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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574555

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Real-time RT-PCR is the most commonly used method for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, serological assays are urgently needed as complementary tools to RT-PCR. Hachim et al. 2020 and Burbelo et al. 2020 demonstrated that anti-nucleocapsid(N) SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher and appear earlier than the spike antibodies. Additionally, cross-reactive antibodies against N protein are more prevalent than those against spike protein. We developed a less cross-reactive immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect ELISA by using a truncated recombinant SARS-CoV-2 N protein as assay antigen. A highly conserved region of coronaviruses N protein was deleted and the protein was prepared using an E. coli protein expression system. A total of 177 samples collected from COVID-19 suspected cases and 155 negative control sera collected during the pre-COVID-19 period were applied to evaluate the assay's performance, with the plaque reduction neutralization test and the commercial SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG ELISA as gold standards. The SARS-CoV-2 N truncated protein-based ELISA showed similar sensitivity (91.1% vs. 91.9%) and specificity (93.8% vs. 93.8%) between the PRNT and spike IgG ELISA, as well as also higher specificity compared to the full-length N protein (93.8% vs. 89.9%). Our ELISA can be used for the diagnosis and surveillance of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , Anticorpos Antivirais , Teste para COVID-19 , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
2.
Respir Investig ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to clarify the involvement of anaerobes in aspiration pneumonia by measuring volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), which are metabolites of anaerobic bacteria in the mouth. METHODS: This study included 84 older adult patients (mean age, 82.5 ± 7.34 years) who had dementia and were hospitalized for more than 6 months. We measured the VSCs in the patient's mouth with Oral Chroma and obtained the data of pneumonia development in the past 6 months. We also evaluated the association or correlation of VSCs and some factors which might be the risk factors of aspiration pneumonia. RESULTS: The development of pneumonia had no significant association with the VSCs in the patient's mouth. CONCLUSION: The present pilot study suggests that anaerobes might not be the main causative pathogens of aspiration pneumonia in older adult patients.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2251-2260, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423761

RESUMO

In April 2020, a coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak occurred on the cruise ship Costa Atlantica in Nagasaki, Japan. Our outbreak investigation included 623 multinational crewmembers onboard on April 20. Median age was 31 years; 84% were men. Each crewmember was isolated or quarantined in a single room inside the ship, and monitoring of health status was supported by a remote health monitoring system. Crewmembers with more severe illness were hospitalized. The investigation found that the outbreak started in late March and peaked in late April, resulting in 149 laboratory-confirmed and 107 probable cases of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Six case-patients were hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, including 1 in severe condition and 2 who required oxygen administration, but no deaths occurred. Although the virus can spread rapidly on a cruise ship, we describe how prompt isolation and quarantine combined with a sensitive syndromic surveillance system can control a COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Navios , Adulto , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256452, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The accurate prevalence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illnesses (ADIs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has not been well investigated. Hence, a longitudinal nationwide surveillance study analyzing the current status and national trend of opportunistic complications in HIV-infected patients in Japan is warranted. METHODS: A nationwide surveillance of opportunistic complications in HIV-infected patients from 1995 to 2017 in Japan was conducted. An annual questionnaire was sent to 383 HIV/AIDS referral hospitals across Japan to collect information (CD4+ lymphocyte count, time of onset, outcome, and antiretroviral therapy [ART] status) of patients diagnosed with any of 23 ADIs between 1995 and 2017. RESULTS: The response and case capture rates of the questionnaires in 2017 were 53% and 76%, respectively. The number of reported cases of opportunistic complications peaked in 2011 and subsequently declined. Pneumocystis pneumonia (38.7%), cytomegalovirus infection (13.6%), and candidiasis (12.8%) were associated with the cumulative incidence of ADIs between 1995 and 2017. The mortality rate in HIV-infected patients with opportunistic complications substantially decreased to 3.6% in 2017. The mortality rate was significantly higher in HIV patients who received ART within 14 days of diagnosis of complications than in those who received ART 15 days after diagnosis (13.0% vs. 3.2%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a 23-year trend of a newly diagnosed AIDS status in Japan with high accuracy. The current data reveal the importance of Pneumocystis pneumonia as a first-onset illness and that early initiation of ART results in poor outcomes in HIV patients in Japan.

5.
Intern Med ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393162

RESUMO

A 68-year-old woman developed systemic blisters while receiving treatment for nephrotic syndrome. As she also developed marked liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation, she was admitted to our hospital. She was diagnosed with varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. Treatment was administered in the intensive-care unit, but the patient died on day 24 post-admission after severe VZV infection. A post-mortem examination showed micro-abscesses and necrosis caused by varicella zoster infection in multiple organs, including the liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Because VZV infection can become severe in immunocompromised patients, careful consideration is needed for the prevention and treatment of the viral infection.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14146, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238999

RESUMO

Septic shock is characterized by dysregulated vascular permeability. We hypothesized that the vascular permeability of endothelial cells (ECs) would be regulated by serotonin via serotonin-Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) signaling. We aimed to determine the impact of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) on septic shock as a novel biomarker. Plasma 5-HIAA levels and disease severity indices were obtained from 47 patients with sepsis. The association between 5-HIAA levels and severity indices was analyzed. Permeability upon serotonin stimulation was determined using human pulmonary microvascular ECs. 5-HIAA were significantly higher in septic shock patients than in patients without shock or healthy controls (p = 0.004). These elevated levels were correlated with severity indexes (SOFA score [p < 0.001], APACHE II [p < 0.001], and PaO2:FiO2 [p = 0.02]), and longitudinally associated with worse clinical outcomes (mechanical ventilation duration [p = 0.009] and ICU duration [p = 0.01]). In the experiment, serotonin increased the permeability of ECs, which was inhibited by the ROCK inhibitor (p < 0.001). Serotonin increases vascular permeability of ECs via ROCK signaling. This suggests a novel mechanism by which serotonin disrupts endothelial barriers via ROCK signaling and causes the pathogenesis of septic shock with a vascular leak. Serotonin serves as a novel biomarker of vascular permeability.

7.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 240, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypokalemia and acute kidney injury (AKI) occur in patients administered liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a wide-spectrum anti-fungicidal drug. However, the association between potassium supplementation and the occurrence of AKI in patients with hypokalemia who were administered L-AMB is not well understood. METHODS: Using nationwide claims data and laboratory data, the occurrence of AKI during L-AMB treatment was retrospectively compared between patients with hypokalemia who were or were not supplemented with potassium and between those adequately or inadequately supplemented with potassium (serum potassium levels corrected to ≥3.5 mEq/L or remained < 3.5 mEq/L, respectively) before or after L-AMB treatment initiation. RESULTS: We identified 118 patients who developed hypokalemia before L-AMB treatment initiation (43 received potassium supplementation [25 adequate and 18 inadequate supplementation] and 75 did not receive potassium supplementation), and 117 patients who developed hypokalemia after L-AMB initiation (79 received potassium supplementation [including 23 adequate and 15 inadequate supplementation] and 38 did not receive potassium supplementation). The occurrence of any stage of AKI was similar between patients with hypokalemia, regardless of potassium supplementation (i.e., before L-AMB treatment initiation [supplementation, 51%; non-supplementation, 45%; P = 0.570] or after L-AMB initiation [supplementation, 28%; non-supplementation, 32%; P = 0.671]). After adjusting for confounding factors, we found that the occurrence of any stage of AKI was not associated with potassium supplementation before L-AMB initiation (odds ratio [OR]: 1.291, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.584-2.852, P = 0.528) or after L-AMB initiation (OR: 0.954, 95% CI: 0.400-2.275, P = 0.915). The occurrence of any stage of AKI tended to decline in patients with hypokalemia who were adequately supplemented with potassium (44%) before, but not after, L-AMB initiation relative to that in patients inadequately supplemented with potassium (61%), however this result was not significant (P = 0.358). CONCLUSION: Potassium supplementation was not associated with any stage of AKI in patients with hypokalemia who were administered L-AMB.

8.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(10): 1525-1528, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294531

RESUMO

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is necessary for confirming a diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here we present a COVID-19 case of an elderly woman whose SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests showed false negative repeatedly by evaluating with different sampling sites and procedures. Nasopharyngeal swabs, suctioned sputum, and tongue swabs were collected for SARS-CoV-2-PCR. As for tongue swabs, we compared between two different sample conditions; one obtained with dry condition and the other obtained with moistened condition inside the oral cavity. SARS-CoV-2-PCR showed positive for an extended period with suctioned sputum samples compared with nasopharyngeal swabs and tongue swabs. No SARS-CoV-2 from a nasopharyngeal swab sample obtained on day 46 after symptoms onset was isolated despite high viral load (183740.5 copies/5µL). An adequate production of neutralizing antibody in a serum sample on day 46 was also confirmed. The number of RNA copies of the tongue swab samples was higher with moistened condition than with dry condition. The present case suggests that the difference of sampling site or sample condition can affect PCR results. High loads viral RNA detection does not always correlate with infectivity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Nasofaringe , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral , Manejo de Espécimes
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 573, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent increase in cases of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAf) infections is a major clinical concern owing to its treatment limitations. Patient-derived ARAf occurs after prolonged azole treatment in patients with aspergillosis and involves various cyp51A point mutations or non-cyp51A mutations. The prognosis of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) with patient-derived ARAf infection remains unclear. In this study, we reported the case of a patient with ARAf due to HapE mutation, as well as the virulence of the isolate. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old male was presented with productive cough and low-grade fever. The patient was diagnosed with CPA based on the chronic course, presence of a fungus ball in the upper left lobe on chest computed tomography (CT), positivity for Aspergillus-precipitating antibody and denial of other diseases. The patient underwent left upper lobe and left S6 segment resection surgery because of repeated haemoptysis during voriconazole (VRC) treatment. The patient was postoperatively treated with VRC for 6 months. Since then, the patient was followed up without antifungal treatment but relapsed 4 years later, and VRC treatment was reinitiated. Although an azole-resistant isolate was isolated after VRC treatment, the patient did not show any disease progression in either respiratory symptoms or radiological findings. The ARAf isolated from this patient showed slow growth, decreased biomass and biofilm formation in vitro, and decreased virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model compared with its parental strain. These phenotypes could be caused by the HapE splice site mutation. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first to report a case demonstrating the clinical manifestation of a CPA patient infected with ARAf with a HapE splice site mutation, which was consistent with the in vitro and in vivo attenuated virulence of the ARAf isolate. These results imply that not all the ARAf infections in immunocompetent patients require antifungal treatment. Further studies on the virulence of non-cyp51A mutations in ARAf are warranted.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Azóis/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Aspergilose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus fumigatus/patogenicidade , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Fenótipo , Aspergilose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Virulência/genética , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(10): 1471-1476, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a broad spectrum anti-fungicidal drug, is often administered to treat invasive fungal infections (IFIs). However, the most suitable time to initiate treatment in septic shock patients with IFI is unknown. METHODS: Patients with septic shock treated with L-AMB were identified from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination national database and were stratified according to L-AMB treatment initiation either at septic shock onset (early L-AMB group) or after the onset (delayed L-AMB group) to determine their survival rates following septic shock onset and the shock cessation period. RESULTS: We identified 141 patients administered L-AMB on the day of or after septic shock onset: 60 patients received early treatment, whereas 81 patients received delayed treatment. Survival rates after septic shock onset were higher in the early L-AMB group than in the delayed L-AMB group (4 weeks: 68.4% vs 57.9%, P = 0.197; 6 weeks: 62.2% vs 44.5%, P = 0.061; 12 weeks: 43.4% vs 35.0%, P = 0.168, respectively). The septic shock cessation period was shorter in the early L-AMB group than in the delayed L-AMB group (7.0 ± 7.0 days vs 16.5 ± 15.4 days, P < 0.001), with a significant difference confirmed after adjusting for confounding factors with propensity score matching (7.1 ± 7.2 days vs 16.7 ± 14.0 days, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Early L-AMB administration at septic shock onset may be associated with early shock cessation.


Assuntos
Choque Séptico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico
11.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared the quantitative RT-PCR results between nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva specimens. METHODS: A COVID-19 outbreak occurred on a cruise ship at Nagasaki port, Japan. We obtained 123 nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva each from asymptomatic or mild patients in the late phase of infection. RESULTS: The intervals from the diagnosis to the sampling were 25.5 days for nasopharyngeal swabs and 28.9 days for saliva. The positive rate was 19.5% (24/123) for nasopharyngeal swabs and 38.2% (47/123) for saliva (P = 0.48). The quantified viral copies (mean ± SEM copies/5 µl) were 9.3±2.6 in nasopharyngeal swabs and 920±850 in saliva (P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: The advantages of saliva specimens include positive rate improvement and accurate viral load detection. Saliva may be used as a reliable sample for SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Nasofaringe/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes
12.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(8): 1258-1260, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049793

RESUMO

Chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) is a type of invasive candidiasis. CDC commonly appears in the neutrophil recovery phase after chemotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancies, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is thought to play a major role in CDC development. This report describes the case of a 33-year-old man with CDC as a complication of acute myeloid leukemia. We describe the clinical course, body temperature, therapy, and (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) levels over the course of 22 months. He was initially treated with antifungals, but corticosteroids were added because of a persistently elevated body temperature, which we attributed to IRIS. After starting corticosteroids, his clinical condition improved, but his BDG levels became markedly elevated. We hypothesize that the suppression of the excessive immune response by corticosteroids lead to granuloma collapse, fungal release, and hematogenous dissemination, resulting in elevated BDG levels. The patient's condition gradually improved over the course of follow-up.


Assuntos
Candidíase Invasiva , beta-Glucanas , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Invasiva/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Proteoglicanas
13.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 1033-1038, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781691

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Numerous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serological tests exists commercially; however, their performance using clinical samples is limited. Although insufficient to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the early phase of infection, antibody assays can be of great use for surveillance studies or for some coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients presenting late to the hospital. METHODS: This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of four commercial SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow antibody tests using 213 serum specimens from 90 PCR-positive confirmed COVID-19 patients. Of 59 negative control sera, 50 were obtained from patients with other respiratory infectious diseases before COVID-19 pandemic began while nine were from patients infected with other respiratory viruses, including two seasonal coronaviruses. RESULTS: The varied sensitivities for the four commercial kits were 70.9%, 65.3%, 45.1%, and 65.7% for BioMedomics, Autobio Diagnostics, Genbody, and KURABO, respectively, between sick days 1 and 155 in COVID-19 patients. The sensitivities of the four tests gradually increased over time after infection before sick day 5 (15.0%, 12.5%, 15.0%, and 20.0%); from sick day 11-15 (95.7%, 87.2%, 53.2%, and 89.4%); and after sick day 20 (100%, 100%, 68.6%, and 96.1%), respectively. For severe illness, the sensitivities were quite high in the late phase after sick day 15. The specificities were over 96% for all four tests. No cross-reaction due to other pathogens, including seasonal coronaviruses, was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated the large differences in the antibody test performances. This ought to be considered when performing surveillance analysis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Anticorpos Antivirais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos
15.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 25(3): 279-287, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a broad-spectrum antifungicidal drug, is often used to treat fungal infections. However, clinical evidence of its use in patients with renal dysfunction, especially those receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT), is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the usage and occurrence of adverse reactions during L-AMB therapy in patients undergoing RRT. METHODS: Using claims data and laboratory data, we retrospectively evaluated patients who were administered L-AMB. The presence of comorbidities, mortality rate, treatment with L-AMB and other anti-infective agents, and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between patients receiving RRT, including continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and maintenance hemodialysis (HD), and those that did not receive RRT. RESULTS: In total, 900 cases met the eligibility criteria: 24, 19, and 842 cases in the maintenance HD, CRRT, and non-RRT groups, respectively. Of the patients administered L-AMB, mortality at discharge was higher for those undergoing either CRRT (15/19; 79%) or maintenance HD (16/24; 67%) than for those not receiving RRT (353/842; 42%). After propensity score matching, the average daily and cumulative dose, treatment duration, and dosing interval for L-AMB were not significantly different between patients receiving and not receiving RRT. L-AMB was used as the first-line antifungal agent for patients undergoing CRRT in most cases (12/19; 63%). Although the number of subjects was limited, the incidence of adverse events did not markedly differ among the groups. CONCLUSION: L-AMB may be used for patients undergoing maintenance HD or CRRT without any dosing, duration, or interval adjustments.

16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 103: 33-36, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217572

RESUMO

A 60-year-old Japanese woman presented with subacute progressive muscle pain and weakness in her proximal extremities. She was diagnosed with influenza A (H3N2) infection a week before the onset of muscle pain. At the time of admission, she exhibited weakness in the proximal muscles of the upper and lower limbs, elevated serum liver enzymes and creatinine kinase, and myoglobinuria. She did not manifest renal failure and cardiac abnormalities, indicating myocarditis. Electromyography revealed myogenic changes, and magnetic resonance imaging of the upper limb showed abnormal signal intensities in the muscles, suggestive of myopathy. Muscle biopsy of the biceps revealed numerous necrotic regeneration fibers and mild inflammatory cell infiltration, suggesting immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM). Necrotized muscle cells were positive for human influenza A (H3N2). Autoantibody analysis showed the presence of antibodies against the signal recognition particle (SRP), and the patient was diagnosed with anti-SRP-associated IMNM. She was resistant to intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy but recovered after administration of oral systemic corticosteroids and immunoglobulins. We speculate that the influenza A (H3N2) infection might have triggered her IMNM. Thus, IMNM should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with proximal muscle weakness that persists after viral infections.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Doenças Autoimunes/microbiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/complicações , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculares/microbiologia , Partícula de Reconhecimento de Sinal/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/análise , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Doenças Musculares/imunologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Mialgia/diagnóstico , Necrose
17.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(3): 537-539, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the annual variation in the frequency of patient-acquired azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAf), and correlate it to the amount of oral triazole prescribed, in Nagasaki, Japan. METHODS: A. fumigatus isolates from respiratory specimens collected in the Nagasaki University Hospital (NUH) between 1996 and 2017 were included in the study. The amount of oral triazole prescribed in NUH since 2001 was obtained from the medical ordering system. Mutations in cyp51A, hmg1, and erg6 genes of ARAf were also analysed. RESULTS: From a total of 240 ARAf strains, 12 (5%), 6 (2.5%), 15 (6.25%), and 3 (1.25%) strains were resistant to itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), to either ITC or VRC, and both triazoles, respectively. The amount of prescribed VRC increased annually, and was three times as large as that of ITC in 2017. All eleven patients harbouring ITC-resistant strains had a history of prior ITC treatment, while only one of six patients harbouring VRC-resistant strains had a history of prior VRC treatment. cyp51A mutations were recorded in 10 strains; however, tandem repeat mutations of the promoter region of cyp51A were not observed. Several azole-resistant strains had non-cyp51A mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of patient-acquired ARAf is not increasing in Nagasaki, Japan. Furthermore, the prevalence of VRC-induced ARAf was rare despite the remarkable increase in the amount of prescribed VRC. Mutations in genes other than cyp51A should also be considered when ARAf strains are obtained from patients treated with azole antifungals.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus , Triazóis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Azóis/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Triazóis/farmacologia
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2266-2268, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990189

RESUMO

A 68-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital for an acute febrile illness with shivering and impaired consciousness. He was a previous smoker and had a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, for which he inhaled steroid with a long-acting bronchodilator. He had received a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination 2 years previously. He was intubated and placed on a ventilator in intensive care unit because of acute respiratory failure and hypercapnia. Streptococcus pneumoniae was grown from his blood, sputum, and urine cultures, and he was diagnosed with invasive pneumococcal disease with acute renal failure. He was treated with intravenous beta-lactam and macrolide with continuous hemodiafiltration and was discharged 3 months later. The pneumococcus was identified as serotype 12F, and his serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytic index against serotype 12F indicating a lack of protection from IPD among PPV23 serotypes. This case highlights that some individuals may have a serotype-specific polysaccharide antibody failure that makes them susceptible to serotype 12F invasive pneumococcal disease. This case also illustrates the need for serotype-specific IgG and opsonophagocytic index titre cut-offs for each specific pneumococcal serotype in available vaccines to understand the vaccination protection for individual patients better.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/administração & dosagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/imunologia , Idoso , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Pneumocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Sorotipagem , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Vacinação
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15033, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929112

RESUMO

Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug that is used to treat fungal infections. However, clinical evidence of its use in patients with renal failure is limited. Here, we aimed to identify factors associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients administered L-AMB. We retrospectively utilized a combination of Diagnosis Procedure Combination data and laboratory data obtained from hospitals throughout Japan between April 2008 and January 2018. In total, 507 patients administered L-AMB were identified. After L-AMB treatment initiation, AKI, which was defined as a ≥ 1.5-fold increase within 7 days or ≥ 0.3 mg/dL increase within 2 days in serum creatinine according to the KDIGO criteria, was recognized in 37% of the total patients (189/507). The stages of AKI were stage 1 in 20%, stage 2 in 11%, and stage 3 in 7%. Five factors were associated with AKI of all stages: prior treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers or carbapenem; concomitant administration of catecholamines or immunosuppressants; and ≥ 3.52 mg/kg/day of L-AMB dosing. Serum potassium < 3.5 mEq/L before L-AMB therapy was associated with severe AKI of stage 2 and 3. Altogether, these factors should be carefully considered to reduce the occurrence of AKI in patients administered L-AMB.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Anfotericina B/efeitos adversos , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos/administração & dosagem , Catecolaminas/administração & dosagem , Creatinina/sangue , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/complicações
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