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1.
Liver Int ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between low cardiorespiratory fitness and liver fat content (LFC) in the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated data from 2,151 adults (51.1% women) from two population-based cohorts of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2 and SHIP-TREND-0). We analyzed the cross-sectional associations of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ) with LFC, assessed by magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction, as well as serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and aminotransferase concentrations by multivariable regression models. RESULTS: We observed significant inverse associations of VO2peak with LFC and serum GGT, but not with serum aminotransferase levels. Specifically, a 1L/min lower VO2peak was associated with a 1.09% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45-1.73; p=0.002) higher LFC and a 0.18 µkatal/L (95% CI: 0.09-0.26; p<0.001) higher GGT levels. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for the risk of prevalent hepatic steatosis (HS) by a 1 L/min decrease in VO2peak was 1.61 (95% CI: 1.22-2.13; p=0.001). Compared to subjects with high VO2peak , obese and overweight individuals with low VO2peak had 1.78% (95% CI: 0.32-3.25; p=0.017) and 0.94% (95% CI: 0.15-1.74; p=0.021) higher mean LFC, respectively. Compared to those with high VO2peak , low VO2peak was independently associated with a higher risk of prevalent HS in the obese (adjusted-OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.48-3.56; p<0.001) and overweight (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI=1.16-2.14; p=0.04) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Lower VO2peak was significantly associated with greater LFC and higher serum GGT levels in a population-based cohort of adult individuals. Our results suggest that low VO2peak might be a risk factor for HS.

2.
Liver Int ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007392

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), recently re-defined and re-classified as metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), has become increasingly prevalent and emerged as a public health problem worldwide. To date, the precise pathogenic mechanisms underpinning MAFLD are not entirely understood, and there is no effective pharmacological therapy for NAFLD/MAFLD. As a newly discovered form of iron-dependent programmed cell death, ferroptosis can be involved in the development and progression of various chronic diseases, but the pathogenic connections and mechanisms that link MAFLD and ferroptosis have not been fully elucidated. The main characteristics of ferroptosis are the accumulation of lipid peroxides and reactive oxygen species. In this brief narrative review, the mechanisms of ferroptosis and its putative pathogenic role in MAFLD are discussed to highlight potential new research directions and ideas for the prevention and treatment of MAFLD.

3.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013596

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the accumulation of fat in more than 5% of hepatocytes in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption and other secondary causes of hepatic steatosis. In 2020, the more inclusive term metabolic (dysfunction)-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) - defined by broader diagnostic criteria - was proposed to replace the term NAFLD. The new terminology and revised definition better emphasize the pathogenic role of metabolic dysfunction and uses a set of definitive, inclusive criteria for diagnosis. Diagnosis of MAFLD is based on evidence of hepatic steatosis (as assessed by liver biopsy, imaging techniques or blood biomarkers and scores) in persons who are overweight or obese and have type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic dysregulation, regardless of the coexistence of other liver diseases or excessive alcohol consumption. The known association between NAFLD and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and our understanding that CKD can occur as a consequence of metabolic dysfunction suggests that individuals with MAFLD - who by definition have fatty liver and metabolic comorbidities - are at increased risk of CKD. In this Perspective article, we discuss the clinical associations between MAFLD and CKD, the pathophysiological mechanisms by which MAFLD may increase the risk of CKD and the potential drug treatments that may benefit both conditions.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 79(2): 180-191, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027111

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are 2 conditions that have become important global public health problems. Emerging evidence supports a strong and independent association between NAFLD and the risk of new-onset HF, and there are multiple potential pathophysiological mechanisms by which NAFLD may increase risk of new-onset HF. The magnitude of this risk parallels the underlying severity of NAFLD, especially the level of liver fibrosis. Patients with NAFLD develop accelerated coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial alterations (mainly cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy), and certain arrhythmias (mainly atrial fibrillation), which may precede and promote the development of new-onset HF. This brief narrative review aims to provide an overview of the association between NAFLD and increased risk of new-onset HF, discuss the underlying mechanisms that link these 2 diseases, and summarize targeted pharmacological treatments for NAFLD that might also reduce the risk of HF.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030323

RESUMO

There are no licensed treatments for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but three different classes of antihyperglycaemic drugs-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-show promise in the treatment of the disease. We did a systematic review of randomised controlled trials examining the efficacy of PPAR agonists, GLP-1R agonists, or SGLT2 inhibitors for specifically treating NAFLD in adults with or without type 2 diabetes. A total of 25 active-controlled or placebo-controlled trials met our inclusion criteria: eight for PPAR agonists, ten for GLP-1R agonists, and seven for SGLT2 inhibitors. 2597 individuals (1376 [53%] men vs 1221 [47%] women; mean age 52 years (SD 6); mean BMI 32 kg/m2 (SD 3); 1610 [62%] with type 2 diabetes) were included. Pioglitazone, lanifibranor, and GLP1-R agonists (mostly liraglutide and semaglutide) improved individual histological features of NASH (ie, steatosis, ballooning, lobular inflammation) or achieved resolution of NASH without worsening of fibrosis. SGLT2 inhibitors (mostly empagliflozin and dapagliflozin) reduced liver fat content, as assessed by magnetic resonance-based techniques.

6.
Gut ; 71(1): 156-162, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Studies reported a significant association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, whether this risk changes with increasing severity of NAFLD remains uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies to quantify the magnitude of the association between NAFLD and risk of incident CKD. DESIGN: We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus from January 2000 to August 2020 using predefined keywords to identify observational studies with a follow-up duration of ≥1 year, in which NAFLD was diagnosed by blood biomarkers/scores, International Classification of Diseases codes, imaging techniques or biopsy. Data from selected studies were extracted, and meta-analysis was performed using random-effects modelling. RESULTS: 13 studies with 1 222 032 individuals (28.1% with NAFLD) and 33 840 cases of incident CKD stage ≥3 (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, with or without accompanying overt proteinuria) over a median follow-up of 9.7 years were included. NAFLD was associated with a moderately increased risk of incident CKD (n=10 studies; random-effects HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.54; I 2 =60.7%). All risks were independent of age, sex, obesity, hypertension, diabetes and other conventional CKD risk factors. Sensitivity analyses did not alter these findings. Funnel plot did not reveal any significant publication bias. CONCLUSION: This large and updated meta-analysis indicates that NAFLD is significantly associated with a~1.45-fold increased long-term risk of incident CKD stage ≥3. Further studies are needed to examine the association between the severity of NAFLD and risk of incident CKD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Medição de Risco
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893404

RESUMO

AIM: Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are approved drugs for treating type 2 diabetes (T2DM); however, their effects on mortality and cardiovascular safety are unclear. This meta-analysis was aimed at evaluating the effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events (MACE). DATA SYNTHESIS: A Medline, Embase, Cochrane database searching for alpha-glucosidase inhibitors was performed up to July 1st, 2021. All randomized controlled trials (RCT) with a duration ≥52 weeks and comparing the effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors with placebo or active drugs were collected. Further inclusion criteria were: RCT reporting MACE within their primary outcome, or as pre-defined secondary outcome; and RCT enrolling at least 100 patients with T2DM. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (MH-OR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the aforementioned outcomes. A total of eight RCTs, enrolling 1124 and 908 patients on alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and comparators, respectively, were identified. No trials reported information on MACE. Treatment with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors was not associated with a significant increase of all-cause mortality compared with other therapies or no therapy/placebo (MH-OR 0.58 [0.23, 1.45]). CONCLUSIONS: The evidence of beneficial or detrimental effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events is not sufficient to draw any conclusions.

9.
Liver Int ; 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894052

RESUMO

AIMS: We examined the associations between liver volume and other quantitative and qualitative markers of hepatic steatosis with all-cause mortality in the general population. METHODS: We included 2769 German middle-aged individuals with a median follow-up of 8.9 years (23,898 person-years). Quantitative markers used were serum liver enzymes and FIB-4 score, while qualitative markers of hepatic steatosis included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of liver fat content and total liver volume. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for confounding factors, were undertaken to investigate the associations of liver volume and other markers of hepatic steatosis with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A larger MRI-assessed liver volume was associated with a nearly 3-fold increased risk of all-cause mortality (Hazard Ratio=3.16; 95% confidence interval 1.88; 5.30), independent of age, sex, body mass index, food frequency score, alcohol consumption, and education level. This association was consistent in all subgroups considered (men vs. women; presence or absence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome or diabetes). Higher serum liver enzyme levels and FIB-4 score were also significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality in the total population and in all subgroups. No independent associations were found between other quantitative and qualitative markers of hepatic steatosis and the risk of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We showed for the first time that larger liver volume was associated with a 3-fold increase in long-term risk of all-cause mortality. This association remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, alcohol consumption, obesity and other coexisting metabolic disorders.

10.
Metabolism ; 128: 154958, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) incidence and prevalence increasing, it is necessary to identify patients with advanced fibrosis (F3-F4 stages). We evaluated the performance of new biomarkers and algorithms for diagnosing advanced fibrosis in an Asian population. METHODS: Data from two Asian cohorts (including 851 biopsy-proven MAFLD [578 from Wenzhou, 273 from Hong Kong]) were studied. The association between N-terminal propeptide of type 3 collagen (PRO-C3) and the histologic stage of liver fibrosis was analyzed by multivariable linear regression. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to test the diagnostic performance of serum PRO-C3 and the ADAPT score for advanced fibrosis and compared them to other established non-invasive tests. RESULTS: Serum PRO-C3 levels increased progressively across liver fibrosis stages and correlated with advanced fibrosis (P < 0.001). The ADAPT score had an AUROC of 0.865 (95% confidence interval 0.829-0.901) for advanced fibrosis; the accuracy, sensitivity and negative predictive values were 81.4%, 82.2% and 96.1%, respectively. This result was better compared to that of PRO-C3 alone or other non-invasive fibrosis biomarkers (aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, Fibrosis-4, BARD, and NAFLD fibrosis score). In subgroup analyses (including sex, age, diabetes, NAFLD activity score, body mass index or serum alanine aminotransferase levels), the ADAPT score had good diagnostic performance. CONCLUSION: PRO-C3 and the ADAPT score reliably exclude advanced fibrosis in MAFLD patients and reduce the need for liver biopsy.

11.
J Cutan Med Surg ; : 12034754211066906, 2021 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic plaque psoriasis has been associated with metabolic comorbidities, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A causal relationship between NAFLD and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is debated. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether NAFLD is associated with impaired renal function in patients with psoriasis. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective, observational study including 337 patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis, who had no history of excessive alcohol consumption or other secondary causes of chronic liver and renal diseases was conducted. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and CKD stage ≥2 or stage ≥3 were defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) of <90 ml min-1 1.73 m-2 or <60 ml min-1 1.73 m-2, respectively. Logistic and linear regression analyses were undertaken to assess the independent association of NAFLD with CKD or eGFR levels. RESULTS: Patients with NAFLD (n = 212, 62.9% of total) had significantly lower e-GFR levels (83.4 ± 18.0 vs. 93.5 ± 15.8 ml min-1 1.73 m-2, P<.001) and a remarkably higher prevalence of both CKD stage ≥2 (56.1% vs. 30.4%, P<.0001) and CKD stage ≥3 (10.4% vs. 3.2%, P<.0001) compared with their counterparts without NAFLD. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that NAFLD was associated with a nearly 2.5-fold increased risk of prevalent CKD stage ≥2 (adjusted-odds ratio= 2.60 95% confidence intervals 1.4-4.8, P=.02), independently of components of metabolic syndrome, psoriasis severity, and psoriatic arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD is strongly associated with a reduced eGFR in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, independently of cardiometabolic risk factors and psoriasis-related variables.

12.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(16): 3624-3630, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790034

RESUMO

Rationale: Since non-invasive tests for prediction of liver fibrosis have a poor diagnostic performance for detecting low levels of fibrosis, it is important to explore the diagnostic capabilities of other non-invasive tests to diagnose low levels of fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the performance of radiomics based on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in predicting any liver fibrosis in individuals with biopsy-proven metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). Methods: A total of 22 adults with biopsy-confirmed MAFLD, who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT, were enrolled in this study. Sixty radiomics features were extracted from whole liver region of interest in 18F-FDG PET images. Subsequently, the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) method was performed and a subset of two features mostly related to the output classes and low redundancy between them were selected according to an event per variable of 5. Logistic regression, Support Vector Machine, Naive Bayes, 5-Nearest Neighbor and linear discriminant analysis models were built based on selected features. The predictive performances were assessed by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: The mean (SD) age of the subjects was 38.5 (10.4) years and 17 subjects were men. 12 subjects had histological evidence of any liver fibrosis. The coarseness of neighborhood grey-level difference matrix (NGLDM) and long-run emphasis (LRE) of grey-level run length matrix (GLRLM) were selected to predict fibrosis. The logistic regression model performed best with an AUROC of 0.817 [95% confidence intervals, 0.595-0.947] for prediction of liver fibrosis. Conclusion: These preliminary data suggest that 18F-FDG PET radiomics may have clinical utility in assessing early liver fibrosis in MAFLD.

14.
Nutr Diabetes ; 11(1): 32, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a strong risk factor for liver fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It remains uncertain why T2DM increases the risk of liver fibrosis. It has been suggested that growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) concentrations increase the risk of liver fibrosis. We aimed to investigate (a) whether GDF-15 concentrations were associated with liver fibrosis and involved in the relationship between T2DM and liver fibrosis and (b) what factors linked with T2DM are associated with increased GDF-15 concentrations. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients with NAFLD (61% men, 42.4% T2DM) were studied. Serum GDF-15 concentrations were measured by electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE)-validated thresholds were used to assess liver fibrosis. Regression modelling, receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and Sobel test statistics were used to test associations, risk predictors and the involvement of GDF-15 in the relationship between T2DM and liver fibrosis, respectively. RESULTS: Patients with NAFLD and T2DM (n = 42) had higher serum GDF-15 concentrations [mean (SD): 1271.0 (902.1) vs. 640.3 (332.5) pg/ml, p < 0.0001], and a higher proportion had VCTE assessed ≥F2 fibrosis (48.8 vs. 23.2%, p = 0.01) than those without T2DM. GDF-15 was independently associated with liver fibrosis (p = 0.001), and GDF-15 was the most important single factor predicting ≥F2 or ≥F3 fibrosis (≥F2 fibrosis AUROC 0.75, (95% CI 0.63-0.86), p < 0.001, with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values of 56.3%, 86.9%, 69.2% and 79.1%, respectively). GDF-15 was involved in the association between T2DM and ≥F2 fibrosis (Sobel test statistic 2.90, p = 0.004). Other factors associated with T2DM explained 60% of the variance in GDF-15 concentrations (p < 0.0001). HbA1c concentrations alone explained 30% of the variance (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 concentrations are a predictor of liver fibrosis and potentially involved in the association between T2DM and liver fibrosis in NAFLD. HbA1c concentrations explain a large proportion of the variance in GDF-15 concentrations.

15.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(12): 3257-3270, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627692

RESUMO

Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) show an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality. Many factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD in patients with T2DM. Among the factors involved, chronic hyperglycemia and the cluster of CVD risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity, play a major role. For many years, the control of hyperglycemia has been complicated by the fact that the use of many available drugs was associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia. Paradoxically, hypoglycemia per se represents a risk factor for CVD. Recently, new drugs for the control of hyperglycemia have become available: many of them can determine a good control of hyperglycemia with minor risks of hypoglycemia. Among these new classes of drugs, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) offer many advantages. In addition to a strong anti-hyperglycemic action, they possess the ability to act on body weight and other relevant risk factors for CVD. Consistently, some of the GLP-1RAs have demonstrated, in RCT designed to assess their safety, to reduce the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. Furthermore, GLP-1RAs possess properties useful to treat additional conditions, as the capability of improving liver damage in patients with NAFLD or NASH, highly prevalent conditions in people with T2DM. In this document, written by experts of the Italian diabetes society (SID), we will focus our attention on the therapy with GLP-1RAs in patients with T2DM, particularly on the effects on hyperglycemia, cardiovascular disease risk factors, NAFLD/NASH and CVD prevention.

16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(12): 3464-3473, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), both with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is a risk factor for CVD morbidity and mortality. The aim of this pilot study was to assess whether there is an association between NAFLD and impaired cardiac autonomic function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among the first 4979 participants from the Cooperative Health Research in South Tyrol (CHRIS) study, we randomly recruited 173 individuals with T2DM and 183 age- and sex-matched nondiabetic controls. Participants underwent ultrasonography and vibration-controlled transient elastography (Fibroscan®, Echosens) to assess hepatic steatosis and liver stiffness. The low-to-high-frequency (LF/HF) power ratio and other heart rate variability (HRV) measures were calculated from a 20-min resting electrocardiogram (ECG) to derive a measure of cardiac sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance. Among the 356 individuals recruited for the study, 117 had NAFLD and T2DM, 56 had T2DM alone, 68 had NAFLD alone, and 115 subjects had neither condition. Individuals with T2DM and NAFLD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.29, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.90-10.6) and individuals with NAFLD alone (adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.59-7.29), but not those with T2DM alone, had a substantially increased risk of having cardiac sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance, compared with those without NAFLD and T2DM. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-reactive protein (CRP), and Fibroscan®-measured liver stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD was associated with cardiac sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance, regardless of the presence or absence of T2DM, liver stiffness, and other potential confounding factors.

17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(12): 3474-3483, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629258

RESUMO

AIMS: Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is common in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and can progress to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. In this retrospective study, we explored the longitudinal changes in markers of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis during T2D treatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). METHODS: We analysed observational data from six diabetes outpatient clinics. In the whole T2D population, we calculated the hepatic steatosis index (HSI), which we previously validated against liver ultrasonography, and the Fibrosis (Fib)-4 index. We then identified patients who initiated a GLP-1RA from 2010 to 2018 and for whom data were available to evaluate changes in both HSI and Fib-4 scores over 24 months. RESULTS: From 83,116 outpatients with T2D, 41,302 (49.7%) had complete data for calculating HSI and Fib-4. Most of these T2D patients (∼70%) had MAFLD (defined as HSI>36), 9.7% of whom had advanced fibrosis based on Fib-4 thresholds. Patients with low compared to high risk of advanced fibrosis were 5-times more likely to be treated with GLP-1RA. In 535 patients who initiated a GLP-1RA, the prevalence of MAFLD based on HSI declined significantly at 6 and 24 months, but Fib-4 categories did not. HSI improved significantly only in patients receiving human-based but not exendin-based GLP-1RA, while patients concomitantly receiving metformin had less worsening in Fib-4 categories. CONCLUSIONS: MAFLD is very common among outpatients with T2D (∼70%) and the estimated prevalence of advanced fibrosis was ∼10%. Treatment with GLP-1RAs significantly improved MAFLD, but not MAFLD-associated advanced fibrosis.

18.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101145, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646997

RESUMO

Background: There is an unmet need for non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in non-specialized settings. We aimed to develop and validate a non-invasive test for diagnosing NASH in individuals with biopsy-proven nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: We developed a non-invasive test named the acNASH index that combines serum creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase levels in a derivation cohort of 390 Chinese NAFLD patients admitted to the hepatology center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (China) between December 2016 and September 2019 and subsequently validated in five external cohorts of different ethnicities of patients with biopsy-confirmed NAFLD (pooled n=1,089). Findings: The performance of the acNASH index for identifying NASH (defined as NAFLD activity score ≥5 with score of ≥1 for each steatosis, lobular inflammation and ballooning) was good in the derivation cohort with an area under receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) of 0·818 (95%CI 0·777-0·860). A cutoff of acNASH index <4·15 gave a sensitivity (Se) of 91%, a specificity (Sp) of 48% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 83% for ruling-out NASH, conversely, a cutoff of acNASH >7·73 gave a Sp of 91%, Se of 53% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 85% for ruling-in NASH. In the pooled validation cohort (n=1,089), the diagnostic performance of the index was also good with AUROC=0·805 (95%CI 0·780-0·830), NPV of 93% for ruling-out NASH and PPV of 73% for ruling-in NASH. Subgroup analyses showed similar performance in patients with diabetes or subjects with normal serum transaminase levels. Interpretation: The acNASH index shows promising utility as a simple non-invasive biomarker for diagnosing NASH among adults with biopsy-proven NAFLD of different ethnicities from different countries. Funding: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (82070588), High Level Creative Talents from Department of Public Health in Zhejiang Province (S2032102600032) and Project of New Century 551 Talent Nurturing in Wenzhou.

19.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684345

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus has a high prevalence worldwide, with a rapidly increasing incidence even in youth. Nutrition, dietary macronutrient composition, and in particular dietary carbohydrates play a major role in the development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss the current evidence on the role of dietary carbohydrates in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. The digestibility or availability of carbohydrates and their glycemic index (and glycemic load) markedly influence the glycemic response. High consumption of dietary fiber is beneficial for management of type 2 diabetes, whereas high consumption of both glycemic starch and sugars may have a harmful effect on glucose metabolism, thereby increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the presence of genetic predisposition or making its glycemic control more difficult to achieve in people with established T2D. Therefore, the same dietary macronutrient may have harmful or beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes mainly depending on the subtypes consumed. Some other factors are involved in glucose metabolism, such as meal composition, gut microbiota and genetics. For this reason, the glycemic response after carbohydrate consumption is not easy to predict in the single individual. Nutrition suggested to subjects with known type 2 diabetes should be always person-centered, considering the individual features of each subject.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Adolescente , Glicemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Nutrientes/análise , Edulcorantes , Adulto Jovem
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