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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(19)2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036493

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key element in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as riboflavin transporter deficiency (RTD). This is a rare, childhood-onset disease characterized by motoneuron degeneration and caused by mutations in SLC52A2 and SLC52A3, encoding riboflavin (RF) transporters (RFVT2 and RFVT3, respectively), resulting in muscle weakness, ponto-bulbar paralysis and sensorineural deafness. Based on previous findings, which document the contribution of oxidative stress in RTD pathogenesis, we tested possible beneficial effects of several antioxidants (Vitamin C, Idebenone, Coenzyme Q10 and EPI-743, either alone or in combination with RF) on the morphology and function of neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two RTD patients. To identify possible improvement of the neuronal morphotype, neurite length was measured by confocal microscopy after ß-III tubulin immunofluorescent staining. Neuronal function was evaluated by determining superoxide anion generation by MitoSOX assay and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) levels, using the Fluo-4 probe. Among the antioxidants tested, EPI-743 restored the redox status, improved neurite length and ameliorated intracellular calcium influx into RTD motoneurons. In conclusion, we suggest that antioxidant supplementation may have a role in RTD treatment.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906221

RESUMO

Clinical expression of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC) is variable and mild phenotypes have been described, including patients with mostly cardiac and limb involvement. Whether these cases are part of the EvC phenotypic spectrum or separate conditions is disputed. Herein, we describe a family with vertical transmission of atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD), common atrium, and postaxial polydactyly. Targeted sequencing of EVC, EVC2, WDR35, DYNC2LI1, and DYNC2H1 identified different compound heterozygosity in EVC genotypes in the two affected members, consisting of a nonsense (p.Arg622Ter) and a missense (p.Arg663Pro) variant in the father, and the same nonsense variant and a noncanonical splice-site in-frame change (c.1316-7A>G) in the daughter. Complementary DNA sequencing, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence experiments using patient-derived fibroblasts and Evc-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that p.Arg622Ter is a loss-of-function mutation, whereas p.Arg663Pro and the splice-site change c.1316-7A>G are hypomorphic variants resulting in proteins that retain, in part, the ability to complex with EVC2. Our molecular and functional data demonstrate that at least in some cases the condition characterized as "common atrium/AVCD with postaxial polydactyly" is a mild form of EvC due to hypomorphic EVC mutations, further supporting the occurrence of genotype-phenotype correlations in this syndrome.

3.
Genet Med ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989268

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to use a genotype-first approach to explore highly penetrant, autosomal dominant cardiovascular diseases with external features, the RASopathies and Marfan syndrome (MFS), using biobank data. METHODS: This study uses exome sequencing and corresponding phenotypic data from Mount Sinai's BioMe (n = 32,344) and the United Kingdom Biobank (UKBB; n = 49,960). Variant curation identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants in RASopathy genes and FBN1. RESULTS: Twenty-one subjects harbored P/LP RASopathy variants; three (14%) were diagnosed, and another 46% had ≥1 classic Noonan syndrome (NS) feature. Major NS features (short stature [9.5% p = 7e-5] and heart anomalies [19%, p < 1e-5]) were less frequent than expected. Prevalence of hypothyroidism/autoimmune disorders was enriched compared with biobank populations (p = 0.007). For subjects with FBN1 P/LP variants, 14/41 (34%) had a MFS diagnosis or highly suggestive features. Five of 15 participants (33%) with echocardiographic data had aortic dilation, fewer than expected (p = 8e-6). Ectopia lentis affected only 15% (p < 1e-5). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial fractions of individuals harboring P/LP variants with partial or full phenotypic matches to a RASopathy or MFS remain undiagnosed, some not meeting diagnostic criteria. Routine population genotyping would enable multidisciplinary care and avoid life-threatening events.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788663

RESUMO

RASopathies are caused by variants in genes encoding components or modulators of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Noonan syndrome is the most common entity among this group of disorders and is characterized by heart defects, short stature, variable developmental delay, and typical facial features. Heterozygous variants in SOS2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAS, have recently been identified in patients with Noonan syndrome. The number of published cases with SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is still limited and little is known about genotype-phenotype correlations. We collected previously unpublished clinical and genotype data from 17 individuals carrying a disease-causing SOS2 variant. Most individuals had one of the previously reported dominant pathogenic variants; only four had novel changes at the established hotspots for variants that affect protein function. The overall phenotype of the 17 patients fits well into the spectrum of Noonan syndrome and is most similar to the phenotype observed in patients with SOS1-related Noonan syndrome, with ectodermal anomalies as common features and short stature and learning disabilities as relatively infrequent findings compared to the average Noonan syndrome phenotype. The spectrum of heart defects in SOS2-related Noonan syndrome was consistent with the known spectrum of cardiac anomalies in RASopathies, but no specific heart defect was particularly predominating. Notably, lymphatic anomalies were extraordinarily frequent, affecting more than half of the patients. We therefore conclude that SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is associated with a particularly high risk of lymphatic complications that may have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 6821247, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855765

RESUMO

Riboflavin transporter deficiency (RTD) is a childhood-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive pontobulbar palsy, sensory and motor neuron degeneration, sensorineural hearing loss, and optic atrophy. As riboflavin (RF) is the precursor of FAD and FMN, we hypothesize that both mitochondrial and peroxisomal energy metabolism pathways involving flavoproteins could be directly affected in RTD, thus impacting cellular redox status. In the present work, we used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from RTD patients to investigate morphofunctional features, focusing on mitochondrial and peroxisomal compartments. Using this model, we document the following RTD-associated alterations: (i) abnormal colony-forming ability and loss of cell-cell contacts, revealed by light, electron, and confocal microscopy, using tight junction marker ZO-1; (ii) mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities, involving shape, number, and intracellular distribution of the organelles, as assessed by focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM); (iii) redox imbalance, with high levels of superoxide anion, as assessed by MitoSOX assay accompanied by abnormal mitochondrial polarization state, evaluated by JC-1 staining; (iv) altered immunofluorescence expression of antioxidant systems, namely, glutathione, superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, and catalase, as assessed by quantitatively evaluated confocal microscopy; and (v) peroxisomal downregulation, as demonstrated by levels and distribution of fatty acyl ß-oxidation enzymes. RF supplementation results in amelioration of cell phenotype and rescue of redox status, which was associated to improved ultrastructural features of mitochondria, thus strongly supporting patient treatment with RF, to restore mitochondrial- and peroxisomal-related aspects of energy dysmetabolism and oxidative stress in RTD syndrome.

6.
Phys Med Biol ; 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756019

RESUMO

BrachyView is a novel in-body imaging system developed to provide real-time 12 intraoperative dosimetry for low dose rate prostate brachytherapy treatments. Seed positions 13 can be reconstructed after in-vivo implantation using a high-resolution pinhole gamma camera 14 inserted into the patient rectum. The obtained data is a set of 2D projections of the seeds on the 15 image plane. The 3D reconstruction algorithm requires the identification of the seed's centre 16 of mass. This work presents the development and techniques adopted to build an algorithm that 17 provides the means for fully automatic seed centre of mass identification and 3D position 18 reconstruction for real-time applications. The algorithm presented uses a local feature detector, 19 speeded up robust features (SURF), to perform detection of brachytherapy seed 2D projections 20 from images, allowing for robust seed identification. Initial results have been obtained with 21 datasets of 30, 96 and 98 I-125 brachytherapy seeds implanted into a prostate gel phantom. It 22 can detect 97% of seeds and correctly match 97% of seeds. The average overall computation 23 time of 2.75 seconds per image and improved reconstruction accuracy of 22.87% for the 98 24 seed dataset was noted. Elimination processes for initial false positive detection removal have 25 shown to be extremely effective, resulting in a 99.9% reduction of false positives, and when 26 paired with automatic frame alignment and subtraction procedures allows for the effective 27 removal of excess counts generated by previously implanted needles. The proposed algorithm 28 will allow the BrachyView system to be used as a real-time intraoperative dosimetry tool for 29 low dose rate prostate brachytherapy treatments.

7.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(9): 103996, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622958

RESUMO

Cantú syndrome (CS) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by a coarse facial appearance, macrocephaly, hypertrichosis, skeletal and cardiovascular anomalies and caused by heterozygous gain-of-function variants in ABCC9 and KCNJ8, encoding subunits of heterooctameric ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. CS shows considerable clinical overlap with Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS), a rare condition with coarse facial features, hypertrichosis, gingival overgrowth, intellectual disability of variable degree, and hypoplasia or aplasia of terminal phalanges and/or nails. ZLS is caused by heterozygous gain-of-function variants in KCNH1 or KCNN3, and gain-of-function KCNK4 variants underlie the clinically similar FHEIG (facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual disability/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth) syndrome; KCNH1, KCNN3 and KCNK4 encode potassium channels. Within our research project on ZLS, we performed targeted Sanger sequencing of ABCC9 in 15 individuals tested negative for a mutation in the ZLS-associated genes and found two individuals harboring a heterozygous pathogenic ABCC9 missense variant. Through a collaborative effort, we identified a total of nine individuals carrying a monoallelic ABCC9 variant: five sporadic patients and four members of two unrelated families. Among the six detected ABCC9 missense variants, four [p.(Pro252Leu), p.(Thr259Lys), p.(Ala1064Pro), and p.(Arg1197His)] were novel. Systematic assessment of the clinical features in the nine cases with an ABCC9 variant highlights the significant clinical overlap between ZLS and CS that includes early developmental delay, hypertrichosis, gingival overgrowth, joint laxity, and hypoplasia of terminal phalanges and nails. Gain of K+ channel activity possibly accounts for significant clinical similarities of CS, ZLS and FHEIG syndrome and defines a new subgroup of potassium channelopathies.

8.
Obes Surg ; 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720264

RESUMO

Pregnancy after bariatric surgery is usually considered safe. Recently, a few studies reported that bariatric surgery represents a risk factor for birth defects. A case series of six patients, born from women who had undergone biliopancreatic diversion, is reported. The clinical pattern was characterized by psychomotor development delay (100%), microphthalmia (83%), growth retardation (66%), hearing loss (66%), and variable facial dysmorphism. Based on the clinical profile and symptoms reported by women during pregnancy, a causal association between maternal chronic post-surgical malabsorption, congenital anomalies, and neonatal outcome is proposed, with vitamin A deficiency representing a major causing factor. Educational follow-up support, continuous clinical monitoring, and appropriate nutritional assessment appear to be crucial to reduce the potential risk of congenital malformations and child disability.

9.
Genes Brain Behav ; 19(7): e12687, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658356

RESUMO

Increasing evidence links heterozygosity for NRXN1 gene deletions to a clinically wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological disorders. However, to date, the neurocognitive and social communication features of children carrying this genomic rearrangement have not been assessed in detail. The cognitive and behavioral profiles of five children carrying a heterozygous NRXN1 deletion were investigated through systematic assessment of the cognitive and developmental levels, adaptive profile and presence of behavioral symptoms and autistic features. Furthermore, four transmitting parents were assessed by means of cognitive, psychopathological and parental stress tests. A below-average cognitive level was documented in all children, and defective adaptive levels were observed in four of them. Three of the five children were diagnosed as having autism spectrum disorder in comorbidity with intellectual disability/global developmental delay, with a major impairment in social communication skills. The remaining two children presented with isolated intellectual disability and an unclassifiable neurodevelopmental disorder, respectively. This study provide data contributing to a more accurate characterization of the neurobehavioral phenotype of individuals carrying heterozygous NRXN1 deletions. This analysis indicates that these structural rearrangements are associated with a variable expression of neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cast some doubts about the incomplete penetrance of the disorder.

10.
Epilepsia ; 61(7): e71-e78, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645220

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth-factor homologous factor (FHF1) gene variants have recently been associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). FHF1 encodes a cytosolic protein that modulates neuronal sodium channel gating. We aim to refine the electroclinical phenotypic spectrum of patients with pathogenic FHF1 variants. We retrospectively collected clinical, genetic, neurophysiologic, and neuroimaging data of 17 patients with FHF1-DEE. Sixteen patients had recurrent heterozygous FHF1 missense variants: 14 had the recurrent p.Arg114His variant and two had a novel likely pathogenic variant p.Gly112Ser. The p.Arg114His variant is associated with an earlier onset and more severe phenotype. One patient carried a chromosomal microduplication involving FHF1. Twelve patients carried a de novo variant, five (29.5%) inherited from parents with gonadic or somatic mosaicism. Seizure onset was between 1 day and 41 months; in 76.5% it was within 30 days. Tonic seizures were the most frequent seizure type. Twelve patients (70.6%) had drug-resistant epilepsy, 14 (82.3%) intellectual disability, and 11 (64.7%) behavioral disturbances. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed mild cerebral and/or cerebellar atrophy in nine patients (52.9%). Overall, our findings expand and refine the clinical, EEG, and imaging phenotype of patients with FHF1-DEE, which is characterized by early onset epilepsy with tonic seizures, associated with moderate to severe ID and psychiatric features.

11.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681121

RESUMO

In December 2019, an initial cluster of interstitial bilateral pneumonia emerged in Wuhan, China. A human-to-human transmission was assumed and a previously unrecognized entity, termed coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) due to a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was described. The infection has rapidly spread out all over the world and Italy has been the first European country experiencing the endemic wave with unexpected clinical severity in comparison with Asian countries. It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 utilizes angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as host receptor and host proteases for cell surface binding and internalization. Thus, a predisposing genetic background can give reason for interindividual disease susceptibility and/or severity. Taking advantage of the Network of Italian Genomes (NIG), here we mined whole-exome sequencing data of 6930 Italian control individuals from five different centers looking for ACE2 variants. A number of variants with a potential impact on protein stability were identified. Among these, three more common missense changes, p.(Asn720Asp), p.(Lys26Arg), and p.(Gly211Arg) were predicted to interfere with protein structure and stabilization. Rare variants likely interfering with the internalization process, namely p.(Leu351Val) and p.(Pro389His), predicted to interfere with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding, were also observed. Comparison of ACE2 WES data between a cohort of 131 patients and 258 controls allowed identifying a statistically significant (P value < 0.029) higher allelic variability in controls compared with patients. These findings suggest that a predisposing genetic background may contribute to the observed interindividual clinical variability associated with COVID-19, allowing an evidence-based risk assessment leading to personalized preventive measures and therapeutic options.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 499-513, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721402

RESUMO

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas ras/genética
13.
Birth Defects Res ; 112(10): 725-731, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: RASopathies are a set of relatively common autosomal dominant clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders. Cardiac outcomes in terms of mortality and morbidity for common heart defects (such as pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) have been reported. Nevertheless, also Atypical Cardiac Defects (ACDs) are described. The aim of the present study was to report both prevalence and cardiac outcome of ACDs in patients with RASopathies. METHODS: A retrospective, multicentric observational study (CArdiac Rasopathy NETwork-CARNET study) was carried out. Clinical, surgical, and genetic data of the patients who were followed until December 2019 were collected. RESULTS: Forty-five patients out of 440 followed in CARNET centers had ACDs. Noonan Syndrome (NS), NS Multiple Lentigines (NSML) and CardioFacioCutaneous Syndrome (CFCS) were present in 36, 5 and 4 patients, respectively. Median age at last follow-up was 20.1 years (range 6.9-47 years). Different ACDs were reported, including mitral and aortic valve dysfunction, ascending and descending aortic arch anomalies, coronary arteries dilation, enlargement of left atrial appendage and isolated pulmonary branches diseases. Five patients (11%) underwent cardiac surgery and one of them underwent a second intervention for mitral valve replacement and severe pericardial effusion. No patients died in our cohort until December 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with RASopathies present a distinct CHD spectrum. Present data suggest that also ACDs must be carefully investigated for their possible impact on the clinical outcome. A careful longitudinal follow up until the individuals reach an adult age is recommended.

15.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597842

RESUMO

This study focuses on understanding how growing iPSCs on different ECM coating substrates can affect cell confluence. A protocol to assess iPSC confluence in real time has been established without the need to count cells in single cell suspension to avoid any growth perturbation. A high-content image analysis system was used to assess iPCS confluence on 4 different ECMs over time in an automated manner. Different analysis settings were used to assess cell confluence of adherent iPSCs and only a slight difference (at 24 and 48 hours with laminin) has been observed whether a 60, 80 or 100% mask was applied. We also show that laminin lead to the best confluence compared to Matrigel, vitronectin and fibronectin.

16.
Leukemia ; 34(10): 2673-2687, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555368

RESUMO

Deficiency of the transcription factor GATA2 is a highly penetrant genetic disorder predisposing to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and immunodeficiency. It has been recognized as the most common cause underlying primary MDS in children. Triggered by the discovery of a recurrent synonymous GATA2 variant, we systematically investigated 911 patients with phenotype of pediatric MDS or cellular deficiencies for the presence of synonymous alterations in GATA2. In total, we identified nine individuals with five heterozygous synonymous mutations: c.351C>G, p.T117T (N = 4); c.649C>T, p.L217L; c.981G>A, p.G327G; c.1023C>T, p.A341A; and c.1416G>A, p.P472P (N = 2). They accounted for 8.2% (9/110) of cases with GATA2 deficiency in our cohort and resulted in selective loss of mutant RNA. While for the hotspot mutation (c.351C>G) a splicing error leading to RNA and protein reduction was identified, severe, likely late stage RNA loss without splicing disruption was found for other mutations. Finally, the synonymous mutations did not alter protein function or stability. In summary, synonymous GATA2 substitutions are a new common cause of GATA2 deficiency. These findings have broad implications for genetic counseling and pathogenic variant discovery in Mendelian disorders.

17.
Haematologica ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381575

RESUMO

The prognosis of many patients with chemotherapy-refractory or multiply relapsed CD30+ non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) still remains poor, and novel therapeutic approaches are warranted to address this unmet clinical need. In light of this consideration, we designed and pre-clinically validated a Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) construct characterized by a novel anti-CD30 single-chain variable-fragment cassette, linked to CD3ζ by the signaling domains of two costimulatory molecules, namely either CD28.4-1BB or CD28.OX40. We found that CAR.CD30 T-cells exhibit remarkable cytolytic activity in vitro against HL and NHL cell lines, with sustained proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, even after multiple and sequential lymphoma cell challenges. CAR.CD30 T-cells also demonstrated anti-lymphoma activity in two in vivo xenograft immune-deficient mouse models of metastatic HL and NHL. We observed that administration of CAR.CD30 T-cells, incorporating the CD28.OX40 costimulatory domains and manufactured in the presence of IL7 and IL15, were associated with the best overall survival in the treated mice, along with the establishment of a long-term immunological memory, able to protect mice from further tumor re-challenge. Our data indicate that, in the context of in vivo systemic metastatic xenograft mouse models, the costimulatory machinery of CD28.OX40 is crucial for improving persistence, in vivo expansion and proliferation of CAR.CD30 T-cells upon tumor encounter. CD28.OX40 costimulatory combination is ultimately responsible for the antitumor efficacy of the approach, paving the way to translate this therapeutic strategy in patients with CD30+ HL and NHL.

18.
J Chem Inf Model ; 60(6): 3157-3171, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395997

RESUMO

SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), encoded by PTPN11, plays a fundamental role in the modulation of several signaling pathways. Germline and somatic mutations in PTPN11 are associated with different rare diseases and hematologic malignancies, and recent studies have individuated SHP2 as a central node in oncogenesis and cancer drug resistance. The SHP2 structure includes two Src homology 2 domains (N-SH2 and C-SH2) followed by a catalytic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) domain. Under basal conditions, the N-SH2 domain blocks the active site, inhibiting phosphatase activity. Association of the N-SH2 domain with binding partners containing short amino acid motifs comprising a phosphotyrosine residue (pY) leads to N-SH2/PTP dissociation and SHP2 activation. Considering the relevance of SHP2 in signaling and disease and the central role of the N-SH2 domain in its allosteric regulation mechanism, we performed microsecond-long molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the N-SH2 domain complexed to 12 different peptides to define the structural and dynamical features determining the binding affinity and specificity of the domain. Phosphopeptide residues at position -2 to +5, with respect to pY, have significant interactions with the SH2 domain. In addition to the strong interaction of the pY residue with its conserved binding pocket, the complex is stabilized hydrophobically by insertion of residues +1, +3, and +5 in an apolar groove of the domain and interaction of residue -2 with both the pY and a protein surface residue. Additional interactions are provided by hydrogen bonds formed by the backbone of residues -1, +1, +2, and +4. Finally, negatively charged residues at positions +2 and +4 are involved in electrostatic interactions with two lysines (Lys89 and Lys91) specific for the SHP2 N-SH2 domain. Interestingly, the MD simulations illustrated a previously undescribed conformational flexibility of the domain, involving the core ß sheet and the loop that closes the pY binding pocket.

19.
Epilepsy Behav ; 108: 107097, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402703

RESUMO

Seizure threshold 2 (SZT2) gene mutations have been associated with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs). Following a literature review, we collected 22 patients and identified the main clinical features related to SZT2 variants that are epilepsy with onset within the first years of life, intellectual disability (ID), macrocephaly with dysmorphic facial features, corpus callosum (CC) shape abnormalities, and cortical migration disorders. Moreover, we identified the c.7825T>G homozygous missense variant in SZT2 in two female siblings presenting with focal seizures, mild-moderate ID, behavioral disturbances, and facial dysmorphisms. Interictal Electroencephalogram (EEG) and ictal EEG were both informative and revealed, respectively, temporal bilateral asynchronous slow and epileptiform abnormalities and a focal onset in both of them. Neuroimaging study revealed a thick and abnormally shaped CC. Seizure threshold 2 has been identified as a component of the KICSTOR complex, a newly recognized protein complex involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. mTOR signaling dysregulation represents common pathogenetic mechanisms that can explain the presence of both epileptogenesis and ID. Even if few cases had been reported, a new clinical phenotype is emerging, and recent hypothesis of hyperactivation of mTORC1 signaling might also open to targeted treatments, challenging an early diagnosis as of paramount importance.

20.
Clin Genet ; 98(2): 172-178, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415735

RESUMO

UBE2A deficiency, that is, intellectual disability (ID) Nascimento type (MIM 300860), is an X-linked syndrome characterized by developmental delay, moderate to severe ID, seizures, dysmorphisms, skin anomalies, and urogenital malformations. Forty affected subjects have been reported thus far, with 31 cases having intragenic UBE2A variants. Here, we report on additional eight affected subjects from seven unrelated families who were found to be hemizygous for previously unreported UBE2A missense variants (p.Glu62Lys, p.Arg95Cys, p.Thr99Ala, and p.Arg135Trp) or small in-frame deletions (p.Val81_Ala83del, and p.Asp101del). A wide phenotypic spectrum was documented in these subjects, ranging from moderate ID associated with mild dysmorphisms to severe features including congenital heart defects (CHD), severe cognitive impairment, and pineal gland tumors. Four variants affected residues (Glu62, Arg95, Thr99 and Asp101) that contribute to stabilizing the structure of the E3 binding domain. The three-residue in-frame deletion, p.Val81_Ala83del, resulted from aberrant processing of the transcript. This variant and p.Arg135Trp mapped to regions of the protein located far from the E3 binding region, and caused variably accelerated protein degradation. By reviewing available clinical information, we revise the clinical and molecular profile of the disorder and document genotype-phenotype correlations. Pineal gland cysts/tumors, CHD and hypogammaglobulinemia emerge as recurrent features.

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