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1.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1866(12): 118525, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398409

RESUMO

The myeloid precursor cell differentiation requires an extensive chromatin remodeling. We show that the level of the PBAF chromatin remodeling complex decreases following the start of differentiation of myeloid precursors, becoming very low in the terminally differentiated peripheral blood (PB) neutrophils where it co-localizes with Pol II on the transcriptionally active chromatin. Previously, we have shown that the PHF10 subunit of the PBAF signature module has four isoforms, two of them (PHF10-P) contain a tandem of C-terminal PHD domains. We found that out of four PHF10 isoforms present in the myeloid precursor cells, only the PHF10-Ss isoform lacking PHD domains, is actively expressed in the PB neutrophils. In particular, the longest of the PHF10 isoforms (PHF10-Pl), which is essential for proliferation, completely disappears in PB neutrophils. In addition, in the myeloid precursors, promoters of neutrophil-specific genes are associated with the PHD-containing isoforms, together with PBAF and Pol II, when these genes are inactive and only during their activation stage. However, at the later stages of differentiation, when neutrophil-specific genes are actively transcribed, PHF10-P isoforms on their promoters are replaced by the PHF10-S isoforms. Evidently, PHD domains of PHF10 are essential for active chromatin remodeling during transcription activation, but are dispensable for the constantly transcribed genes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conventional antitumor Photosensitizers (PS) are normally low toxic in the dark whereas light activation triggers a massive cell death (photodynamic therapy, PDT). OBJECTIVE: To expand the therapeutic potential of PS to dual potency cytocidal agents we took advantage of the use of bacteriopurpurin for a deeper tissue penetration of light, and suitability of the tetrapyrrolic macrocycle for chemical modifications at its periphery. METHODS: Conjugation of a pro-oxidant thiolate Au (I) moiety to the bacteriopurpurin core and evaluation of cytotoxicity in cell culture and in vivo. RESULTS: New water soluble derivatives showed a micromolar cytotoxicity for cultured human tumor cell lines in the dark, including the subline with an altered drug response due to p53 inactivation. Cellular PDT with the selected conjugate, thiolate Au (I)-dipropoxybacteriopurpurinimide (compound 6) with two triphenylphosphine Au fragments, triggered rapid (within minutes) cell death. Damage to the plasma membrane (necrosis) was a hallmark of cell death by 6 both in the dark and upon light activation. Furthermore, one single i.v. injection of 6 caused retardation of transplanted syngeneic tumors at the tolerable dose. Illumination of tumors that accumulated compound 6 significantly synergized with the effect of 6 in the dark. CONCLUSION: Complexes of virtually non-toxic, photoactivatable bacteriopurpurin with the gold containing organic moiety are considered the dual potency antitumor agents, tentatively applicable for intractable tumors.

3.
Int J Oncol ; 55(1): 289-297, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115499

RESUMO

A t(9;22) chromosomal translocation which forms the chimeric tyrosine kinase breakpoint cluster region (BCR)­Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL) is a key mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Pharmacological inhibition of BCR­ABL with imatinib (Gleevec) has been reported as an effective targeted therapy; however, mutations (including the kinase domain of ABL) suppress the efficacy of inhibitors. PF­114, a derivative of the third generation BCR­ABL inhibitor ponatinib, demonstrated a high inhibitory activity against wild-type and mutant BCR­ABL forms, such as the clinically important T315I. Furthermore, PF­114 exhibited preferential kinase selectivity, safety, notable pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy in a murine model. Investigation into the mechanisms of CML cell death revealed an exceptional potency of PF­114 (at low nanomolar concentrations) for the CML­derived K562 cell line, whereas leukemia cell lines that lack the chimeric tyrosine kinase were markedly more refractory. The molecular ordering of events mechanistically associated with K562 cell death included the dephosphorylation of CrkL adaptor protein followed by inhibition of ERK1/2 and Akt, G1 arrest, a decrease of phosphorylated Bcl­2­associated death promoter, Bcl­2­like protein 11, BH3 interacting­domain death agonist, Bcl­extra large and Bcl­2 family apoptosis regulator, and reduced mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Increased Annexin V reactivity, activation of caspases and poly(ADP­ribose)polymerase cleavage were proposed to lead to internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Thus, PF­114 may be a potent inducer of apoptosis in CML cells. Nevertheless, activation of STAT3 phosphorylation in response to PF­114 may permit cell rescue; thus, a combination of BCR­ABL and STAT3 inhibitors should be considered for improved therapeutic outcome. Collectively, the targeted killing of BCR­ABL­positive cells, along with other beneficial properties, such as in vivo characteristics, suggests PF­114 as a potential candidate for analysis in clinical trials with CML patients.

4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 165: 31-45, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659997

RESUMO

Derivatives of the anthraquinone (anthracene-9,10-dione) such as doxorubicin, mitoxantrone and others have proved great clinical efficacy for decades. Currently the search in this exceptionally productive chemical class is aimed at optimization of antitumor properties including circumvention of drug resistance. Previously we have reported that heteroarene-fused anthraquinones fused to a 5-membered heterocyclic ring are advantageous in killing drug resistant tumor cells. Herein we present the synthesis and antitumor properties of a series of new anthra[2,3-b]furan-2-carboxamides. Vast majority of new derivatives were similarly cytotoxic to wild type tumor cell lines and their isogenic sublines with P-glycoprotein overexpression and/or p53 inactivation. Comparison of structurally close derivatives varying in their position relative to the furan moiety, that is, furan-3-carboxamide 1vs furan-2-carboxamides 5 and 6, revealed fundamental differences in the cytotoxicity profiles, formation of drug-DNA complexes, efficacy of topoisomerase 1 inhibition and mechanisms of tumor cell death. Together with previous SAR data on the role of individual substituents, these results provide evidence that regioisomerization of anthra[2,3-b]furancarboxamides generates the practically perspective derivatives whose properties may vary significantly.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/síntese química , Amidas , Antraquinonas/síntese química , Antraquinonas/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Furanos , Humanos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I/farmacologia
5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1861(3): 573-583, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562498

RESUMO

Boron containing polyhedra (carboranes) are three-dimensional delocalized aromatic systems. These structures have been shown to transport protons through lipid membranes and mitochondria. Conjugation of carboranes to various organic moieties is aimed at obtaining biologically active compounds with novel properties. Taking advantage of 1,2,3-triazoles as the scaffolds valuable in medicinal chemistry, we synthesized 1-(o-carboranylmethyl)-4-pentyl-1,2,3-triazole (c-triazole) and 1-(o-carboranylmethyl)-4-pentyl-1,2,3-triazolium iodide (c-triazolium). Both compounds interacted with model lipid membranes and exhibited a proton carrying activity in planar bilayers and liposomes in a concentration- and pH-dependent manner. Importantly, mechanisms of the protonophoric activity differed; namely, protonation-deprotonation reactions of the triazole and the o-carborane moieties were involved in the transport cycles of c-triazole and c-triazolium, respectively. At micromolar concentrations, c-triazole and c-triazolium stimulated respiration of isolated rat liver mitochondria and depolarized their membrane potential, with c-triazole being more potent. In living K562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia) cells, both c-triazolium and c-triazole altered the mitochondrial membrane potential as determined by a decreased intracellular accumulation of the potential-dependent dye tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester. Finally, cell viability testing demonstrated a cytotoxic potency of c-triazolium and, to a lesser extent, of c-triazole against K562 cells, whereas non-malignant fibroblasts were much less sensitive. In all tests, the reference boron-free benzyl-4-pentyl-1,2,3-triazole showed little-to-no effects. These results demonstrated that carboranyltriazoles carry protons across biological membranes, a property potentially important in anticancer drug design.

6.
Eur J Med Chem ; 148: 128-139, 2018 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459273

RESUMO

Chemical modifications of the anthraquinone scaffold are aimed at optimization of this exceptionally productive class of antitumor drugs. In particular, our previously reported anthra[2,3-b]furan-3-carboxamides demonstrated a high cytotoxic potency in cell culture and in vivo. In this study, we expanded our series of anthra[2,3-b]furan-3-carboxamides by modifying the key functional groups and dissected the structure-activity relationship within this chemotype. The majority of new compounds inhibited the growth of mammalian tumor cell lines at submicromolar to low micromolar concentrations. We found that 4,11-hydroxy groups as well as the carbonyl moiety in the carboxamide fragment were critical for cytotoxicity whereas the substituent at the 2-position of anthra[2,3-b]furan was not. Importantly, the new derivatives were similarly potent against wild type cells and their variants resistant to doxorubicin due to P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression or p53 inactivation. The most cytotoxic derivatives 6 and 9 attenuated plasmid DNA relaxation by topoisomerase 1. Finally, we demonstrated that 6 and 9 at 1 µM induced intracellular oxidative stress, accumulation in G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cell lines regardless of their p53 status. These results further substantiate the potential of anthra[2,3-b]furan-3-carboxamides as antitumor drug candidates.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Amidas , Animais , Antraquinonas/química , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Furanos , Humanos , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Inibidores da Topoisomerase I
7.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 5645, 2017 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28717195

RESUMO

The PBAF chromatin-remodeling complexes are multi-protein machines, regulating expression of genes involved in proliferation and differentiation. PHF10 is a subunit of the PBAF essential for its association with chromatin. Mammalian PHF10 is expressed as four ubiquitous isoforms, which are alternatively incorporated in the complex and differ by their influence on transcription of target genes. PHF10 have different domain structure and two of them (PHF10-S isoforms) lack C-terminal PHD domains, which enables their phosphorylation by CK-1. Here we have found that PBAF subunits have low turnover rate, except for PHF10 which has much lower half-life, and is degraded by ß-TrCP. The ß-TrCP knockdown stabilizes PBAF core subunits - BRG1 and BAF155 and specific subunits - PHF10, BAF200, BAF180 and BRD7. PHF10 isoforms contain two non-canonical ß-TrCP degrons and are degraded by ß-TrCP in a phospho-dependent manner. But phosphorylation of PHF10-S degrons by CK-1, contrary to previously described degrons, prevents their degradation. Targeted molecular docking demonstrated that phosphorylated forms of PHF10 bind to ß-TrCP with much lower affinity than non-phosphorylated ones, contrary to previously described degrons. This unorthodox mechanism proposes that phosphorylation of ß-TrCP degrons by CK-1 could not only degrade a set of proteins, but also stabilize a different set of targets.

8.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 9(2)2016 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27089349

RESUMO

Based on the data for compounds known from the literature to be active against various types of Ser/Thr kinases, a general pharmachophore model for these types of kinases was developed. The search for the molecules fitting to this pharmacophore among the ASINEX proprietary library revealed a number of compounds, which were tested and appeared to possess some activity against Ser/Thr kinases such as Aurora A, Aurora B and Haspin. Our work on the optimization of these molecules against Aurora A kinase allowed us to achieve several hits in a 3-5 nM range of activity with rather good selectivity and Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) properties, and cytotoxicity against 16 cancer cell lines. Thus, we showed the possibility to fine-tune the general Ser/Thr pharmacophore to design active and selective compounds against desired types of kinases.

9.
Eur J Med Chem ; 112: 114-129, 2016 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26890118

RESUMO

Anthraquinones and their analogues, in particular heteroarene-fused anthracendiones, are prospective scaffolds for new compounds with improved antitumor characteristics. We herein report the use of a 'scaffold hopping' approach for the replacement of the core structure in the previously discovered hit compound naphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-dione 2 with an alternative anthra[2,3-b]furan-5,10-dione scaffold. Among 13 newly synthesized derivatives the majority of 4,11-dihydroxy-2-methyl-5,10-dioxoanthra[2,3-b]furan-3-carboxamides demonstrated a high antiproliferative potency against a panel of wild type and drug resistant tumor cell lines, a property superior over the reference drug doxorubicin or lead naphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-dione 2. At low micromolar concentrations the selected derivative of (R)-3-aminopyrrolidine 3c and its stereoisomer (S)-3-aminopyrrolidine 3d caused an apoptotic cell death preceded by an arrest in the G2/M phase. Studies of intracellular targets showed that 3c and 3d formed stable intercalative complexes with the duplex DNA as determined by spectral analysis and molecular docking. Both 3c and 3d attenuated topoisomerase 1 and 2 mediated unwinding of the supercoiled DNA via a mechanism different from conventional DNA-enzyme tertiary complex formation. Furthermore, 3d decreased the activity of selected human protein kinases in vitro, indicating multiple targeting by the new chemotype. Finally, 3d demonstrated an antitumor activity in a model of murine intraperitoneally transplanted P388 leukemia, achieving the increase of animal life span up to 262% at tolerable doses. Altogether, the 'scaffold hopping' demonstrated its productivity for obtaining new perspective antitumor drug candidates.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Furanos/química , Furanos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Topoisomerase/química , Inibidores da Topoisomerase/farmacologia , Animais , Antracenos/química , Antracenos/farmacologia , Antracenos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Inibidores da Topoisomerase/uso terapêutico
10.
IUBMB Life ; 68(4): 281-92, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26892736

RESUMO

Metformin, a biguanide antidiabetic drug, is used to decrease hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, the epidemiological studies revealed the potential of metformin as an anti-tumor drug for several types of cancer, including breast cancer. Anti-tumor metformin action was found to be mediated, at least in part, via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-intracellular energy sensor, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and some other signaling pathways. Nevertheless, some patients can be non-sensitive or resistant to metformin action. Here we analyzed the mechanism of the formation of metformin-resistant phenotype in breast cancer cells and its role in estrogen receptor (ER) regulation. The experiments were performed on the ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells and metformin-resistant MCF-7 subline (MCF-7/M) developed due to long-term metformin treatment. The transcriptional activity of NF-κB and ER was measured by the luciferase reporter gene analysis. The protein expression was determined by immunoblotting (Snail1, (phospho)AMPK, (phospho)IκBα, (phospho)mTOR, cyclin D1, (phospho)Akt and ERα) and immunohistochemical analysis (E-cadherin). We have found that: 1) metformin treatment of MCF-7 cells is accompanied with the stimulation of AMPK and inhibition of growth-related proteins including IκBα, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and ERα; 2) long-term metformin treatment lead to the appearance and progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen; the resistant cells are characterized with the unaffected AMPK activity, but the irreversible ER suppression and constitutive activation of Akt/Snail1 signaling; 3) Akt/Snail1 signaling is involved into progression of metformin resistance. The results presented may be considered as the first evidence of the progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen in breast cancer cells. Importantly, the acquired resistance to both drugs is based on the constitutive activation of Akt/Snail1/E-cadherin signaling that opens new perspectives to overcome the metformin/tamoxifen resistance of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/genética , Fatores de Transcrição da Família Snail/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
11.
J Med Chem ; 58(24): 9522-34, 2015 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26633734

RESUMO

A series of new 4,11-diaminoanthra[2,3-b]furan-5,10-dione derivatives with different side chains were synthesized. Selected 2-unsubstituted derivatives 11-14 showed high antiproliferative potency on a panel of mammalian tumor cell lines including multidrug resistance variants. Compounds 11-14 utilized multiple mechanisms of cytotoxicity including inhibition of Top1/Top2-mediated DNA relaxation, reduced NAD(+)/NADH ratio through tNOX inhibition, suppression of a NAD(+)-dependent sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity, and activation of caspase-mediated apoptosis. Here, for the first time, we report that tumor-associated NADH oxidase (tNOX) and SIRT1 are important cellular targets of antitumor anthracene-9,10-diones.


Assuntos
Antracenos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Animais , Antracenos/síntese química , Antracenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Camundongos , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirtuína 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
PLoS One ; 5(9): e12717, 2010 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20856679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apoptotic cascades may frequently be impaired in tumor cells; therefore, the approaches to circumvent these obstacles emerge as important therapeutic modalities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our novel derivatives of chlorin e(6), that is, its amide (compound 2) and boronated amide (compound 5) evoked no dark toxicity and demonstrated a significantly higher photosensitizing efficacy than chlorin e(6) against transplanted aggressive tumors such as B16 melanoma and M-1 sarcoma. Compound 5 showed superior therapeutic potency. Illumination with red light of mammalian tumor cells loaded with 0.1 µM of 5 caused rapid (within the initial minutes) necrosis as determined by propidium iodide staining. The laser confocal microscopy-assisted analysis of cell death revealed the following order of events: prior to illumination, 5 accumulated in Golgi cysternae, endoplasmic reticulum and in some (but not all) lysosomes. In response to light, the reactive oxygen species burst was concomitant with the drop of mitochondrial transmembrane electric potential, the dramatic changes of mitochondrial shape and the loss of integrity of mitochondria and lysosomes. Within 3-4 min post illumination, the plasma membrane became permeable for propidium iodide. Compounds 2 and 5 were one order of magnitude more potent than chlorin e(6) in photodamage of artificial liposomes monitored in a dye release assay. The latter effect depended on the content of non-saturated lipids; in liposomes consisting of saturated lipids no photodamage was detectable. The increased therapeutic efficacy of 5 compared with 2 was attributed to a striking difference in the ability of these photosensitizers to permeate through hydrophobic membrane interior as evidenced by measurements of voltage jump-induced relaxation of transmembrane current on planar lipid bilayers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The multimembrane photodestruction and cell necrosis induced by photoactivation of 2 and 5 are directly associated with membrane permeabilization caused by lipid photodamage.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
13.
ChemMedChem ; 4(10): 1641-8, 2009 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19672918

RESUMO

Novel indolocarbazole derivative 12-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)indolo[2,3-alpha]pyrrolo[3,4-c]carbazole-5,7-dione (AIC) demonstrated high potency (at submicromolar concentrations) against the NCI panel of human tumor cell lines and transplanted tumors in vivo. In search of tentative targets for AIC, we found that the drug formed high affinity intercalative complexes with d(AT)(20), d(GC)(20) and calf thymus DNA (binding constants (1.6x10(6)) M(-1)< or =K(a)< or =(3.3x10(6)) M(-1)). The drug intercalated preferentially into GC pairs of the duplex. Importantly, the concentrations at which AIC formed the intercalative complexes with DNA (C< or =1 microM) were identical to the concentrations that triggered p53-dependent gene reporter transactivation, the replication block, the inhibition of topoisomerase I-mediated DNA relaxation and death of HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells. We conclude that the formation of high affinity intercalative complexes with DNA is an important factor for anticancer efficacy of AIC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Arabinose/análogos & derivados , Carbazóis/farmacologia , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Intercalantes/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Apoptose , Arabinose/química , Arabinose/farmacologia , Carbazóis/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Substâncias Intercalantes/química , Substâncias Intercalantes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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