Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 263
Filtrar
1.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696517

RESUMO

We have recently completed the largest GWAS on lung cancer including 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls of European descent. The goal of this study has been to integrate the complete GWAS results with a large-scale expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping study in human lung tissues (n=1,038) to identify candidate causal genes for lung cancer. We performed transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) for lung cancer overall, by histology (adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell lung cancer) and smoking subgroups (never- and ever-smokers). We performed replication analysis using lung data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. DNA damage assays were performed in human lung fibroblasts for selected TWAS genes. As expected, the main TWAS signal for all histological subtypes and ever-smokers was on chromosome 15q25. The gene most strongly associated with lung cancer at this locus using the TWAS approach was IREB2 (PTWAS =1.09E-99), where lower predicted expression increased lung cancer risk. A new lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility locus was revealed on 9p13.3 and associated with higher predicted expression of AQP3 (PTWAS =3.72E-6). Among the 45 previously described lung cancer GWAS loci, we mapped candidate target gene for 17 of them. The association AQP3-adenocarcinoma on 9p13.3 was replicated using GTEx (PTWAS =6.55E-5). Consistent with the effect of risk alleles on gene expression levels, IREB2 knockdown and AQP3 overproduction promote endogenous DNA damage. These findings indicate genes whose expression in lung tissue directly influence lung cancer risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14792, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616023

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency during critical periods of development could lead to persistent brain alterations. We aimed to assess the association between maternal vitamin D3, the major circulatory form of vitamin D, at pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes during childhood, namely: behavioural problems, Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms, and social competence. This study included 2,107 mother-child pairs of a Spanish population-based birth cohort. Maternal plasma vitamin D3 was measured in pregnancy. The outcomes were measured through questionnaires at 5, 8, 14, and 18 years old. We ran multivariate regression models adjusted for potential confounding variables. We found that per each 10 ng/mL increment of maternal vitamin D3, children obtained higher social competence scores (coefficient = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.19, 1.35) at 5 years old. However, we observed null associations between maternal vitamin D3 and total behavioural problems and ADHD and ASD symptoms in children from 5 to 18 years old. Further studies carried out in countries where the population is exposed to lower vitamin D levels are needed.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577861

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 45 susceptibility loci associated with lung cancer. Only less than SNPs, small insertions and deletions (INDELs) are the second most abundant genetic polymorphisms in the human genome. INDELs are highly associated with multiple human diseases, including lung cancer. However, limited studies with large-scale samples have been available to systematically evaluate the effects of INDELs on lung cancer risk. Here, we performed a large-scale meta-analysis to evaluate INDELs and their risk for lung cancer in 23,202 cases and 19,048 controls. Functional annotations were performed to further explore the potential function of lung cancer risk INDELs. Conditional analysis was used to clarify the relationship between INDELs and SNPs. Four new risk loci were identified in genome-wide INDEL analysis (1p13.2: rs5777156, Insertion, OR = 0.92, p = 9.10 × 10-8 ; 4q28.2: rs58404727, Deletion, OR = 1.19, p = 5.25 × 10-7 ; 12p13.31: rs71450133, Deletion, OR = 1.09, p = 8.83 × 10-7 ; and 14q22.3: rs34057993, Deletion, OR = 0.90, p = 7.64 × 10-8 ). The eQTL analysis and functional annotation suggested that INDELs might affect lung cancer susceptibility by regulating the expression of target genes. After conducting conditional analysis on potential causal SNPs, the INDELs in the new loci were still nominally significant. Our findings indicate that INDELs could be potentially functional genetic variants for lung cancer risk. Further functional experiments are needed to better understand INDEL mechanisms in carcinogenesis.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need to test the fetal programming theoretical framework in nutritional epidemiology. We evaluated whether maternal seafood intake during pregnancy was associated with 8-year-old attention outcomes after adjusting for previous child seafood intake and cognitive function. We also explored effect modification by several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related with polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism. METHODS: Our final analyses included 1644 mother-child pairs from the prospective INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) cohort study (Spain, recruitment between 2003 and 2008). We used food frequency questionnaires to assess prenatal and postnatal seafood consumption of the mother-child pairs. We evaluated attention function of the children through the computer-based Attention Network Test (ANT) and we used the number of omission errors and the hit reaction time standard error (HRT-SE). Parents reported child attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Revised Conners' Parent Rating Scale Short Form (CPRS-R: S). We measured seven candidate SNPs in a subsample of 845 children. We estimated associations using regression models, adjusting for family characteristics, child seafood intake and cognitive functions at early ages, and to explore SNP effect modifications. RESULTS: Higher total seafood intake during early pregnancy was associated with a reduction of child ANT omission errors, 5th quintile (median = 854 g/week) vs 1st quintile (median = 195 g/week), incidence risk ratio (IRR) 0.76; 95% CI = 0.61, 0.94. Similar results were observed after adjusting the models for child seafood intake and previous cognitive status. Lean, large and small fatty fish showed similar results, and generally similar but less robust associations were observed with the other attention outcomes. Shellfish and canned tuna showed weaker associations. The association patterns were weaker in late pregnancy and null in child seafood consumption. Child rs1260326 (glucokinase regulator, GCKR) and child/maternal rs2281591 (fatty acid elongase 2, ELOVL2) polymorphisms showed nominal P-value for interactions <0.10 between total seafood intake and ANT outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for previous child cognitive functions and child seafood intake, high pregnancy consumption (total, lean, small and large fatty fish) was independently associated with improvements of some 8-year-old attention outcomes. Genetic effect modification analyses suggest PUFA intake from seafood as a potential biological mechanism of such association.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912902, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617922

RESUMO

Importance: Air pollutants interact with estrogen nuclear receptors, but their effect on thyroid signaling is less clear. Thyroid function is of particular importance for pregnant women because of the thyroid's role in fetal brain development. Objective: To determine the short-term association of exposure to air pollution in the first trimester with thyroid function throughout pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, 9931 pregnant women from 4 European cohorts (the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study, the Generation R Study, Infancia y Medio Ambiente, and Rhea) and 1 US cohort (Project Viva) with data on air pollution exposure and thyroid function during pregnancy were included. The recruitment period for the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study was January 2003 to March 2004; for Generation R, April 2002 to January 2006; for Infancia y Medio Ambiente, November 2003 to January 2008; for Rhea, February 2007 to February 2008; and for Project Viva, April 1999 to November 2002. Statistical analyses were conducted from January 2018 to April 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Residential air pollution concentrations (ie, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter [PM]) during the first trimester of pregnancy were estimated using land-use regression and satellite-derived aerosol optical depth models. Free thyroxine, thyrotropin, and thyroid peroxidase antibody levels were measured across gestation. Hypothyroxinemia was defined as free thyroxine below the fifth percentile of the cohort distribution with normal thyrotropin levels, following the American Thyroid Association guidelines. Results: Among 9931 participants, the mean (SD) age was 31.2 (4.8) years, 4853 (48.9%) had more than secondary educational levels, 5616 (56.6%) were nulliparous, 404 (4.2%) had hypothyroxinemia, and 506 (6.7%) tested positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) were lower and had less variation in women in the US cohort than those in European cohorts. No associations of nitrogen oxide with thyroid function were found. Higher exposures to PM2.5 were associated with higher odds of hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women (odds ratio per 5-µg/m3 change, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.47). Although exposure to PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less was not significantly associated with hypothyroxinemia, the coefficient was similar to that for the association of PM2.5 with hypothyroxinemia (odds ratio per 10-µg/m3 change, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.93-1.48). Absorbances of PM2.5 and PM with aerodynamic diameter from 2.5 to 10 µg and were not associated with hypothyroxinemia. There was substantial heterogeneity among cohorts with respect to thyroid peroxidase antibodies (P for heterogeneity, <.001), showing associations of nitrogen oxide and PM with thyroid autoimmunity only in the women in the Generation R Study. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that first-trimester exposures to PM2.5 were associated with mild thyroid dysfunction throughout pregnancy. The association of PM2.5 exposure with thyroid function during pregnancy is of global health importance because air pollution exposure is widespread and hypothyroxinemia may adversely influence the brain development of offspring.

6.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105241, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfed children absorb persistent and toxic chemicals such as organohalogen compounds (OHCs) during the entire lactation period. Nursing is a main contributor to the burden of these pollutants in the first years of life, hence further assessments on the OHC load processes are needed. OBJECTIVES: To identify the determinants of OHC increase in children at four years of age, considering concentration gains, maternal venous concentrations and breastfeeding time. METHODS: Concentrations of 19 organochlorine compounds (OCs) and 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in maternal venous (n = 466), cord blood (n = 326) and children venous serum at four years of age (n = 272) in the Asturias INMA cohort representing the Spanish general population. Data were evaluated considering the socio-demographic and individual information collected at recruitment and follow up surveys, as well as the OHC physical-chemical constants. RESULTS: The four years-old children concentration gains of the most abundant OHCs showed strong correlations (R2 = 0.65-0.93) with the maternal concentrations during pregnancy and lactation period. The child gain/maternal transfer rates of most correlated pollutants were similar. DISCUSSION: Between 65 and 93% of the variance of OCs in four years-old children was explained by the maternal concentrations during pregnancy and the lactation period. The compounds with log(Kow) > 3.7 (hydrophobic) showed analogous child gain/maternal transfer rates indicating similar processes of membrane lipid dissolution and passive diffusion from the epithelial cells into the milk. Molecular weight of these pollutants did not influence on these rates. Compounds with low log(Koa) such as hexachlorobenzene are more volatile and less retained, involving lower child gain/maternal transfer rates. These results may be useful to anticipate the increase of the concentrations of OCs in children using the maternal concentration of these compounds during pregnancy and the planned lactation period and to implement prophylactic measures in mothers with high venous pollutant concentrations.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13407, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527690

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia and statin use have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but prospective studies have shown mixed results. We aimed to determine whether dyslipidemia is causally linked to CRC risk using a Mendelian randomization approach and to explore the association of statins with CRC. A case-control study was performed including 1336 CRC cases and 2744 controls (MCC-Spain). Subjects were administered an epidemiological questionnaire and were genotyped with an array which included polymorphisms associated with blood lipids levels, selected to avoid pleiotropy. Four genetic lipid scores specific for triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), or total cholesterol (TC) were created as the count of risk alleles. The genetic lipid scores were not associated with CRC. The ORs per 10 risk alleles, were for TG 0.91 (95%CI: 0.72-1.16, p = 0.44), for HDL 1.14 (95%CI: 0.95-1.37, p = 0.16), for LDL 0.97 (95%CI: 0.81-1.16, p = 0.73), and for TC 0.98 (95%CI: 0.84-1.17, p = 0.88). The LDL and TC genetic risk scores were associated with statin use, but not the HDL or TG. Statin use, overall, was a non-significant protective factor for CRC (OR 0.84; 95%CI: 0.70-1.01, p = 0.060), but lipophilic statins were associated with a CRC risk reduction (OR 0.78; 95%CI 0.66-0.96, p = 0.018). Using the Mendelian randomization approach, our study does not support the hypothesis that lipid levels are associated with the risk of CRC. This study does not rule out, however, a possible protective effect of statins in CRC by a mechanism unrelated to lipid levels.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374897

RESUMO

The consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCB) has been associated with obesity although the evidence in preschool children is scarce. Cross-sectional analyses were performed to assess the association between obesity and SCB consumption (packaged juices and sugar-sweetened soft drinks) in 1823 children at the age of 4-5 years from the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project. One drink was defined as a glass of 175 mL, and the consumption of SCB was categorized in <1, 1-7 drinks/week and > 1 drink/day. We used multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR). The average SCB consumption was 79.1 mL/day, mainly from packaged juices (80.9%). The SCB consumption was lower in non-obese children than in children with obesity, 76.6 vs 118.4 mL/day (p = 0.02). After adjusting for covariates, children who consumed >1 drink/day showed elevated odds of obesity, OR = 3.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.48-6.98) compared to children who consumed <1 SCB drink a week. Each additional SCB drink per day was associated with higher odds of obesity, OR = 1.55 (1.14-2.09). Higher consumption of packaged juices, but not sugar-sweetened soft drinks, was significantly associated with higher odds of obesity, OR = 1.55 (1.09-2.15) and OR = 1.59 (0.76-3.39), respectively. A higher SCB consumption is associated with obesity in preschool children, mainly due to the consumption of packaged juices.

10.
Environ Int ; 131: 104927, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution exposure and emotional and behavioural problems in children is unclear. We aimed to assess prenatal and postnatal exposure to several air pollutants and child's depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in children of 7-11 years. METHODS: We analysed data of 13182 children from 8 European population-based birth cohorts. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM) with diameters of ≤10 µm (PM10), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and between 10 and 2.5 µm (PMcoarse), the absorbance of PM2.5 filters (PM2.5abs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were estimated at residential addresses of each participant. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and aggressive symptoms were assessed at 7-11 years of age using parent reported tests. Children were classified in borderline/clinical range or clinical range using validated cut offs. Region specific models were adjusted for various socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics and then combined using random effect meta-analysis. Multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting methods were applied to correct for potential attrition bias. RESULTS: A total of 1896 (14.4%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range, and 1778 (13.4%) as having aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range. Overall, 1108 (8.4%) and 870 (6.6%) children were classified as having depressive and anxiety symptoms, and aggressive symptoms in the clinical range, respectively. Prenatal exposure to air pollution was not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.02 [95%CI 0.95 to 1.10] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2) nor with aggressive symptoms in the borderline/clinical range (e.g. OR 1.04 [95%CI 0.96 to 1.12] per 10 µg/m3 higher NO2). Similar results were observed for the symptoms in the clinical range, and for postnatal exposures to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results suggest that prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution is not associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms or aggressive symptoms in children of 7 to 11 years old.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1228-1237, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality with relatively few prognostic biomarkers. We investigated associations with overall survival for telomere length (TL) and genetic variation in chromosome 5p15.33, an established telomere maintenance locus. METHODS: Leukocyte TL was measured after diagnosis in 807 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the Princess Margaret Cancer Center in Toronto and assessed prospectively in 767 NSCLC cases from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study. Associations with all-cause mortality were tested for 723 variants in 5p15.33, genotyped in 4,672 NSCLC cases. RESULTS: Short telomeres (≤10th percentile) were associated with poor prognosis for adenocarcinoma in both populations: TL measured 6 months after diagnosis [HR = 1.65; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.04-2.64] and for those diagnosed within 5 years after blood sampling (HR = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.37-4.28). Short TL was associated with mortality in never smokers with NSCLC (HR = 10.29; 95% CI, 1.86-56.86) and adenocarcinoma (HR = 11.31; 95% CI, 1.96-65.24). Analyses in 5p15.33 identified statistically significant prognostic associations for rs56266421-G in LPCAT1 (HR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.38-2.52; P = 4.5 × 10-5) in stage I-IIIA NSCLC, and for the SLC6A3 gene with OS in females with NSCLC (P = 1.6 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the potential clinical utility of TL, particularly for adenocarcinoma patients, while associations in chromosome 5p15.33 warrant further exploration. IMPACT: This is the largest lung cancer study of leukocyte TL and OS, and the first to examine the impact of the timing of TL measurement. Our findings suggest that extremely short telomeres are indicative of poor prognosis in NSCLC.

12.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234427

RESUMO

Inflammation and antioxidant capacity have been associated with colorectal and breast cancer. We computed the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), and the total dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and associated them with colorectal and breast cancer risk in the population-based multi case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain). We included 1852 colorectal cancer and 1567 breast cancer cases, and 3447 and 1486 population controls, respectively. DII score and NEAC were derived using data from a semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for energy-adjusted DII (E-DII), and a score combining E-DII and NEAC. E-DII was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.93, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:1.60-2.32; p-trend: <0.001); this increase was observed for both colon and rectal cancer. Less pronounced increased risks were observed for breast cancer (OR = 1.22, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:0.99-1.52, p-trend: >0.10). The combined score of high E-DII scores and low antioxidant values were associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.48, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI: 1.26-1.74; p-trend: <0.001), but not breast cancer. This study provides evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk while findings for breast cancer were less consistent.

13.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(9): 1594-1607, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationships between morbid obesity, changes in body mass index (BMI) before cancer diagnosis, and lung cancer outcomes by histology (SCLC and NSCLC) have not been well studied. METHODS: Individual level data analysis was performed on 25,430 patients with NSCLC and 2787 patients with SCLC from 16 studies of the International Lung Cancer Consortium evaluating the association between various BMI variables and lung cancer overall survival, reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) from Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots. RESULTS: Overall survival of NSCLC had putative U-shaped hazard ratio relationships with BMI based on spline plots: being underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2; aHR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.43-1.70) or morbidly overweight (BMI > 40 kg/m2; aHR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.95-1.26) at the time of diagnosis was associated with worse stage-specific prognosis, whereas being overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2; aHR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.95) or obese (30 kg/m2 ≤ BMI ≤ 40 kg/m2; aHR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.82-0.91) was associated with improved survival. Although not significant, a similar pattern was seen with SCLC. Compared with an increased or stable BMI from the period between young adulthood until date of diagnosis, a decreased BMI was associated with worse outcomes in NSCLC (aHR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.2-1.3) and SCLC patients (aHR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.0-1.6). Decreased BMI was consistently associated with worse outcome, across clinicodemographic subsets. CONCLUSIONS: Both being underweight or morbidly obese at time of diagnosis is associated with lower stage-specific survival in independent assessments of NSCLC and SCLC patients. In addition, a decrease in BMI at lung cancer diagnosis relative to early adulthood is a consistent marker of poor survival.

15.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(7): 661-673, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062119

RESUMO

There is scientific evidence on the protective effects of nut intake against cognitive decline in the elderly; however, this effect has been less explored in child neurodevelopment and no studies have explored the potential longitudinal association with nut intake during pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the association of maternal nut intake during pregnancy with child neuropsychological outcomes. We included 2208 mother-child pairs from a population-based birth cohort in four regions of Spain. The follow up settings were during pregnancy (first and third trimesters), birth, 1.5, 5 and 8 years. Neuropsychological examinations were based on Bayley Scales of Infant Development (1.5 years), McCarthy scales of Children's Abilities (5 year), Attention Network Test (ANT, 8 year) and N-Back test (8 year). Nut intake in pregnancy was reported through a validated food frequency questionnaire during the first and the third trimester. Multivariable regressions analyzed associations after controlling for priori selected confounders notably maternal education, social class, body mass index, energy intake, fish intake, omega-3 supplements, alcohol consumption and smoking habits during pregnancy. Children within the highest tertile of maternal nut consumption during first pregnancy trimester (> 32 g/week) had a decrease of 13.82 ms [95% confidence interval (CI) - 23.40, - 4.23] in the ANT-hit reaction time standard error, compared to the first tertile (median 0 g/w). A similar protective association pattern was observed with the other cognitive scores at the different child ages. After correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni familywise error rate (FWER), Hochberg FWER and Simes false discovery rate, ANT-hit reaction time standard error remained significant. Final model estimates by inverse probability weighting did not change results. Third pregnancy trimester nut intake showed weaker associations. These data indicate that nut intake during early pregnancy is associated with long-term child neuropsychological development. Future cohort studies and randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm this association pattern in order to further extend nutrition guidelines among pregnant women.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Mães , Nozes , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
16.
Environ Res ; 174: 135-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075694

RESUMO

Early-life exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) may adversely impact health later in life. To date, evidence of iAs adverse effects on children's neurodevelopment comes mainly from populations highly exposed to contaminated water with conflicting results. Little is known about those effects among populations with low iAs exposure from food intake. We investigated the cross-sectional association between exposure to iAs and neurodevelopment scores among children living in Spain whose main route of exposure was diet. Arsenic species concentrations in urine from 400 children was determined, and the sum of urinary iAs, dimethylarsinic acid, and monomethylarsonic acid was used to estimate iAs exposure. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities was used to assess children's neuropsychological development at about 4-5 years of age. The median (interquartile range) of children's sum of urinary iAs, MMA, and DMA was 4.85 (2.74-7.54) µg/L, and in adjusted linear regression analyses the natural logarithm transformed concentrations showed an inverse association with children's motor functions (ß, [95% confidence interval]; global scores (-2.29, [-3.95, -0.63])), gross scores (-1.92, [-3.52, -0.31]) and fine scores (-1.54, [-3.06, -0.03]). In stratified analyses by sex, negative associations were observed with the scores in the quantitative index (-2.59, [-5.36, 0.17]) and working memory function (-2.56, [-5.36, 0.24]) only in boys. Our study suggests that relatively low iAs exposure may impair children's neuropsychological development and that sex-related differences may be present in susceptibility to iAs related effects; however, our findings should be interpreted with caution given the possibility of residual confounding.

18.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1360-1369, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer. RESULTS: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 × 10-16), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 × 10-16), and rs4975616 (OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 × 10-14). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate. CONCLUSIONS: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease.

19.
J Pediatr ; 209: 204-211.e4, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether higher omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma is associated with more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at 4 and 7 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: This study was based on a population-based birth cohort in Spain. N-6 arachidonic acid and n-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were measured in cord plasma. At 4 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by teachers through the ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed checklist (n = 580). At 7 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by parents through the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised (short form; n = 642). The ADHD variable was treated as continuous (score) and as dichotomous (symptom diagnostic criteria). Child and family general characteristics were prospectively collected through questionnaires. We applied pooled zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regressions adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: A higher omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma was associated with a higher ADHD index (incidence rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.23) at 7 years old. The association was not observed at 4 years old (incidence rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.92-1.18). No associations were found using ADHD symptom diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: High prenatal omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio preceded the appearance of subclinical ADHD symptoms during mid-childhood. Our findings suggest that maternal diet during pregnancy may modulate the risk to develop long-term ADHD symptoms in the offspring.

20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 935-942, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelets are a critical element in coagulation and inflammation, and activated platelets are linked to cancer risk through diverse mechanisms. However, a causal relationship between platelets and risk of lung cancer remains unclear. METHODS: We performed single and combined multiple instrumental variable Mendelian randomization analysis by an inverse-weighted method, in addition to a series of sensitivity analyses. Summary data for associations between SNPs and platelet count are from a recent publication that included 48,666 Caucasian Europeans, and the International Lung Cancer Consortium and Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung data consisting of 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls to analyze associations between candidate SNPs and lung cancer risk. RESULTS: Multiple instrumental variable analysis incorporating six SNPs showed a 62% increased risk of overall non-small cell lung cancer [NSCLC; OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-2.27; P = 0.005] and a 200% increased risk for small-cell lung cancer (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.27-7.06; P = 0.01). Results showed only a trending association with NSCLC histologic subtypes, which may be due to insufficient sample size and/or weak effect size. A series of sensitivity analysis retained these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated platelet count and increased risk of lung cancer and provide evidence of possible antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention. IMPACT: These findings provide a better understanding of lung cancer etiology and potential evidence for antiplatelet interventions for lung cancer prevention.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA