Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 291
Filtrar
1.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 15, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a complex disease in which both non-genetic and genetic factors interplay. To date, 40 GWAS hits have been associated with PC risk in individuals of European descent, explaining 4.1% of the phenotypic variance. METHODS: We complemented a new conventional PC GWAS (1D) with genome spatial autocorrelation analysis (2D) permitting to prioritize low frequency variants not detected by GWAS. These were further expanded via Hi-C map (3D) interactions to gain additional insight into the inherited basis of PC. In silico functional analysis of public genomic information allowed prioritization of potentially relevant candidate variants. RESULTS: We identified several new variants located in genes for which there is experimental evidence of their implication in the biology and function of pancreatic acinar cells. Among them is a novel independent variant in NR5A2 (rs3790840) with a meta-analysis p value = 5.91E-06 in 1D approach and a Local Moran's Index (LMI) = 7.76 in 2D approach. We also identified a multi-hit region in CASC8-a lncRNA associated with pancreatic carcinogenesis-with a lowest p value = 6.91E-05. Importantly, two new PC loci were identified both by 2D and 3D approaches: SIAH3 (LMI = 18.24), CTRB2/BCAR1 (LMI = 6.03), in addition to a chromatin interacting region in XBP1-a major regulator of the ER stress and unfolded protein responses in acinar cells-identified by 3D; all of them with a strong in silico functional support. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-step strategy, combined with an in-depth in silico functional analysis, offers a comprehensive approach to advance the study of PC genetic susceptibility and could be applied to other diseases.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498619

RESUMO

We assessed the association between the use of lower- and higher-than-recommended doses of folic acid supplements (FAs) during pregnancy and attentional function in boys and girls at age of 4-5. We analyzed data from 1329 mother-child pairs from the mother-child cohort INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project (INMA) study. Information on FAs use during pregnancy was collected in personal interviews at weeks 12 and 30, and categorized in <400, 400-999 (recommended dose), and ≥1000 µg/day. Child attentional function was assessed by Conners' Kiddie Continuous Performance Test. Multivariable regression analyses were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and beta coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared to recommended FAs doses, the periconceptional use of <400 and ≥1000 µg/day was associated with higher risk of omission errors-IRR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.29) and IRR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.33), respectively. The use of FAs < 400 µg/day and ≥1000 µg/day was significantly associated with deficits of attentional function only in boys. FAs use < 400 µg/day was associated with higher omission errors with IRR = 1.22 and increased hit reaction time (HRT) ß = 34.36, and FAs use ≥ 1000 µg/day was associated with increased HRT ß = 33.18 and HRT standard error ß = 3.31. The periconceptional use of FAs below or above the recommended doses is associated with deficits of attentional function in children at age of 4-5, particularly in boys.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472890

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. An improved risk stratification strategy can increase efficiency of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening. Here we assessed whether individual's genetic background has clinical utility for risk stratification in the context of LDCT screening. Based on 13,119 lung cancer patients and 10,008 controls with European ancestry in the International Lung Cancer Consortium, we constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) via 10-fold cross-validation with regularized penalized regression. The performance of risk model integrating PRS, including calibration and ability to discriminate, was assessed using UK biobank data (N=335,931). Absolute risk was estimated based on age-specific lung cancer incidence and all-cause mortality as competing risk. To evaluate its potential clinical utility, the PRS distribution was simulated in the National Lung Screening Trial, N=50,772 participants). The lung cancer odds ratio (ORs) for individuals at the top decile of the PRS distribution versus those at bottom 10% was 2.39 (95%CI=1.92-3.00, P=1.80x10-14) in the validation set (trend p-value of 5.26 x 10-20). The OR per standard deviation of PRS increase was 1.26 (95%CI=1.20-1.32, P=9.69x10-23) for overall lung cancer risk in the validation set. When considering absolute risks, individuals at different PRS deciles showed differential trajectories of 5-year and cumulative absolute risk. The age reaching the LDCT screening recommendation threshold can vary by 4 to 8 years, depending on the individual's genetic background, smoking status and family history. Collectively, these results suggest that Individual's genetic background may inform the optimal lung cancer LDCT screening strategy.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398651

RESUMO

Inflammation provides a substrate for mechanisms that underlie the association of maternal diet during pregnancy with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. However, no previous study has quantified the proinflammatory potential of maternal diet as a risk factor for ADHD. Thus, we evaluated the association of maternal dietary inflammatory index (DII®) scores during pregnancy with ADHD symptoms in 4-year-old children born in two Mediterranean regions. We analyzed data from two population-based birth cohort studies-INMA (Environment and Childhood) four subcohorts in Spain (N = 2097), and RHEA study in Crete (Greece) (N = 444). The DII score of maternal diet was calculated based on validated food frequency questionnaires completed during pregnancy (12th and/or 32nd week of gestation). ADHD symptoms were assessed by ADHD-DSM-IV in INMA cohort and by ADHDT test in RHEA cohort, with questionnaires filled-out by teachers and parents, respectively. The associations between maternal DII and ADHD symptoms were analysed using multivariable-adjusted zero-inflated negative binomial regression models in each cohort study separately. Meta-analysis was conducted to combine data across the cohorts for fitting within one model. The DII was significantly higher in RHEA (RHEA = 2.09 [1.94, 2.24]) in comparison to INMA subcohorts (Asturias = - 1.52 [- 1.67, - 1.38]; Gipuzkoa = - 1.48 [- 1.64, - 1.33]; Sabadell = - 0.95 [- 1.07, - 0.83]; Valencia = - 0.76 [- 0.90, - 0.62]). Statistically significant reduced risk of inattention symptomatology (OR = 0.86; CI 95% = 0.77-0.96), hyperactivity symptomatology (OR = 0.82; CI 95% = 0.72-0.92) and total ADHD symptomatology (OR = 0.82; CI 95% = - 0.72 to 0.93) were observed with increased maternal DII in boys. No statistically significant associations were observed in girls between maternal DII and inattention, hyperactivity and total ADHD symptomatology. We found reduced risk of ADHD symptomatology with increased DII only in boys. This relationship requires further exploration in other settings.

5.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 58-65, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between Body-Mass-Index (BMI) and lung cancer prognosis is heterogeneous. We evaluated the impact of sex, smoking and race on the relationship between BMI and overall survival (OS) in non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Data from 16 individual ILCCO studies were pooled to assess interactions between BMI and the following factors on OS: self-reported race, smoking status and sex, using Cox models (adjusted hazard ratios; aHR) with interaction terms and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots in stratified analyses. RESULTS: Among 20,937 NSCLC patients with BMI values, females = 47 %; never-smokers = 14 %; White-patients = 76 %. BMI showed differential survival according to race whereby compared to normal-BMI patients, being underweight was associated with poor survival among white patients (OS, aHR = 1.66) but not among black patients (aHR = 1.06; pinteraction = 0.02). Comparing overweight/obese to normal weight patients, Black NSCLC patients who were overweight/obese also had relatively better OS (pinteraction = 0.06) when compared to White-patients. BMI was least associated with survival in Asian-patients and never-smokers. The outcomes of female ever-smokers at the extremes of BMI were associated with worse outcomes in both the underweight (pinteraction<0.001) and obese categories (pinteraction = 0.004) relative to the normal-BMI category, when compared to male ever-smokers. CONCLUSION: Underweight and obese female ever-smokers were associated with worse outcomes in White-patients. These BMI associations were not observed in Asian-patients and never-smokers. Black-patients had more favorable outcomes in the extremes of BMI when compared to White-patients. Body composition in Black-patients, and NSCLC subtypes more commonly seen in Asian-patients and never-smokers, may account for differences in these BMI-OS relationships.

6.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.

7.
Front Med ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889700

RESUMO

Although genome-wide association studies have identified more than eighty genetic variants associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk, biological mechanisms of these variants remain largely unknown. By integrating a large-scale genotype data of 15 581 lung adenocarcinoma (AD) cases, 8350 squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) cases, and 27 355 controls, as well as multiple transcriptome and epigenomic databases, we conducted histology-specific meta-analyses and functional annotations of both reported and novel susceptibility variants. We identified 3064 credible risk variants for NSCLC, which were overrepresented in enhancer-like and promoter-like histone modification peaks as well as DNase I hypersensitive sites. Transcription factor enrichment analysis revealed that USF1 was AD-specific while CREB1 was SqCC-specific. Functional annotation and gene-based analysis implicated 894 target genes, including 274 specifics for AD and 123 for SqCC, which were overrepresented in somatic driver genes (ER = 1.95, P = 0.005). Pathway enrichment analysis and Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that AD genes were primarily involved in immune-related pathways, while SqCC genes were homologous recombination deficiency related. Our results illustrate the molecular basis of both well-studied and new susceptibility loci of NSCLC, providing not only novel insights into the genetic heterogeneity between AD and SqCC but also a set of plausible gene targets for post-GWAS functional experiments.

8.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924180

RESUMO

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1ß pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914876

RESUMO

At the time of cancer diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) is inversely correlated with lung cancer risk, which may reflect reverse causality and confounding due to smoking behavior. We used two-sample univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate causal relationships of BMI and smoking behaviors on lung cancer and histological subtypes based on an aggregated genome-wide association studies (GWASs) analysis of lung cancer in 29 266 cases and 56 450 controls. We observed a positive causal effect for high BMI on occurrence of small-cell lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-2.06, P = 2.70 × 10-4 ). After adjustment of smoking behaviors using multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR), a direct causal effect on small cell lung cancer (ORMVMR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.55, PMVMR = .011), and an inverse effect on lung adenocarcinoma (ORMVMR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96, PMVMR = .008) were observed. A weak increased risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma was observed for higher BMI in univariable Mendelian randomization (UVMR) analysis (ORUVMR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40, PUVMR = .036), but this effect disappeared after adjustment of smoking (ORMVMR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90-1.16, PMVMR = .746). These results highlight the histology-specific impact of BMI on lung carcinogenesis and imply mediator role of smoking behaviors in the association between BMI and lung cancer.

10.
Environ Int ; 144: 106055, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most frequent tumor in males and the second in females worldwide. In Spain, it is an important and growing health problem, and epidemiologic research focused on potential risk factors, such as environmental exposures, is necessary. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the association between colorectal cancer risk and residential proximity to industries, according to pollution discharge route, industrial groups, categories of carcinogens and other toxic substances, and specific pollutants released, in the context of a population-based multicase-control study of incident cancer carried out in Spain (MCC-Spain). METHODS: MCC-Spain included 557 colorectal cancer cases and 2948 controls in 11 provinces, frequency matched by sex, age, and region of residence. Distances were computed from subjects' residences to each of the 134 industries located in the study area. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance (from 1 km to 3 km) to industrial facilities, adjusting for matching variables and other confounders. RESULTS: Excess risk (OR; 95%CI) of colorectal cancer was detected near industries overall for all distances analyzed, from 1 km (2.03; 1.44-2.87) to 3 km (1.26; 1.00-1.59). In general, industries releasing pollutants to air showed higher excess risks than facilities releasing pollution to water. By industrial sector, excess risk (OR; 95%CI) was found near (≤3 km) production of metals (2.66; 1.77-4.00), surface treatment of metals (1.48; 1.08-2.02), glass and mineral fibers (2.06; 1.39-3.07), organic chemical industry (4.80; 3.20-7.20), inorganic chemical industry (6.74; 4.38-10.36), food/beverage sector (3.34; 2.38-4.68), and surface treatment using organic solvents (6.16; 4.06-9.36). By pollutants, the main excess risks (OR; 95%CI) were found near (≤3 km) industries releasing nonylphenol (9.19; 5.91-14.28), antimony (5.30; 3.45-8.15), naphthalene (3.11; 2.16-4.49), organotin compounds (2.64; 1.76-3.98), manganese (2.53; 1.63-3.93), dichloromethane (2.52; 1.74-3.66), and vanadium (2.49; 1.59-3.91). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that residing in the proximity of industries may be a risk factor for colorectal cancer.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess how lifestyle factors such as diet, sleep, screen viewing, and physical activity, individually, as well as in a combined score, were associated with neuropsychological development in pre-school age children. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 1650 children of 4 years of age, from the Environment and Childhood Project (INMA) population-based birth cohorts in four regions of Spain. Children were classified per a childhood healthy lifestyle score (CHLS) with a range of 0 to 4 that included eating in concordance with the Mediterranean diet (1 point); reaching recommended sleep time (1 point); watching a maximum recommended screen time (1 point); and being physically active (1 point). The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) were used to test neuropsychological development. Multi-adjusted linear regression models were created to assess the association with the lifestyle factors individually and as a combined score. RESULTS: CHLS was not associated with MSCA general cognitive score (1-point increment = -0.5, 95% CI: -1.2, 0.2). Analyzed by separate lifestyle factors, physical activity had a significant negative association with MSCA score and less TV/screen time had a negative association with MSCA score. CONCLUSION: In this cross-sectional study, a combined score of lifestyle factors is not related to neuropsychological development at pre-school age.

12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 1983-1992, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with 15% to 20% occurring in never smokers. To assess genetic determinants for prognosis among never smokers, we conducted a genome-wide investigation in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO). METHODS: Genomic and clinical data from 1,569 never-smoking patients with lung cancer of European ancestry from 10 ILCCO studies were included. HRs and 95% confidence intervals of overall survival were estimated. We assessed whether the associations were mediated through mRNA expression-based 1,553 normal lung tissues from the lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) dataset and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx). For cross-ethnicity generalization, we assessed the associations in a Japanese study (N = 887). RESULTS: One locus at 13q22.2 was associated with lung adenocarcinoma survival at genome-wide level, with carriers of rs12875562-T allele exhibiting poor prognosis [HR = 1.71 (1.41-2.07), P = 3.60 × 10-8], and altered mRNA expression of LMO7DN in lung tissue (GTEx, P = 9.40 × 10-7; Lung eQTL dataset, P = 0.003). Furthermore, 2 of 11 independent loci that reached the suggestive significance level (P < 10-6) were significant eQTL affecting mRNA expression of nearby genes in lung tissues, including CAPZB at 1p36.13 and UBAC1 at 9q34.3. One locus encoding NWD2/KIAA1239 at 4p14 showed associations in both European [HR = 0.50 (0.38-0.66), P = 6.92 × 10-7] and Japanese populations [HR = 0.79 (0.67-0.94), P = 0.007]. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the largest genomic investigation on the lung cancer prognosis of never smokers to date, we observed that lung cancer prognosis is affected by inherited genetic variants. IMPACT: We identified one locus near LMO7DN at genome-wide level and several potential prognostic genes with cis-effect on mRNA expression. Further functional genomics work is required to understand their role in tumor progression.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709095

RESUMO

We aimed to study the association between occupational exposure to pesticides and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Spain. Occupational exposure to pesticides (four insecticides, four herbicides and two fungicides) was evaluated using a job-exposure matrix for the Spanish population (MatEmESp) among 302 CLL cases and 1567 population controls in five regions of Spain, 2010-2013. Cumulative exposure scores (CES) were obtained by summing across the exposed jobs the product of prevalence, intensity and duration of exposure to each active substance. Principal components analysis (PCA) and logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, region, education and occupational exposure to solvents were used. Around 20% of controls and 29% of cases were exposed to one or more pesticides. Compared to non-exposed, subjects in the highest tertile (3rd tertile) of CES of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides were more likely to have CLL [OR (95% CI), P-trend; 2.10 (1.38; 3.19), 0.002; 1.77 (1.12; 2.80), 0.12; and 1.67 (1.06; 2.64), 0.10, respectively). Following PCA, the first component (PC1, explaining 70% of the variation) equally led by seven active substances (the insecticide pyrethrin, all herbicides, all fungicides) was associated with a 26% higher odds of having CLL for 1-standard deviation increase in PC1 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.40). These results confirm previous associations between CLL and exposure to pesticides and provide additional evidence by application groups and active substance. However, more research is needed to disentangle independent effects of individual active substances.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B , Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/induzido quimicamente , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 229: 113563, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals may impair genital development and alter reproductive tract anatomy. Anogenital distance (AGD) is a useful biomarker of exposure to chemicals that act as endocrine disruptors. We evaluated associations between prenatal and perinatal exposure to several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and AGD in 4-year-old children. METHODS: Data were drawn from the INMA-Asturias cohort. Pediatricians measured the anofourchetal distance in female children and anoscrotal distance in male children. The anogenital index (AGI) was defined as the AGD divided by the child's weight at age of examination. We measured the levels of two hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, hexachlorobenzene, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and six polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in maternal serum at 12 gestational weeks (n = 155) and in cord blood serum (n = 229). Anthropometric and parental sociodemographic variables were collected via face-to-face interviews. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between exposure to POPs and AGI, adjusted for confounders and stratified by sex. RESULTS: In male children, we found inverse associations between AGI and maternal concentrations of PCB-138 (ß = -0.041, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.074, -0.008, second tertile), PCB-153 (ß = -0.052, 95% CI: -0.085, -0.020, second tertile), PCB-180 ß = -0.065, 95% CI: -0.096, -0.035, second tertile; ß = -0.042, 95% CI: -0.073, -0.011, third tertile), PBDE-209 (ß = -0.031, 95% CI: -0.058, -0.006), cord serum concentrations of PCB-153 (ß = -0.029, 95% CI: -0.059, -0.000, second tertile; ß = -0.047, 95% CI: -0.085, -0.008, third tertile), and PCB-180 (ß = -0.041, 95% CI: -0.078, -0.005, third tertile). In female children, AGI was positively associated with maternal serum concentrations of PCB-101 (ß = 0.039, 95% CI: 0.002, 0.076, second tertile), and higher cord serum levels of 4,4'-DDT (ß = 0.032, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.061, third tertile) and 4,4'-DDE (ß = 0.040, 95% CI: 0.011, 0.069, third tertile). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence of associations between specific POPs and AGI in boys and girls aged 4 years, and suggest that pre/perinatal exposure to POPs has a feminizing effect in males and a masculinizing effect in females.

15.
Gut ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterise the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subtypes (new-onset T2DM (NODM) or long-standing T2DM (LSDM)) and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk, to explore the direction of causation through Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis and to assess the mediation role of body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Information about T2DM and related factors was collected from 2018 PC cases and 1540 controls from the PanGenEU (European Study into Digestive Illnesses and Genetics) study. A subset of PC cases and controls had glycated haemoglobin, C-peptide and genotype data. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to derive ORs and 95% CIs. T2DM and PC-related single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) were used as instrumental variables (IVs) in bidirectional MR analysis to test for two-way causal associations between PC, NODM and LSDM. Indirect and direct effects of the BMI-T2DM-PC association were further explored using mediation analysis. RESULTS: T2DM was associated with an increased PC risk when compared with non-T2DM (OR=2.50; 95% CI: 2.05 to 3.05), the risk being greater for NODM (OR=6.39; 95% CI: 4.18 to 9.78) and insulin users (OR=3.69; 95% CI: 2.80 to 4.86). The causal association between T2DM (57-SNP IV) and PC was not statistically significant (ORLSDM=1.08, 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.29, ORNODM=1.06, 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.17). In contrast, there was a causal association between PC (40-SNP IV) and NODM (OR=2.85; 95% CI: 2.04 to 3.98), although genetic pleiotropy was present (MR-Egger: p value=0.03). Potential mediating effects of BMI (125-SNPs as IV), particularly in terms of weight loss, were evidenced on the NODM-PC association (indirect effect for BMI in previous years=0.55). CONCLUSION: Findings of this study do not support a causal effect of LSDM on PC, but suggest that PC causes NODM. The interplay between obesity, PC and T2DM is complex.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2220, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393777

RESUMO

Few germline mutations are known to affect lung cancer risk. We performed analyses of rare variants from 39,146 individuals of European ancestry and investigated gene expression levels in 7,773 samples. We find a large-effect association with an ATM L2307F (rs56009889) mutation in adenocarcinoma for discovery (adjusted Odds Ratio = 8.82, P = 1.18 × 10-15) and replication (adjusted OR = 2.93, P = 2.22 × 10-3) that is more pronounced in females (adjusted OR = 6.81 and 3.19 and for discovery and replication). We observe an excess loss of heterozygosity in lung tumors among ATM L2307F allele carriers. L2307F is more frequent (4%) among Ashkenazi Jewish populations. We also observe an association in discovery (adjusted OR = 2.61, P = 7.98 × 10-22) and replication datasets (adjusted OR = 1.55, P = 0.06) with a loss-of-function mutation, Q4X (rs150665432) of an uncharacterized gene, KIAA0930. Our findings implicate germline genetic variants in ATM with lung cancer susceptibility and suggest KIAA0930 as a novel candidate gene for lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Judeus/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Razão de Chances , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Linhagem , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Risco
17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 412-421, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330394

RESUMO

Rationale: Millions of workers around the world are exposed to respirable crystalline silica. Although silica is a confirmed human lung carcinogen, little is known regarding the cancer risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype. However, little is known regarding the disease risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype.Objectives: We aimed to address current knowledge gaps in lung cancer risks associated with low levels of occupational silica exposure and the joint effects of smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risks.Methods: Subjects from 14 case-control studies from Europe and Canada with detailed smoking and occupational histories were pooled. A quantitative job-exposure matrix was used to estimate silica exposure by occupation, time period, and geographical region. Logistic regression models were used to estimate exposure-disease associations and the joint effects of silica exposure and smoking on risk of lung cancer. Stratified analyses by smoking history and cancer subtypes were also performed.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 cases and 20,965 control subjects. Lung cancer odds ratios ranged from 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.27) to 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.60) for groups with the lowest and highest cumulative exposure, respectively. Increasing cumulative silica exposure was associated (P trend < 0.01) with increasing lung cancer risks in nonsilicotics and in current, former, and never-smokers. Increasing exposure was also associated (P trend ≤ 0.01) with increasing risks of lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. Supermultiplicative interaction of silica exposure and smoking was observed on overall lung cancer risks; superadditive effects were observed in risks of lung cancer and all three included subtypes.Conclusions: Silica exposure is associated with lung cancer at low exposure levels. An exposure-response relationship was robust and present regardless of smoking, silicosis status, and cancer subtype.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Silício , Silicose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 402-411, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330395

RESUMO

Rationale: Although the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust has been demonstrated in multiple studies, little is known regarding exposure-response relationships associated with different exposure subgroups and different lung cancer subtypes.Objectives: We expanded on a previous pooled case-control analysis on diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer by including three additional studies and quantitative exposure assessment to evaluate lung cancer and subtype risks associated with occupational exposure to diesel exhaust characterized by elemental carbon (EC) concentrations.Methods: We used a quantitative EC job-exposure matrix for exposure assessment. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with various metrics of EC exposure. Lung cancer excess lifetime risks (ELR) were calculated using life tables accounting for all-cause mortality. Additional stratified analyses by smoking history and lung cancer subtypes were performed in men.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 lung cancer cases and 20,965 control subjects. In men, exposure response between EC and lung cancer was observed: odds ratios ranged from 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.18) to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.30-1.52) for the lowest and highest cumulative exposure groups, respectively. EC-exposed men had elevated risks in all lung cancer subtypes investigated; associations were strongest for squamous and small cell carcinomas and weaker for adenocarcinoma. EC lung cancer exposure response was observed in men regardless of smoking history, including in never-smokers. ELR associated with 45 years of EC exposure at 50, 20, and 1 µg/m3 were 3.0%, 0.99%, and 0.04%, respectively, for both sexes combined.Conclusions: We observed a consistent exposure-response relationship between EC exposure and lung cancer in men. Reduction of workplace EC levels to background environmental levels will further reduce lung cancer ELR in exposed workers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Carbono , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA