-Gill, Wei-Lin-Weissfeld (Li and Lagakos modification), both pre-specified, and a post hoc joint frailty analysis. RESULTS: In 8,179 patients, followed for a median of 4.9 years, 1,606 (55.2%) first primary endpoint events and 1,303 (44.8%) subsequent primary endpoint events occurred (which included 762 second events, and 541 third or more events). Overall, icosapent ethyl reduced total primary endpoint events (61 vs. 89 per 1,000 patient-years for icosapent ethyl versus placebo, respectively; rate ratio: 0.70; 95% confidence interval: 0.62 to 0.78; p < 0.0001). Icosapent ethyl also reduced totals for each component of the primary composite endpoint, as well as the total key secondary endpoint events (32 vs. 44 per 1,000 patient-years for icosapent ethyl versus placebo, respectively; rate ratio: 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.63 to 0.82; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Among statin-treated patients with elevated triglycerides and cardiovascular disease or diabetes, multiple statistical models demonstrate that icosapent ethyl substantially reduces the burden of first, subsequent, and total ischemic events. (Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial [REDUCE-IT]; NCT01492361).

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA