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1.
BMJ ; 372: n311, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation was associated with decreased risk of death among patients admitted to hospital with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in the United States. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Nationwide cohort of patients receiving care in the Department of Veterans Affairs, a large integrated national healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: All 4297 patients admitted to hospital from 1 March to 31 July 2020 with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and without a history of anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was 30 day mortality. Secondary outcomes were inpatient mortality, initiating therapeutic anticoagulation (a proxy for clinical deterioration, including thromboembolic events), and bleeding that required transfusion. RESULTS: Of 4297 patients admitted to hospital with covid-19, 3627 (84.4%) received prophylactic anticoagulation within 24 hours of admission. More than 99% (n=3600) of treated patients received subcutaneous heparin or enoxaparin. 622 deaths occurred within 30 days of hospital admission, 513 among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation. Most deaths (510/622, 82%) occurred during hospital stay. Using inverse probability of treatment weighted analyses, the cumulative incidence of mortality at 30 days was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 13.1% to 15.5%) among those who received prophylactic anticoagulation and 18.7% (15.1% to 22.9%) among those who did not. Compared with patients who did not receive prophylactic anticoagulation, those who did had a 27% decreased risk for 30 day mortality (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.81). Similar associations were found for inpatient mortality and initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation. Receipt of prophylactic anticoagulation was not associated with increased risk of bleeding that required transfusion (hazard ratio 0.87, 0.71 to 1.05). Quantitative bias analysis showed that results were robust to unmeasured confounding (e-value lower 95% confidence interval 1.77 for 30 day mortality). Results persisted in several sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Early initiation of prophylactic anticoagulation compared with no anticoagulation among patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 was associated with a decreased risk of 30 day mortality and no increased risk of serious bleeding events. These findings provide strong real world evidence to support guidelines recommending the use of prophylactic anticoagulation as initial treatment for patients with covid-19 on hospital admission.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Tromboembolia/virologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(23): e017645, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222591

RESUMO

Background Hospitalization with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients uninfected with HIV. We evaluated whether people living with HIV (PLWH) have a higher risk of CVD or mortality than individuals uninfected with HIV following hospitalization with CAP. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study on US veterans admitted with their first episode of CAP from April 2003 through December 2014. We used Cox regression analyses to determine whether HIV status was associated with incident CVD events and mortality from date of admission through 30 days after discharge (30-day mortality), adjusting for known CVD risk factors. We included 4384 patients (67% [n=2951] PLWH). PLWH admitted with CAP were younger, had less severe CAP, and had fewer CVD risk factors than patients with CAP who were uninfected with HIV. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, CVD risk was similar in PLWH compared with HIV-uninfected (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% CI, 0.70-1.12), but HIV infection was associated with higher mortality risk (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.90). In models stratified by HIV status, CAP severity was significantly associated with incident CVD and 30-day mortality in PLWH and patients uninfected with HIV. Conclusions In this study, the risk of CVD events during or after hospitalization for CAP was similar in PLWH and patients uninfected with HIV, after adjusting for known CVD risk factors and CAP severity. HIV infection, however, was associated with increased 30-day mortality after CAP hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models. PLWH should be included in future studies evaluating mechanisms and prevention of CVD events after CAP.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241825, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Available COVID-19 mortality indices are limited to acute inpatient data. Using nationwide medical administrative data available prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection from the US Veterans Health Administration (VA), we developed the VA COVID-19 (VACO) 30-day mortality index and validated the index in two independent, prospective samples. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We reviewed SARS-CoV-2 testing results within the VA between February 8 and August 18, 2020. The sample was split into a development cohort (test positive between March 2 and April 15, 2020), an early validation cohort (test positive between April 16 and May 18, 2020), and a late validation cohort (test positive between May 19 and July 19, 2020). Our logistic regression model in the development cohort considered demographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity), and pre-existing medical conditions and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) derived from ICD-10 diagnosis codes. Weights were fixed to create the VACO Index that was then validated by comparing area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) in the early and late validation cohorts and among important validation cohort subgroups defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and geographic region. We also evaluated calibration curves and the range of predictions generated within age categories. 13,323 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (median age: 63 years; 91% male; 42% non-Hispanic Black). We observed 480/3,681 (13%) deaths in development, 253/2,151 (12%) deaths in the early validation cohort, and 403/7,491 (5%) deaths in the late validation cohort. Age, multimorbidity described with CCI, and a history of myocardial infarction or peripheral vascular disease were independently associated with mortality-no other individual comorbid diagnosis provided additional information. The VACO Index discriminated mortality in development (AUC = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.77-0.81), and in early (AUC = 0.81 95% CI: 0.78-0.83) and late (AUC = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.78-0.86) validation. The VACO Index allows personalized estimates of 30-day mortality after COVID-19 infection. For example, among those aged 60-64 years, overall mortality was estimated at 9% (95% CI: 6-11%). The Index further discriminated risk in this age stratum from 4% (95% CI: 3-7%) to 21% (95% CI: 12-31%), depending on sex and comorbid disease. CONCLUSION: Prior to infection, demographics and comorbid conditions can discriminate COVID-19 mortality risk overall and within age strata. The VACO Index reproducibly identified individuals at substantial risk of COVID-19 mortality who might consider continuing social distancing, despite relaxed state and local guidelines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Saúde dos Veteranos , Adulto Jovem
4.
AIDS ; 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether statin exposure is associated with decreased cancer and mortality risk among persons with HIV (PWH) and uninfected persons. Statins appear to have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and may reduce cancer risk, particularly among PWH as they experience chronic inflammation and immune activation. DESIGN: Propensity score matched cohort of statin-exposed and unexposed patients from 2002-2017 in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS), a large cohort with cancer registry linkage and detailed pharmacy data. METHODS: We calculated Cox regression hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with statin use for all cancers, microbial cancers (associated with bacterial or oncovirus coinfection), non-microbial cancers, and mortality. RESULTS: The propensity score-matched sample (N = 47,940) included 23,970 statin initiators (31% PWH). Incident cancers were diagnosed in 1,160 PWH and 2,116 uninfected patients. Death was reported in 1,667 (7.0%) statin-exposed, and 2,215 (9.2%) unexposed patients. Statin use was associated with 24% decreased risk of microbial associated cancers (HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.69-0.85), but was not associated with non-microbial cancer risk (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.92-1.09). Statin use was associated with 33% lower risk of death overall (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.63-0.72). Results were similar in analyses stratified by HIV status, except for non-Hodgkin lymphoma where statin use was associated with reduced risk (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.38-0.83) for PWH, but not for uninfected (p-interaction = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: In both PWH and uninfected, statin exposure was associated with lower risk of microbial, but not non-microbial cancer incidence, and with decreased mortality.

5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(5): 530-534, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may develop in the absence of cirrhosis in HIV, and determining how often this occurs can provide insights into mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Studies evaluating the prevalence of cirrhosis in the setting of HCC among people living with HIV (PLWH) often rely on noninvasive markers, such as the Fibrosis-4 Index for Hepatic Fibrosis (FIB-4). However, the accuracy of FIB-4 for cirrhosis in the setting of HCC has not been determined among PLWH. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among PLWH in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study with VA cancer registry-confirmed HCC diagnosed between 1999 and 2015. FIB-4 was calculated using the age, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and platelet count obtained closest to, but within 1 year before, HCC diagnosis. Medical records were reviewed within 1 year before HCC diagnosis to determine the cirrhosis status. We evaluated the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve and performance characteristics of FIB-4 for confirmed cirrhosis. RESULTS: Incident HCC was diagnosed in 302 PLWH. After medical record review, 203 (67.2%, 95% confidence interval: 61.6% to 72.5%) had evidence of cirrhosis. FIB-4 identified patients with cirrhosis with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.60 to 0.73). FIB-4 scores >5.0 had a positive predictive value >80% and specificity of >77%, negative predictive value of <41%, and sensitivity of <45%. CONCLUSION: The accuracy of FIB-4 for cirrhosis in the setting of HIV and HCC is modest and may result in misclassification of cirrhosis in this population.

6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(10): 3140, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021712

RESUMO

JGIM published the article matched with the editorial in this issue in the July 2020 issue. Our apologies to the authors of the paper and the editorial.

7.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003379, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that racial and ethnic minority communities around the world are experiencing a disproportionate burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated racial and ethnic disparities in patterns of COVID-19 testing (i.e., who received testing and who tested positive) and subsequent mortality in the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective cohort study included 5,834,543 individuals receiving care in the US Department of Veterans Affairs; most (91%) were men, 74% were non-Hispanic White (White), 19% were non-Hispanic Black (Black), and 7% were Hispanic. We evaluated associations between race/ethnicity and receipt of COVID-19 testing, a positive test result, and 30-day mortality, with multivariable adjustment for a wide range of demographic and clinical characteristics including comorbid conditions, health behaviors, medication history, site of care, and urban versus rural residence. Between February 8 and July 22, 2020, 254,595 individuals were tested for COVID-19, of whom 16,317 tested positive and 1,057 died. Black individuals were more likely to be tested (rate per 1,000 individuals: 60.0, 95% CI 59.6-60.5) than Hispanic (52.7, 95% CI 52.1-53.4) and White individuals (38.6, 95% CI 38.4-38.7). While individuals from minority backgrounds were more likely to test positive (Black versus White: odds ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% CI 1.85-2.01, p < 0.001; Hispanic versus White: OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74-1.94, p < 0.001), 30-day mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity (Black versus White: OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17, p = 0.74; Hispanic versus White: OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.73-1.34, p = 0.94). The disparity between Black and White individuals in testing positive for COVID-19 was stronger in the Midwest (OR 2.66, 95% CI 2.41-2.95, p < 0.001) than the West (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.39, p < 0.001). The disparity in testing positive for COVID-19 between Hispanic and White individuals was consistent across region, calendar time, and outbreak pattern. Study limitations include underrepresentation of women and a lack of detailed information on social determinants of health. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study, we found that Black and Hispanic individuals are experiencing an excess burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection not entirely explained by underlying medical conditions or where they live or receive care. There is an urgent need to proactively tailor strategies to contain and prevent further outbreaks in racial and ethnic minority communities.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pneumonia (Nathan) ; 12: 6, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724760

RESUMO

Background: Cohort studies identifying the incidence, complications and co-morbidities associated with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) are largely based on administrative datasets and rely on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes; however, the reliability of ICD codes for hospital admissions for CAP in people with HIV (PWH) has not been systematically assessed. Methods: We used data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study survey sample (N = 6824; 3410 PWH and 3414 uninfected) to validate the use of electronic health records (EHR) data to identify CAP hospitalizations when compared to chart review and to compare the performance in PWH vs. uninfected patients. We used different EHR algorithms that included a broad set of CAP ICD-9 codes, a set restricted to bacterial and viral CAP codes, and algorithms that included pharmacy data and/or other ICD-9 diagnoses frequently associated with CAP. We also compared microbiologic workup and etiologic diagnosis by HIV status among those with CAP. Results: Five hundred forty-nine patients were identified as having an ICD-9 code compatible with a CAP diagnosis (13% of PWH and 4% of the uninfected, p < 0.01). The EHR algorithm with the best overall positive predictive value (82%) was obtained by using the restricted set of ICD-9 codes (480-487) in primary position or secondary only to selected codes as primary (HIV disease, respiratory failure, sepsis or bacteremia) with the addition of EHR pharmacy data; this algorithm yielded PPVs of 83% in PWH and 73% in uninfected (P = 0.1) groups. Adding aspiration pneumonia (ICD-9 code 507) to any of the ICD-9 code/pharmacy combinations increased the number of cases but decreased the overall PPV. Allowing COPD exacerbation in the primary position improved the PPV among the uninfected group only (to 76%). More PWH than uninfected patients underwent microbiologic evaluation or had respiratory samples submitted. Conclusions: ICD-9 code-based algorithms perform similarly to identify CAP in PLWH and uninfected individuals. Adding antimicrobial use data and allowing as primary diagnoses ICD-9 codes frequently used in patients with CAP improved the performance of the algorithms in both groups of patients. The algorithms consistently performed better among PWH.

9.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 15(1): 28, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: At-risk levels of alcohol use threaten the health of patients with HIV (PWH), yet evidence-based strategies to decrease alcohol use and improve HIV-related outcomes in this population are lacking. We examined the effectiveness of integrated stepped alcohol treatment (ISAT) on alcohol use and HIV outcomes among PWH and at-risk alcohol use. METHODS: In this multi-site, randomized trial conducted between January 28, 2013 through July 14, 2017, we enrolled PWH and at-risk alcohol use [defined as alcohol consumption of ≥ 14 drinks per week or ≥ 4 drinks per occasion in men ≤ 65 years old or ≥ 7 drinks per week or ≥ 3 drinks per occasion in women or men > 65 years old]. ISAT (n = 46) involved: Step 1- Brief Negotiated Interview with telephone booster, Step 2- Motivational Enhancement Therapy, and Step 3- Addiction Physician Management. Treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 47) involved receipt of a health handout plus routine care. Analyses were conducted based on intention to treat principles. RESULTS: Despite a multi-pronged approach, we only recruited 37% of the target population (n = 93/254). Among ISAT participants, 50% advanced to Step 2, among whom 57% advanced to Step 3. Participants randomized to ISAT and TAU had no observed difference in drinks per week over the past 30 days at week 24 (primary outcome) [least square means (Ls mean) (95% CI) = 8.8 vs. 10.6; adjusted mean difference (AMD) (95% CI) = - 0.4 (- 3.9, 3.0)]. CONCLUSION: An insufficient number of patients were interested in participating in the trial. Efforts to enhance motivation of PWH with at-risk alcohol use to engage in alcohol-related research and build upon ISAT are needed. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01410123, First posted August 4, 2011.

10.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(9): 1807-1815, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gabapentin is prescribed for seizures and pain and has efficacy for treating alcohol use disorder (AUD) starting at doses of 900 milligrams per day (mg/d). Recent evidence suggests safety concerns associated with gabapentin including adverse neurologic effects. Individuals with hepatitis C (HCV), HIV, or AUD may be at increased risk due to comorbidities and potential medication interactions. METHODS: We identified patients prescribed gabapentin for ≥ 60 days for any indication between 2002 and 2015. We propensity-score matched each gabapentin-exposed patient with up to 5 gabapentin-unexposed patients. We followed patients for 2 years or until diagnosed with (i) falls or fractures, or (ii) altered mental status using validated ICD-9 diagnostic codes. We used Poisson regression to estimate incidence rates and relative risk (RR) of these adverse events in association with gabapentin exposure overall and stratified by age, race/ethnicity, sex, HCV, HIV, AUD, and dose. RESULTS: Incidence of falls or fractures was 1.81 per 100 person-years (PY) among 140,310 gabapentin-exposed and 1.34/100 PY among 431,408 gabapentin-unexposed patients (RR 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 1.44). Incidence of altered mental status was 1.08/100 PY among exposed and 0.97/100 PY among unexposed patients, RR of 1.12 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.20). Excess risk of falls or fractures associated with gabapentin exposure was observed in all subgroups except patients with HCV, HIV, or AUD; however, these groups had elevated incidence regardless of exposure. There was a clear dose-response relationship for falls or fractures with highest risk observed among those prescribed ≥ 2,400 mg/d (RR 1.90, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.40). Patients were at increased risk for altered mental status at doses 600 to 2,399 mg/d; however, low number of events in the highest dose category limited power to detect a statistically significant association ≥ 2,400 mg/d. CONCLUSIONS: Gabapentin is associated with falls or fractures and altered mental status. Clinicians should be monitoring gabapentin safety, especially at doses ≥ 600 mg/d, in patients with and without AUD.

11.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that racial and ethnic minority communities around the world are experiencing a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from symptomatic SARS-Cov-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Most studies investigating racial and ethnic disparities to date have focused on hospitalized patients or have not characterized who received testing or those who tested positive for Covid-19. OBJECTIVE: To compare patterns of testing and test results for coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) and subsequent mortality by race and ethnicity in the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). PARTICIPANTS: 5,834,543 individuals in care, among whom 62,098 were tested and 5,630 tested positive for Covid-19 between February 8 and May 4, 2020. Exposures: Self-reported race/ethnicity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated associations between race/ethnicity and receipt of Covid-19 testing, a positive test result, and 30-day mortality, accounting for a wide range of demographic and clinical risk factors including comorbid conditions, site of care, and urban versus rural residence. RESULTS: Among all individuals in care, 74% were non-Hispanic white (white), 19% non-Hispanic black (black), and 7% Hispanic. Compared with white individuals, black and Hispanic individuals were more likely to be tested for Covid-19 (tests per 1000: white=9.0, [95% CI 8.9 to 9.1]; black=16.4, [16.2 to 16.7]; and Hispanic=12.2, [11.9 to 12.5]). While individuals from minority backgrounds were more likely to test positive (black vs white: OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.81 to 2.12; Hispanic vs white: OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.96), 30-day mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity (black vs white: OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.33; Hispanic vs white: OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.87). CONCLUSIONS: Black and Hispanic individuals are experiencing an excess burden of Covid-19 not entirely explained by underlying medical conditions or where they live or receive care. While there was no observed difference in mortality by race or ethnicity, our findings may underestimate risk in the broader US population as health disparities tend to be reduced in VA.

12.
medRxiv ; 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511595

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), an evolving pandemic. Limited data are available characterizing SARS-Cov-2 infection in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between demographic and clinical factors and testing positive for coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19+), and among Covid-19+ subsequent hospitalization and intensive care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study including all patients tested for Covid-19 between February 8 and March 30, 2020, inclusive. We extracted electronic health record data from the national Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States, on 2,026,227 patients born between 1945 and 1965 and active in care. Exposures: Demographic data, comorbidities, medication history, substance use, vital signs, and laboratory measures. Laboratory tests were analyzed first individually and then grouped into a validated summary measure of physiologic injury (VACS Index). Main Outcomes and Measures: We evaluated which factors were associated with Covid-19+ among all who tested. Among Covid-19+ we identified factors associated with hospitalization or intensive care. We identified independent associations using multivariable and conditional multivariable logistic regression with multiple imputation of missing values. RESULTS: Among Veterans aged 54-75 years, 585/3,789 (15.4%) tested Covid-19+. In adjusted analysis (C-statistic=0.806) black race was associated with Covid-19+ (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.79-5.78) and the association remained in analyses conditional on site (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.89-3.46). In adjusted models, laboratory abnormalities (especially fibrosis-4 score [FIB-4] >3.25 OR 8.73, 95% CI 4.11-18.56), and VACS Index (per 5-point increase OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.43-1.84) were strongly associated with hospitalization. Associations were similar for intensive care. Although significant in unadjusted analyses, associations with comorbid conditions and medications were substantially reduced and, in most cases, no longer significant after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Black race was strongly associated with Covid-19+, but not with hospitalization or intensive care. Among Covid-19+, risk of hospitalization and intensive care may be better characterized by laboratory measures and vital signs than by comorbid conditions or prior medication exposure.

13.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492095

RESUMO

Importance: With the current opioid crisis, it is important to improve understanding of the biological mechanisms of opioid use disorder (OUD). Objectives: To detect genetic risk variants for OUD and determine genetic correlations and causal association with OUD and other traits. Design, Setting, and Participants: A genome-wide association study of electronic health record-defined OUD in the Million Veteran Program sample was conducted, comprising 8529 affected European American individuals and 71 200 opioid-exposed European American controls (defined by electronic health record trajectory analysis) and 4032 affected African American individuals and 26 029 opioid-exposed African American controls. Participants were enrolled from January 10, 2011, to May 21, 2018, with electronic health record data for OUD diagnosis from October 1, 1999, to February 7, 2018. Million Veteran Program results and additional OUD case-control genome-wide association study results from the Yale-Penn and Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment samples were meta-analyzed (total numbers: European American individuals, 10 544 OUD cases and 72 163 opioid-exposed controls; African American individuals, 5212 cases and 26 876 controls). Data on Yale-Penn participants were collected from February 14, 1999, to April 1, 2017, and data on Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment participants were collected from 1990 to 2007. The key result was replicated in 2 independent cohorts: proxy-phenotype buprenorphine treatment in the UK Biobank and newly genotyped Yale-Penn participants. Genetic correlations between OUD and other traits were tested, and mendelian randomization analysis was conducted to identify potential causal associations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-diagnosed OUD or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision-diagnosed OUD (Million Veteran Program), and DSM-IV-defined opioid dependence (Yale-Penn and Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment). Results: A total of 114 759 individuals (101 016 men [88%]; mean [SD] age, 60.1 [12.8] years) were included. In 82 707 European American individuals, a functional coding variant (rs1799971, encoding Asn40Asp) in OPRM1 (µ-opioid receptor gene, the main biological target for opioid drugs; OMIM 600018) reached genome-wide significance (G allele: mean [SE], ß = -0.066 [0.012]; P = 1.51 × 10-8). The finding was replicated in 2 independent samples. Mean (SE) single-nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability of OUD was 11.3% (1.8%). Opioid use disorder was genetically correlated with 83 traits, including multiple substance use traits, psychiatric illnesses, cognitive performance, and others. Mendelian randomization analysis revealed the following associations with OUD: risk of tobacco smoking, depression, neuroticism, worry neuroticism subcluster, and cognitive performance. No genome-wide significant association was detected for African American individuals or in transpopulation meta-analysis. Conclusions and Relevance: This genome-wide meta-analysis identified a significant association of OUD with an OPRM1 variant, which was replicated in 2 independent samples. Post-genome-wide association study analysis revealed associated pleiotropic characteristics. Recruitment of additional individuals with OUD for future studies-especially those of non-European ancestry-is a crucial next step in identifying additional significant risk loci.

14.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 212: 108003, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascertainment of unnatural and overdose death may be unreliable among individuals with life-limiting conditions such as HIV infection. We sought to determine whether the relationship between opioid use and unnatural death differs among decedents with HIV (DWH) and those without. METHODS: Decedents in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) from 2002 to 14 were linked to the National Death Index cause of death file. Deaths were classified as unnatural, overdose (a subset of unnatural), or other. We defined opioid use as self-reported illicit use or receipt of prescribed opioids. Treating unnatural and overdose deaths as outcomes, we calculated odds ratios for opioid exposure by HIV status, with and without adjustment for disease severity using VACS Index. RESULTS: Among 561 decedents without HIV (DWOH) and 884 DWH, 11 % and 8 % respectively were classified as unnatural deaths and 4 % and 2 % were classified as overdose deaths. Among DWOH, opioid use was associated with 2-fold greater odds of unnatural (OR 2.3; 95 % CI 1.3-4.0) and 4-fold greater odds of overdose death (OR 4.5; 95 % CI 1.5-13.7); in adjusted analyses, opioid use was associated with unnatural death (OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.3-4.9) and with overdose (OR 4.2; 95 % CI 1.4-12.7). Opioid use was not associated with unnatural or overdose death among DWH. CONCLUSION: Opioid use was strongly associated with unnatural and overdose death among DWOH but not among DWH suggesting potential differential misclassification. Caution should be used in interpreting prevalence, incidence and risk factors for unnatural and overdose cause of death among patients with life-limiting conditions such as HIV.

15.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 84(1): 26-36, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No prior studies have characterized long-term patterns of opioid use regardless of source or reason for use among patients with HIV (PWH). We sought to identify trajectories of self-reported opioid use and their correlates among a national sample of PWH engaged in care. SETTING: Veterans Aging Cohort Study, a prospective cohort including PWH receiving care at 8 US Veterans Health Administration (VA) sites. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2018, we assessed past year opioid use frequency based on self-reported "prescription painkillers" and/or heroin use at baseline and follow-up. We used group-based trajectory models to identify opioid use trajectories and multinomial logistic regression to determine baseline factors independently associated with escalating opioid use compared to stable, infrequent use. RESULTS: Among 3702 PWH, we identified 4 opioid use trajectories: (1) no lifetime use (25%); (2) stable, infrequent use (58%); (3) escalating use (7%); and (4) de-escalating use (11%). In bivariate analysis, anxiety; pain interference; prescribed opioids, benzodiazepines and gabapentinoids; and marijuana use were associated with escalating opioid group membership compared to stable, infrequent use. In multivariable analysis, illness severity, pain interference, receipt of prescribed benzodiazepine medications, and marijuana use were associated with escalating opioid group membership compared to stable, infrequent use. CONCLUSION: Among PWH engaged in VA care, 1 in 15 reported escalating opioid use. Future research is needed to understand the impact of psychoactive medications and marijuana use on opioid use and whether enhanced uptake of evidence-based treatment of pain and psychiatric symptoms can prevent escalating use among PWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
16.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(7): 2025-2034, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cure from chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is readily achievable with direct-acting antivirals (DAA), but little is known about optimal management after treatment. Weight gained after DAA treatment may mitigate benefits or increase risk for liver disease progression. As the single largest sample of HCV-infected individuals receiving DAA treatment in the United States, the Veterans Affairs (VA) Birth Cohort is an ideal setting to assess weight gain after DAA treatment. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of patients dispensed DAA therapy from January 2014 to June 2015. Weight change was calculated as the difference in weight from sustained virologic response (SVR) determination to 2 years later. Demographic, weight, height, prescription, laboratory, and diagnosis code data were used for covariate definitions. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the association between candidate predictors and excess weight gain (≥ 10 lbs) after 2 years. RESULTS: Among 11,469 patients, 78.0% of patients were already overweight or obese at treatment initiation. Overall, SVR was achieved in 97.0% of patients. After 2 years, 52.6% of patients gained weight and 19.8% gained excess weight. In those with SVR, weight gain was as high as 38.2 lbs, with the top 10% gaining ≥ 16.5 lbs. Only 1% of those with obesity at treatment initiation normalized their weight class after 2 years. Significant predictors of post-SVR weight gain were SVR achievement, lower age, high FIB-4 score, cirrhosis, and weight class at treatment initiation. CONCLUSION: Weight gain is common after DAA treatment, even among those who are overweight or obese prior to treatment. Major predictors include age, baseline weight, alcohol, cirrhosis, and SVR. Everyone receiving DAAs should be counseled against weight gain with a particular emphasis among those at higher risk.

17.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 63(2): 184-191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis, is independently associated with incident heart failure (HF). Investigating the association between liver fibrosis and type of HF, specifically HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF; HFrEF) or HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), may provide mechanistic insight into this association. We sought to determine the association between liver fibrosis score (FIB-4) and type of HF, and to assess whether HIV or hepatitis C status modified this association. METHODS: We included patients alive on or after 4/1/2003 from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. We followed patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease until their first HF event, death, last clinic visit, or 9/30/2015. We defined liver fibrosis as: likely advanced fibrosis (FIB-4 > 3.25), indeterminate (FIB-4 range 1.45-3.25), unlikely advanced fibrosis (FIB-4 < 1.45). Primary outcomes were HFrEF and HFpEF (defined using ICD-9 diagnoses for HF, and EF extracted from electronic medical records using natural language processing). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders and used to estimate hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: Among 108,708 predominantly male (96%) participants mean age was 49 years. Likely advanced fibrosis was present in 4% at baseline and was associated with an increased risk of HFpEF [HR (95% confidence interval)] [1.70 (1.3-2.3)]; and non-significantly with HFrEF [1.20 (0.9-1.7)]. These associations were not modified by HIV or hepatitis C status. CONCLUSION: Likely advanced fibrosis was independently associated with incident HFpEF but not HFrEF. This suggests that risk factors and/or mechanisms for liver fibrosis may have greater overlap with those for HFpEF than HFrEF.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Sobreviventes de Longo Prazo ao HIV , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde dos Veteranos , Carga Viral
18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(7): 747-755, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among HIV-infected patients, it remains unclear if HIV-related factors contribute to development of HCC. We examined if higher or prolonged HIV viremia and lower CD4+ cell percentage were associated with HCC. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of HIV-infected individuals who had HIV RNA, CD4+, and CD8+ cell counts and percentages assessed in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (1999-2015). HCC was ascertained using Veterans Health Administration cancer registries and electronic records. Cox regression was used to determine hazard ratios (HR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) of HCC associated with higher current HIV RNA, longer duration of detectable HIV viremia (≥500 copies/mL), and current CD4+ cell percentage less than 14%, adjusting for traditional HCC risk factors. Analyses were stratified by previously validated diagnoses of cirrhosis prior to start of follow-up. RESULTS: Among 35 659 HIV-infected patients, 302 (0.8%) developed HCC over 281 441 person-years (incidence rate = 107.3 per 100 000 person-years). Among patients without baseline cirrhosis, higher HIV RNA (HR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.12 to 1.40, per 1.0 log10 copies/mL) and 12 or more months of detectable HIV (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.11) were independently associated with higher risk of HCC. CD4+ percentage less than 14% was not associated with HCC in any model. Hepatitis C coinfection was a statistically significant predictor of HCC regardless of baseline cirrhosis status. CONCLUSION: Among HIV-infected patients without baseline cirrhosis, higher HIV RNA and longer duration of HIV viremia increased risk of HCC, independent of traditional HCC risk factors. This is the strongest evidence to date that HIV viremia contributes to risk of HCC in this group.

19.
AIDS Behav ; 24(2): 655-665, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435887

RESUMO

We contrast three types of abstinence: quit after alcohol associated problems (Q-AP), quit for other reasons (Q-OR), and lifetime abstainer (LTA). We summarized the characteristics of people living with HIV (PLWH), and matched uninfected individuals, by levels of alcohol use and types of abstinence. We then identified factors that differentiate abstinence and determined whether the association with an alcohol biomarker or a genetic polymorphism is improved by differentiating abstinence. Among abstainers, 34% of PLWH and 38% of uninfected were Q-AP; 53% and 53% were Q-OR; and 12% and 10% were LTA. Logistic regression models found smoking, alcohol, cocaine, and hepatitis C increased odds of Q-AP, whereas smoking and marijuana decreased odds of LTA. Differentiating types of abstinence improved association. Q-APs and LTAs can be readily differentiated by an alcohol biomarker and genetic polymorphism. Differentiating type of abstinence may enhance understanding of alcohol health effects.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool/classificação , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicerofosfolipídeos/sangue , Autorrelato , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Fumar
20.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 44(10): 2053-2063, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to compare self-reported alcohol consumption using Timeline Followback (TLFB) to biomarker-based evidence of significant alcohol use (phosphatidylethanol [PEth] > 20 ng/ml). Using data from patients with HIV (PWH) entering a clinical trial, we asked whether TLFB could predict PEth > 20 ng/ml and assessed the magnitude of association between TLFB and PEth level. METHODS: We defined unhealthy alcohol use as any alcohol use in the presence of liver disease, at-risk drinking, or alcohol use disorder. Self-reported alcohol use obtained from TLFB interview was assessed as mean number of drinks/day and number of heavy drinking days over the past 21 days. Dried blood spot samples for PEth were collected at the interview. We used logistic regression to predict PEth > 20 ng/ml and Spearman correlation to quantify the association with PEth, both as a function of TLFB. RESULTS: Among 282 individuals (99% men) in the analytic sample, approximately two-thirds (69%) of individuals had PEth > 20 ng/ml. The proportion with PEth > 20 ng/ml increased with increasing levels of self-reported alcohol use; of the 190 patients with either at-risk drinking or alcohol use disorder based on self-report, 82% had PEth > 20 ng/ml. Discrimination was better with number of drinks per day than heavy drinking days (AUC: 0.80 [95% CI: 0.74 to 0.85] vs. 0.74 [95% CI: 0.68 to 0.80]). The number of drinks per day and PEth were significantly and positively correlated across all levels of alcohol use (Spearman's R ranged from 0.29 to 0.56, all p values < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of PWH entering a clinical trial, mean numbers of drinks per day discriminated individuals with evidence of significant alcohol use by PEth. PEth complements self-report to improve identification of self-reported unhealthy alcohol use among PWH.

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