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2.
Front Surg ; 8: 730367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660677

RESUMO

Direct electrical stimulation of the brain is the gold standard technique used to define functional-anatomical relationships during neurosurgical procedures. Areas that respond to stimulation are considered "critical nodes" of circuits that must remain intact for the subject to maintain the ability to perform certain functions, like moving and speaking. Despite its routine use, the neurophysiology underlying downstream motor responses to electrical stimulation of the brain, such as muscle contraction or movement arrest, is poorly understood. Furthermore, varying and sometimes counterintuitive responses can be seen depending on how and where the stimulation is applied, even within the human primary motor cortex. Therefore, here we review relevant neuroanatomy of the human motor system, provide a brief historical perspective on electrical brain stimulation, explore mechanistic variations in stimulation applications, examine neurophysiological properties of different parts of the motor system, and suggest areas of future research that can promote a better understanding of the interaction between electrical stimulation of the brain and its function.

3.
eNeuro ; 8(5)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544760

RESUMO

Epilepsy affects 3.4 million people in the United States, and, despite the availability of numerous antiepileptic drugs, 36% of patients have uncontrollable seizures, which severely impact quality of life. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are a potential biomarker of epileptogenic tissue that could be useful in surgical planning. As a result, research into the efficacy of HFOs as a clinical tool has increased over the last 2 decades. However, detection and identification of these transient rhythms in intracranial electroencephalographic recordings remain time-consuming and challenging. Although automated detection algorithms have been developed, their results are widely inconsistent, reducing reliability. Thus, manual marking of HFOs remains the gold standard, and manual review of automated results is required. However, manual marking and review are time consuming and can still produce variable results because of their subjective nature and the limitations in functionality of existing open-source software. Our goal was to develop a new software with broad application that improves on existing open-source HFO detection applications in usability, speed, and accuracy. Here, we present HFOApp: a free, open-source, easy-to-use MATLAB-based graphical user interface for HFO marking. This toolbox offers a high degree of intuitive and ergonomic usability and integrates interactive automation-assist options with manual marking, significantly reducing the time needed for review and manual marking of recordings, while increasing inter-rater reliability. The toolbox also features simultaneous multichannel detection and marking. HFOApp was designed as an easy-to-use toolbox for clinicians and researchers to quickly and accurately mark, quantify, and characterize HFOs within electrophysiological datasets.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Qualidade de Vida , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Convulsões
6.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(8): 1103-1114, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant glioma is the most common and lethal primary brain tumour, with dismal survival rates and no effective treatment. We examined the safety and activity of NSC-CRAd-S-pk7, an engineered oncolytic adenovirus delivered by neural stem cells (NSCs), in patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma. METHODS: This was a first-in-human, open-label, phase 1, dose-escalation trial done to determine the maximal tolerated dose of NSC-CRAd-S-pk7, following a 3 + 3 design. Patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed, high-grade gliomas (WHO grade III or IV) were recruited. After neurosurgical resection, NSC-CRAd-S-pk7 was injected into the walls of the resection cavity. The first patient cohort received a dose starting at 6·25 × 1010 viral particles administered by 5·00 × 107 NSCs, the second cohort a dose of 1·25 × 1011 viral particles administered by 1·00 × 108 NSCs, and the third cohort a dose of 1·875 × 1011 viral particles administered by 1·50 × 108 NSCs. No further dose escalation was planned. Within 10-14 days, treatment with temozolomide and radiotherapy was initiated. Primary endpoints were safety and toxicity profile and the maximum tolerated dose for a future phase 2 trial. All analyses were done in all patients who were included in the trial and received the study treatment and were not excluded from the study. Recruitment is complete and the trial is finished. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03072134. FINDINGS: Between April 24, 2017, and Nov 13, 2019, 12 patients with newly diagnosed, malignant gliomas were recruited and included in the safety analysis. Histopathological evaluation identified 11 (92%) of 12 patients with glioblastoma and one (8%) of 12 patients with anaplastic astrocytoma. The median follow-up was 18 months (IQR 14-22). One patient receiving 1·50 × 108 NSCs loading 1·875 × 1011 viral particles developed viral meningitis (grade 3) due to the inadvertent injection of NSC-CRAd-S-pk7 into the lateral ventricle. Otherwise, treatment was safe as no formal dose-limiting toxicity was reached, so 1·50 × 108 NSCs loading 1·875 × 1011 viral particles was recommended as a phase 2 trial dose. There were no treatment-related deaths. The median progression-free survival was 9·1 months (95% CI 8·5-not reached) and median overall survival was 18·4 months (15·7-not reached). INTERPRETATION: NSC-CRAd-S-pk7 treatment was feasible and safe. Our immunological and histopathological findings support continued investigation of NSC-CRAd-S-pk7 in a phase 2/3 clinical trial. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Glioma/terapia , Células-Tronco Neurais/transplante , Terapia Viral Oncolítica/métodos , Adenoviridae , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vírus Oncolíticos
7.
World Neurosurg ; 153: e147-e152, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) may complicate the post-operative course of patients undergoing craniotomy. While prophylaxis with unfractionated heparin (UFH) has been shown to reduce VTE rates, twice-daily (BID) and three-times-daily (TID) UFH dosing regimens have not been compared in neurosurgical procedures. The objective of this study was to explore the association between UFH dosing regimen and rates of VTE and ICH in craniotomy patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted for 159 patients at Northwestern University receiving 5000 units/0.5 mL UFH injections either BID (n = 132) or TID (n = 27). General linear regression models were run to predict rates of DVT, PE, and reoperation due to bleeding from UFH dosing regimen while controlling for age at surgery, sex, VTE history, craniotomy for tumor resection, surgery duration, length of stay, reoperation, infections, and IDH/MGMT mutations. RESULTS: Receiving UFH TID was significantly associated with a lower rate of PE when compared with receiving UFH BID (ß = -0.121, P = 0.044; TID rate = 0%, BID rate = 10.6%). UFH TID also showed a trend toward lower rates of DVT (ß = -0.0893, P = 0.295; TID rate = 18.5%, BID rate = 21.2%) when compared with UFH BID. UFH TID showed no significant difference in rate of reoperation for bleeding when compared to UFH BID (ß = -0.00623, P = 0.725; TID rate = 0%, BID rate = 0.8%). CONCLUSIONS: UFH TID dosing is associated with lower rates of PE when compared with BID dosing in patients undergoing craniotomy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Craniotomia , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Glioblastoma/cirurgia , Hematoma/cirurgia , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Meningioma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(584)2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692132

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most difficult cancers to effectively treat, in part because of the lack of precision therapies and limited therapeutic access to intracranial tumor sites due to the presence of the blood-brain and blood-tumor barriers. We have developed a precision medicine approach for GBM treatment that involves the use of brain-penetrant RNA interference-based spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), which consist of gold nanoparticle cores covalently conjugated with radially oriented and densely packed small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides. On the basis of previous preclinical evaluation, we conducted toxicology and toxicokinetic studies in nonhuman primates and a single-arm, open-label phase 0 first-in-human trial (NCT03020017) to determine safety, pharmacokinetics, intratumoral accumulation and gene-suppressive activity of systemically administered SNAs carrying siRNA specific for the GBM oncogene Bcl2Like12 (Bcl2L12). Patients with recurrent GBM were treated with intravenous administration of siBcl2L12-SNAs (drug moniker: NU-0129), at a dose corresponding to 1/50th of the no-observed-adverse-event level, followed by tumor resection. Safety assessment revealed no grade 4 or 5 treatment-related toxicities. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, x-ray fluorescence microscopy, and silver staining of resected GBM tissue demonstrated that intravenously administered SNAs reached patient tumors, with gold enrichment observed in the tumor-associated endothelium, macrophages, and tumor cells. NU-0129 uptake into glioma cells correlated with a reduction in tumor-associated Bcl2L12 protein expression, as indicated by comparison of matched primary tumor and NU-0129-treated recurrent tumor. Our results establish SNA nanoconjugates as a potential brain-penetrant precision medicine approach for the systemic treatment of GBM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ácidos Nucleicos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Glioblastoma/genética , Glioblastoma/terapia , Ouro , Humanos , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA
9.
J Clin Neurosci ; 86: 1-5, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775310

RESUMO

The standard of care for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. However, VP shunts require intracranial intervention and are associated with notable postoperative complications, with some groups reporting complication rates for VP shunts ranging from 17 to 33%, along with failure rates up to 17.7%. Lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts are an alternative for cerebrospinal fluid diversion that do not require intracranial surgery, thus providing utility in patients where intracranial surgery is not possible or preferred. Here we retrospectively reviewed our 25 patients with LP horizontal-vertical (LP-HV) shunts placement for initial treatment for iNPH from 2014 to 2019. All patients had preoperative gait dysfunction, 16 (64%) had urinary incontinence, and 21 (84%) exhibited cognitive insufficiency. Two weeks post-shunt placement, 23/25 (92%) patients demonstrated improvement in gait, 11/16 (68%) had improvement in incontinence, and 14/21 (66%) had improvement cognitive insufficiency. At six months or greater follow up 13/20 (65%) had improvement in gait, 7/15 (47%) showed improvement in incontinence, and 11/15 (73%) demonstrated improvement in cognitive function. Six patients (24%) required at least one revision of the LP shunt. Shunt malfunctions resulted from CSF leak in one patient, shunt catheter migration in two patients, peritoneal catheter pain in one patient, and clinical symptoms for overdrainage in two patients. Thus, we demonstrate that LP-HV shunt placement is safe and efficacious alternative to VP shunting for iNPH, resulting in notable symptomatic improvement and low risk of overdrainage, and may be considered for patients where cranial approaches should be avoided.


Assuntos
Derivações do Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/métodos , Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(1): e13-e22, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521734

RESUMO

Background: Viral load kinetics and duration of viral shedding are important determinants for disease transmission. We aimed to characterise viral load dynamics, duration of viral RNA shedding, and viable virus shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in various body fluids, and to compare SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) viral dynamics. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, Europe PubMed Central, medRxiv, and bioRxiv, and the grey literature, for research articles published between Jan 1, 2003, and June 6, 2020. We included case series (with five or more participants), cohort studies, and randomised controlled trials that reported SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, or MERS-CoV infection, and reported viral load kinetics, duration of viral shedding, or viable virus. Two authors independently extracted data from published studies, or contacted authors to request data, and assessed study quality and risk of bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist tools. We calculated the mean duration of viral shedding and 95% CIs for every study included and applied the random-effects model to estimate a pooled effect size. We used a weighted meta-regression with an unrestricted maximum likelihood model to assess the effect of potential moderators on the pooled effect size. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020181914. Findings: 79 studies (5340 individuals) on SARS-CoV-2, eight studies (1858 individuals) on SARS-CoV, and 11 studies (799 individuals) on MERS-CoV were included. Mean duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding was 17·0 days (95% CI 15·5-18·6; 43 studies, 3229 individuals) in upper respiratory tract, 14·6 days (9·3-20·0; seven studies, 260 individuals) in lower respiratory tract, 17·2 days (14·4-20·1; 13 studies, 586 individuals) in stool, and 16·6 days (3·6-29·7; two studies, 108 individuals) in serum samples. Maximum shedding duration was 83 days in the upper respiratory tract, 59 days in the lower respiratory tract, 126 days in stools, and 60 days in serum. Pooled mean SARS-CoV-2 shedding duration was positively associated with age (slope 0·304 [95% CI 0·115-0·493]; p=0·0016). No study detected live virus beyond day 9 of illness, despite persistently high viral loads, which were inferred from cycle threshold values. SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the upper respiratory tract appeared to peak in the first week of illness, whereas that of SARS-CoV peaked at days 10-14 and that of MERS-CoV peaked at days 7-10. Interpretation: Although SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in respiratory and stool samples can be prolonged, duration of viable virus is relatively short-lived. SARS-CoV-2 titres in the upper respiratory tract peak in the first week of illness. Early case finding and isolation, and public education on the spectrum of illness and period of infectiousness are key to the effective containment of SARS-CoV-2. Funding: None.

11.
Pediatr Radiol ; 51(8): 1531-1534, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433673

RESUMO

Revascularization of the superior vena cava (SVC) in the context of symptomatic luminal obstruction is a therapeutic intervention performed for SVC syndrome of benign or malignant etiology. Venous occlusion can preclude future access and cause symptoms ranging from mild chest discomfort to the more serious effects of SVC syndrome. This case report demonstrates the treatment of a novel case of SVC syndrome arising from a previously placed SVC stent. An intravascular, extraluminal orphaned ventriculoatrial shunt was used to go through the SVC but around the existing lumen-limiting stent to place a new larger stent for revascularization. This case highlights the need for an innovative approach for complex foreign body retrieval and treatment of chronic SVC occlusion.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Veia Cava Superior , Veia Cava Superior , Causalidade , Humanos , Stents , Síndrome da Veia Cava Superior/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome da Veia Cava Superior/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Veia Cava Superior/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Cava Superior/cirurgia
12.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 20(3): E175-E183, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional preoperative planning for resection of intrinsic brain tumors in eloquent areas is still a challenge. Predicting subcortical functional framework is especially difficult. Direct electrical stimulation (DES) is the recommended technique for resection of these lesions. A reliable probabilistic atlas of the critical cortical epicenters and subcortical framework based on DES data was recently published. OBJECTIVE: To propose a pipeline for the automated alignment of the corticosubcortical maps of this atlas with T1-weighted MRI. METHODS: To test the alignment, we selected 10 patients who underwent resection of brain lesions by using DES. We aligned different cortical and subcortical functional maps to preoperative volumetric T1 MRIs (with/without gadolinium). For each patient we quantified the quality of the alignment, and we calculated the match between the location of the functional sites found at DES and the functional maps of the atlas. RESULTS: We found an accurate brain extraction and alignment of the functional maps with both the T1 MRIs of each patient. The matching analysis between functional maps and functional responses collected during surgeries was 88% at cortical and, importantly, 100% at subcortical level, providing a further proof of the correct alignment. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated quantitatively and qualitatively the reliability of this tool that may be used for presurgical planning, providing further functional information at the cortical level and a unique probabilistic prevision of distribution of the critical subcortical structures. Finally, this tool offers the chance for multimodal planning through integrating this functional information with other neuroradiological and neurophysiological techniques.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Encéfalo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Neural Plast ; 2020: 8893708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029127

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating disease without cure. It is also the most common primary brain tumor in adults. Although aggressive surgical resection is standard of care, these operations are limited by tumor infiltration of critical cortical and subcortical regions. A better understanding of how the brain can recover and reorganize function in response to GBM would provide valuable clinical data. This ability, termed neuroplasticity, is not well understood in the adult human brain. A better understanding of neuroplasticity in GBM could allow for improved extent of resection, even in areas classically thought to have critical, static function. The best evidence to date has demonstrated neuroplasticity only in slower growing tumors or through indirect measures such as functional MRI or transcranial magnetic stimulation. In this novel study, we utilize a unique experimental paradigm to show direct evidence of plasticity via serial direct electrocortical stimulation (DES) within primary motor (M1) and somatosensory (S1) cortices in GBM patients. Six patients with glioblastoma multiforme in or near the primary motor or somatosensory cortex were included in this retrospective observational study. These patients had two awake craniotomies with DES to map cortical motor and sensory sites in M1 and S1. Five of six patients exhibited at least one site of neuroplasticity within M1 or S1. Out of the 51 total sites stimulated, 32 (62.7%) demonstrated plasticity. Of these sites, 14 (43.7%) were in M1 and 18 (56.3%) were in S1. These data suggest that even in patients with GBM in or near primary brain regions, significant functional reorganization is possible. This is a new finding which may lead to a better understanding of the fundamental factors promoting or inhibiting plasticity. Further exploration may aid in treatment of patients with brain tumors and other neurologic disorders.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma/fisiopatologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
eNeuro ; 7(4)2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769159

RESUMO

The ability to grasp and manipulate objects requires controlling both finger movement kinematics and isometric force in rapid succession. Previous work suggests that these behavioral modes are controlled separately, but it is unknown whether the cerebral cortex represents them differently. Here, we asked the question of how movement and force were represented cortically, when executed sequentially with the same finger. We recorded high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) from the motor and premotor cortices of seven human subjects performing a movement-force motor task. We decoded finger movement [0.7 ± 0.3 fractional variance accounted for (FVAF)] and force (0.7 ± 0.2 FVAF) with high accuracy, yet found different spatial representations. In addition, we used a state-of-the-art deep learning method to uncover smooth, repeatable trajectories through ECoG state space during the movement-force task. We also summarized ECoG across trials and participants by developing a new metric, the neural vector angle (NVA). Thus, state-space techniques can help to investigate broad cortical networks. Finally, we were able to classify the behavioral mode from neural signals with high accuracy (90 ± 6%). Thus, finger movement and force appear to have distinct representations in motor/premotor cortices. These results inform our understanding of the neural control of movement, as well as the design of grasp brain-machine interfaces (BMIs).


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Córtex Motor , Eletrocorticografia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Movimento
15.
Neural Plast ; 2020: 3648517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714384

RESUMO

There are two neuron-level mechanisms proposed to underlie neural plasticity: recruiting neurons nearby to support the lost function (ipsilesional plasticity) and uncovering latent pathways that can assume the function that was lost (contralesional plasticity). While both patterns have been demonstrated in patient groups following injury, the specific mechanisms underlying each mode of plasticity are poorly understood. In a retrospective case series of 13 patients, we utilize a novel paradigm that analyzes serial fMRI scans in patients harboring intrinsic brain tumors that vary in location and growth kinetics to better understand the mechanisms underlying these two modes of plasticity in the human primary motor cortex. Twelve patients in our series had some degree of primary motor cortex plasticity, an area previously thought to have limited plasticity. Patients harboring smaller lesions with slower growth kinetics and increasing distance from the primary motor region demonstrated recruitment of ipsilateral motor regions. Conversely, larger, faster-growing lesions in close proximity to the primary motor region were associated with activation of the contralesional primary motor cortex, along with increased activation of the supplementary motor area. These data increase our understanding of the adaptive abilities of the brain and may lead to improved treatment strategies for those suffering from motor loss secondary to brain injuries.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Motor/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Front Oncol ; 10: 706, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477945

RESUMO

Background: Perioperative infarcts are a known complication that can occur during the resection of glioblastoma (GBM). Recent studies suggest that gross total and even "supra-total" resections may be associated with an increased survival but the rate of complications, including perioperative ischemia, may increase with these more aggressive resection strategies. However, little is known about the impact that perioperative infarcts have on survival, functional outcomes, and tumor recurrence patterns. Our study attempted to quantify and characterize the functional consequences of a perioperative infarct, as well as risk factors associated with occurrence. Methods: Seventy-three patients with a diagnosis of GBM and perioperative ischemia by MRI were identified from the electronic medical record system. We obtained demographic, prognostic, and stroke risk factor data. Infarct volumes were calculated from diffusion-weighted MRI scans, and subjects were segregated into an infarct cohort or a control cohort based on whether the identified lesion appeared to be an infarct in an arterial distribution or instead appeared to be expected postoperative changes. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the dataset. Results: Median age was 58.6 years, median post-op KPS (Karnofsky Performance Status) was 90, and median extent of resection (based on MRI) was 97.8%. Overall, perioperative arterial infarcts were uncommon (2.0%), did not have a statistically significant impact on survival (17.9 vs. 18.9 months), did not worsen neurologic function, and did not alter the pattern of recurrence. Conclusion: Perioperative arterial infarcts were uncommon in our patients despite aggressive resection and when present had no impact on survival or neurologic function. Given the clear benefit of maximal tumor resection, the risk of perioperative infarct should not deter maximal safe resection.

17.
J Neurosurg ; 134(5): 1610-1617, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative stimulation has emerged as a crucial adjunct in neurosurgical oncology, aiding maximal tumor resection while preserving sensorimotor and language function. Despite increasing use in clinical practice of this stimulation, there are limited data on both intraoperative seizure (IS) frequency and the presence of afterdischarges (ADs) in patients undergoing such procedures. The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for IS or ADs, and to determine the clinical consequences of these intraoperative events. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for patients undergoing awake craniotomy (both first time and repeat) at a single institution from 2013 to 2018. Hypothesized risk factors for ADs/ISs in patients were evaluated for their effect on ADs and ISs, including tumor location, tumor grade (I-IV), genetic markers (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2, O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase [MGMT] promoter methylation, chromosome 1p/19q codeletion), tumor volume, preoperative seizure status (yes/no), and dosage of preoperative antiepileptic drugs for each patient. Clinical outcomes assessed in patients with IS or ADs were duration of surgery, length of stay, presence of perioperative deficits, and postoperative seizures. Chi-square analysis was performed for binary categorical variables, and a Student t-test was used to assess continuous variables. RESULTS: A total of 229 consecutive patients were included in the analysis. Thirty-five patients (15%) experienced ISs. Thirteen (37%) of these 35 patients had experienced seizures that were appreciated clinically and noted on electrocorticography simultaneously, while 8 patients (23%) experienced ISs that were electrographic alone (no obvious clinical change). MGMT promoter methylation was associated with an increased prevalence of ISs (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-7.8, p = 0.02). Forty patients (18%) experienced ADs. Twenty-three percent of patients (9/40) with ISs had ADs prior to their seizure, although ISs and ADs were not statistically associated (p = 0.16). The presence of ADs appeared to be correlated with a shorter length of stay (5.1 ± 2.6 vs 6.1 ± 3.7 days, p = 0.037). Of the clinical features assessed, none were found to be predictive of ADs. Neither IS nor AD, or the presence of either IS or AD (65/229 patients), was a predictor for increased length of stay, presence of perioperative deficits, or postoperative seizures. CONCLUSIONS: ISs and ADs, while commonly observed during intraoperative stimulation for brain mapping, do not negatively affect patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/efeitos adversos , Craniotomia , Eletrocorticografia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Monitorização Intraoperatória/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/etiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Metilação de DNA , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/fisiopatologia , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Carga Tumoral , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Vigília
18.
NPJ Digit Med ; 3: 29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195364

RESUMO

Hydrocephalus is a common disorder caused by the buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Treatment typically involves the surgical implantation of a pressure-regulated silicone tube assembly, known as a shunt. Unfortunately, shunts have extremely high failure rates and diagnosing shunt malfunction is challenging due to a combination of vague symptoms and a lack of a convenient means to monitor flow. Here, we introduce a wireless, wearable device that enables precise measurements of CSF flow, continuously or intermittently, in hospitals, laboratories or even in home settings. The technology exploits measurements of thermal transport through near-surface layers of skin to assess flow, with a soft, flexible, and skin-conformal device that can be constructed using commercially available components. Systematic benchtop studies and numerical simulations highlight all of the key considerations. Measurements on 7 patients establish high levels of functionality, with data that reveal time dependent changes in flow associated with positional and inertial effects on the body. Taken together, the results suggest a significant advance in monitoring capabilities for patients with shunted hydrocephalus, with potential for practical use across a range of settings and circumstances, and additional utility for research purposes in studies of CSF hydrodynamics.

19.
Neuroimage ; 205: 116237, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The structural and functional organization of brain networks subserving basic daily activities (i.e. language, visuo-spatial cognition, movement, semantics, etc.) are not completely understood to date. Here, we report the first probabilistic cortical and subcortical atlas of critical structures mediating human brain functions based on direct electrical stimulation (DES), a well-validated tool for the exploration of cerebral processing and for performing safe surgical interventions in eloquent areas. METHODS: We collected 1162 cortical and 659 subcortical DES responses during testing of 16 functional domains in 256 patients undergoing awake surgery. Spatial coordinates for each functional response were calculated, and probability distributions for the entire patient cohort were mapped onto a standardized three-dimensional brain template using a multinomial statistical analysis. In addition, matching analyses were performed against prior established anatomy-based cortical and white matter (WM) atlases. RESULTS: The probabilistic maps for each functional domain were provided. The topographical analysis demonstrated a wide spatial distribution of cortical functional responses, while subcortical responses were more restricted, localizing to known WM pathways. These DES-derived data showed reliable matching with existing cortical and WM atlases as well as recent neuroimaging and neurophysiological data. CONCLUSIONS: We present the first integrated and comprehensive cortical-subcortical atlas of structures essential for humans' neural functions based on highly-specific DES mapping during real-time neuropsychological testing. This novel atlas can serve as a complementary tool for neuroscientists, along with data obtained from other modalities, to improve and refine our understanding of the functional anatomy of critical brain networks.


Assuntos
Atlas como Assunto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Substância Branca/fisiologia , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Período Pré-Operatório , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Data Brief ; 28: 104892, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886348

RESUMO

In this data article, we provide the dataset which served as the basis for our related research article "Mapping critical cortical hubs and white matter pathways by direct electrical stimulation: an original functional atlas of the human brain" [1], which represents the first probabilistic cortical and subcortical atlas of critical structures mediating human brain functions based on direct electrical stimulation (DES) in patients undergoing awake brain surgery. 1162 cortical and 659 subcortical DES-derived responses were recorded during testing of 16 functional domains in 256 patients undergoing awake surgery. Normalized [Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) 152] spatial coordinates for cortical and subcortical responses, and probabilistic heat maps for each functional domain, were computed using methods previously developed by our group [2,3]. Source data, including the MNI-normalized coordinates of all 1821 DES-derived cortical and subcortical data points, and multi-planar (MNI-152, T1 1mm) videos showing the probabilistic distribution of each functional domain are provided. This novel dataset can improve and refine our understanding about the functional anatomy of critical brain networks, and these data are made available for medical and neuroscience applications.

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