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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590504

RESUMO

Background: An ongoing longitudinal study in six European sites includes a 3-monthly assessment of forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity (SVC), peak cough flow (PCF), and Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP). The aim of this interim analysis was to assess the potential for SNIP to be a surrogate for aerosol generating procedures given COVID-19 related restrictions. Methods: This was a prospective observational study. Patients attending six study sites with King's Stage 2 or 3 ALS completed baseline FVC/SVC/SNIP/PCF and repeated assessments 3 monthly. Data were collected from March 2018 to March 2020, after which a COVID-19 related study suspension was imposed. Correlations between the measures were calculated. A Bayesian multiple outcomes random-effects model was constructed to investigate rates of decline across measures. Results: In total, 270 cases and 828 assessments were included (Mean age 65.2 ± 15.4 years; 32.6% Female; 60% Kings stage 2; 81.1% spinal onset). FVC and SVC were the most closely correlated outcomes (0.95). SNIP showed the least correlation with other metrics 0.53 (FVC), 0.54 (SVC), 0.60 (PCF). All four measures significantly declined over time. SNIP in the bulbar onset group showed the fastest rate of decline. Discussion: SNIP was not well correlated with FVC and SVC, probably because it examines a different aspect of respiratory function. Respiratory measures declined over time, but differentially according to the site of onset. SNIP is not a surrogate for FVC and SVC, but is a complementary measure, declining linearly and differentiating spinal and bulbar onset patients.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , COVID-19 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Capacidade Vital
2.
Clin Infect Pract ; 12: 100092, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458720

RESUMO

Background: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults (MIS-A) is a recently emerging condition that occurs as a delayed complication of COVID-19 infection. It involves inflammation of multiple extra-pulmonary organ systems. Diagnostic criteria and treatment recommendations have yet to be clearly defined. We present a case of a young adult with suspected MIS-A who initially displayed symptoms and radiological findings of colitis.Case: A 22-year-old male with no past medical history suffered a minor respiratory illness for a few days and tested positive on SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR. Approximately 6 weeks later, he presents after 3 days of right-sided abdominal pain, diarrhoea and fever. He is initially admitted with a working diagnosis of gastroenteritis. Sustained fever and escalating blood markers of illness led to abdominal CT; showing inflammation of ascending colon as well as some loops of small bowel. Hypotension becomes increasingly pronounced and on the fourth day of admission he developed type 1 respiratory failure with evidence of fluid overload. He was transferred to critical care for vasopressor and respiratory support. All microbiological and autoimmune screens performed return negative results but inflammatory markers were significantly elevated, he was diagnosed as MIS-A. IVIg was added to the antibiotics on day 4. His clinical condition dramatically improved and he was discharged home after 10 days in hospital. His blood tests have returned to normal and he has no lasting complications from his illness. Discussion: This case displays the potential for MIS-A to present in various ways, with this example a primarily gastroenterological illness. It therefore highlights the importance of physicians in different fields having an awareness of the condition, in order to identify when MDT input is required to guide treatment. We review the current literature on various presentations and treatments of MIS-A, and discuss the need for clear case definition.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 194(6): 1039-1044, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386978

RESUMO

We assessed the validity of coded healthcare data to identify cases of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) identified 127 cases within five hospital Trusts 2013-2018 using ICD-10 codes D76.1, D76.2 and D76.3. Hospital records were reviewed to validate diagnoses. Out of 74 patients, 73 were coded D76.1 or D76.2 (positive predictive value 89·0% [95% Confidence Interval {CI} 80·2-94·9%]) with confirmed/probable HLH. For cases considered not HLH, 44/53 were coded D76.3 (negative predictive value 97·8% [95% CI 88·2-99·9%]). D76.1 or D76.2 had 68% sensitivity in detecting HLH compared to an established active case-finding HLH register in Sheffield. Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality data (2003-2018) identified 698 patients coded D76.1, D76.2 and D76.3 on death certificates. Five hundred and forty-one were coded D76.1 or D76.2 of whom 524 (96·9%) had HLH in the free-text cause of death. Of 157 coded D76.3, 66 (42·0%) had HLH in free text. D76.1 and D76.2 codes reliably identify HLH cases, and provide a lower bound on incidence. Non-concordance between D76.3 and HLH excludes D76.3 as an ascertainment source from HES. Our results suggest electronic healthcare data in England can enable population-wide registration and analysis of HLH for future research.

5.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 136, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of developmentally appropriate transitional care in young people with juvenile-onset rheumatic and musculoskeletal disease is well recognised. The Paediatric Rheumatology European Society (PReS) / European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Taskforce has developed international recommendations and standards for transitional care and a growing evidence base supports the positive benefits of such care. However, there is also evidence that universal implementation has yet to be realised. In 2020, against this background the COVID-19 pandemic arrived with significant impact on all our lives, young and old, patient, public and professional alike. The unfortunate reality of the pandemic with potential for unfavourable outcomes on healthcare provision during transition was acknowledged by the PReS working groups in a position statement to support healthcare professionals, young people and their caregivers. AIM: The aim of this review is to present the literature which provides the rationale for the recommendations in the PReS Position Statement. The following areas are specifically addressed: the prime importance of care coordination; the impact of the pandemic on the various aspects of the transition process; the importance of ensuring continuity of medication supply; the pros and cons of telemedicine with young people; ensuring meaningful involvement of young people in service development and the importance of core adolescent health practices such as routine developmental assessment psychosocial screening and appropriate parental involvement during transitional care.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Reumáticas , Reumatologia , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inovação Organizacional , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/terapia , Reumatologia/normas , Reumatologia/tendências , SARS-CoV-2 , Padrão de Cuidado , Transição para Assistência do Adulto/organização & administração , Transição para Assistência do Adulto/normas , Transição para Assistência do Adulto/tendências
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092157

RESUMO

Forced vital capacity (FVC) is an essential respiratory measurement for assessment and monitoring of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Our clinic rapidly implemented remote assessment of FVC after COVID-19 related restrictions on respiratory testing were imposed, using mini-spirometers and video consultation. We sought to evaluate the patient's experiences of performing remote respiratory assessments to guide future development and optimisation of the service. Twenty-five patients completed surveys. The mean age was 65.2 years and average time from diagnosis was 17.04 (2-99) months. Seventy-two percent (n = 18) required help from a caregiver to perform the tests. Ninety-two percent (n = 23) of patients reported that overall, they were satisfied and were happy to continue with remote respiratory assessment. Reducing the number of clinic visits for review and assessment was valued by 92% (n = 23) and reducing the risk associated with COVID-19 was valued by 96% (n = 24). The highest frequency reported as acceptable for performing the remote breathing assessments was monthly (60%, n = 15), followed by every second month (28%, n = 7). Remote respiratory testing is viewed positively by patients. These technologies used in combination with video-consultations and other novel forms of remote monitoring implemented in response to the COVID-19 crisis will continue to be valuable tools for clinical care in future. However, further evaluation of the validity of remote respiratory assessment is required.

8.
J Crohns Colitis ; 15(6): 1049-1059, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] diagnosed before adulthood is increasing worldwide. Transition from paediatric to adult health care requires certain skills. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting these skills. METHODS: This review was registered on the PROSPERO database [CRD42019152272]. Inclusion criteria were: 1] studies of factors affecting transition readiness skills in patients with IBD; 2] written in English; 3] published since 1999. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched between 1999 and 2019. Quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools. RESULTS: Searches identified 822 papers. Sixteen papers were included. Age was positively associated with skills including disease knowledge and performing self-management behaviours [14 studies]. Improvement often occurs at 18; however, skill deficiency may still remain. Increased self-efficacy [confidence] was associated with greater disease knowledge and performing self-management behaviours [three studies]. Self-efficacy was positively correlated with transition duration [two studies] and health-related quality of life [r = 0.57, p <0.001] [one study], negatively correlated with depression [r = -0.57, p <0.001] and anxiety [r = -0.23, p = 0.03] [one study], and was associated with higher education level [two studies] and a family history of IBD [one study]. Females had higher self-management scores [three studies], and greater health care satisfaction was significantly associated with higher knowledge [one study]. Greater transition communication improved knowledge, self-management, and overall transition readiness [two studies]. CONCLUSIONS: Potentially modifiable factors have been identified that could be supported in the transitioning IBD population, to improve transition readiness. Identification of those with non-modifiable characteristics associated with poor readiness may aid targeted support.

10.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(10): e594-e602, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864628

RESUMO

Background: A subset of patients with severe COVID-19 develop a hyperinflammatory syndrome, which might contribute to morbidity and mortality. This study explores a specific phenotype of COVID-19-associated hyperinflammation (COV-HI), and its associations with escalation of respiratory support and survival. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled consecutive inpatients (aged ≥18 years) admitted to University College London Hospitals and Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals in the UK with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 during the first wave of community-acquired infection. Demographic data, laboratory tests, and clinical status were recorded from the day of admission until death or discharge, with a minimum follow-up time of 28 days. We defined COV-HI as a C-reactive protein concentration greater than 150 mg/L or doubling within 24 h from greater than 50 mg/L, or a ferritin concentration greater than 1500 µg/L. Respiratory support was categorised as oxygen only, non-invasive ventilation, and intubation. Initial and repeated measures of hyperinflammation were evaluated in relation to the next-day risk of death or need for escalation of respiratory support (as a combined endpoint), using a multi-level logistic regression model. Findings: We included 269 patients admitted to one of the study hospitals between March 1 and March 31, 2020, among whom 178 (66%) were eligible for escalation of respiratory support and 91 (34%) patients were not eligible. Of the whole cohort, 90 (33%) patients met the COV-HI criteria at admission. Despite having a younger median age and lower median Charlson Comorbidity Index scores, a higher proportion of patients with COV-HI on admission died during follow-up (36 [40%] of 90 patients) compared with the patients without COV-HI on admission (46 [26%] of 179). Among the 178 patients who were eligible for full respiratory support, 65 (37%) met the definition for COV-HI at admission, and 67 (74%) of the 90 patients whose respiratory care was escalated met the criteria by the day of escalation. Meeting the COV-HI criteria was significantly associated with the risk of next-day escalation of respiratory support or death (hazard ratio 2·24 [95% CI 1·62-2·87]) after adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidity. Interpretation: Associations between elevated inflammatory markers, escalation of respiratory support, and survival in people with COVID-19 indicate the existence of a high-risk inflammatory phenotype. COV-HI might be useful to stratify patient groups in trial design. Funding: None.

11.
J Intensive Care Soc ; 21(3): 256-268, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782466

RESUMO

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of severe immune dysregulation, characterised by extreme inflammation, fever, cytopaenias and organ dysfunction. HLH can be triggered by conditions such as infection, autoimmune disease and malignancy, among others. Both a familial and a secondary form have been described, the latter being increasingly recognised in adult patients with critical illness. HLH is difficult to diagnose, often under-recognised and carries a high mortality. Patients can present in a very similar fashion to sepsis and the two syndromes can co-exist and overlap, yet HLH requires specific immunosuppressive therapy. HLH should be actively excluded in patients with presumed sepsis who either lack a clear focus of infection or who are not responding to energetic infection management. Elevated serum ferritin is a key biomarker that may indicate the need for further investigations for HLH and can guide treatment. Early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach to HLH management may save lives.

13.
Int J STD AIDS ; 31(8): 808-812, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631210

RESUMO

Paradoxical reactions, including immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), are common in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB). Paradoxical reactions may confer substantial morbidity and mortality, especially in cases of central nervous system (CNS) TB, or through protracted usage of corticosteroids. No high-quality evidence is available to guide management in this scenario. Interleukin-1-mediated inflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of TB-IRIS. We describe two cases where anakinra (human recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) was used as steroid-sparing therapy for life-threatening protracted paradoxical inflammation in HIV-associated TB. In the first case of disseminated TB with lymphadenitis, protracted TB-IRIS led to amyloid A amyloidosis and nephrotic syndrome. In the second case of disseminated TB with cerebral tuberculomata, paradoxical inflammation caused unstable tuberculomata leading to profound neuro-disability. In both cases, paradoxical inflammation persisted for over a year. Protracted high-dose corticosteroid use led to adverse events yet failed to control inflammatory pathology. In both patients, anakinra successfully controlled paradoxical inflammation and facilitated withdrawal of corticosteroid therapy. Following anakinra therapy, nephrotic syndrome and neuro-disability resolved, respectively. Anakinra therapy for protracted paradoxical inflammation in HIV-associated TB may be a viable therapeutic option and warrants further research.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/imunologia , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/imunologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/imunologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Reino Unido
14.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2(6): e358-e367, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373790

RESUMO

The term cytokine storm syndromes describes conditions characterised by a life-threatening, fulminant hypercytokinaemia with high mortality. Cytokine storm syndromes can be genetic or a secondary complication of autoimmune or autoinflammatory disorders, infections, and haematological malignancies. These syndromes represent a key area of interface between rheumatology and general medicine. Rheumatologists often lead in management, in view of their experience using intensive immunosuppressive regimens and managing cytokine storm syndromes in the context of rheumatic disorders or infection (known as secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis or macrophage activation syndrome [sHLH/MAS]). Interleukin (IL)-1 is pivotal in hyperinflammation. Anakinra, a recombinant humanised IL-1 receptor antagonist, is licenced at a dose of 100 mg once daily by subcutaneous injection for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, adult-onset Still's disease, and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. In cytokine storm syndromes, the subcutaneous route is often problematic, as absorption can be unreliable in patients with critical illness, and multiple injections are needed to achieve the high doses required. As a result, intravenous anakinra is used in clinical practice for sHLH/MAS, despite this being an off-licence indication and route of administration. Among 46 patients admitted to our three international, tertiary centres for sHLH/MAS and treated with anakinra over 12 months, the intravenous route of delivery was used in 18 (39%) patients. In this Viewpoint, we describe current challenges in the management of cytokine storm syndromes and review the pharmacokinetic and safety profile of intravenous anakinra. There is accumulating evidence to support the rationale for, and safety of, intravenous anakinra as a first-line treatment in patients with sHLH/MAS. Intravenous anakinra has important clinical relevance when high doses of drug are required or if patients have subcutaneous oedema, severe thrombocytopenia, or neurological involvement. Cross-speciality management and collaboration, with the generation of international, multi-centre registries and biobanks, are needed to better understand the aetiopathogenesis and improve the poor prognosis of cytokine storm syndromes.

15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 524, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296434

RESUMO

Introduction: Secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) or Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome that can occur in patients with severe infections, malignancy or autoimmune diseases. It is also a rare complication of haematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a high mortality. It may be associated with graft vs. host disease in the allogeneic HSCT setting. It is also reported following CAR-T cell therapy, but differentiation from cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is challenging. Here, we summarise the literature and present results of a survey of current awareness and practice in EBMT-affiliated centres of sHLH/MAS following HSCT and CAR-T cell therapy. Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to the principal investigators of all EBMT member transplant centres treating adult patients (18 years and over) inviting them to provide information regarding: number of cases of sHLH/MAS seen in their centre over 3 years (2016-2018 inclusive); screening strategies and use of existing diagnostic/classification criteria and treatment protocols. Results: 114/472 centres from 24 different countries responded (24%). We report estimated rates of sHLH/MAS of 1.09% (95% CI = 0.89-1.30) following allogeneic HSCT, 0.15% (95% CI = 0.09-5.89) following autologous HSCT and 3.48% (95% CI = 0.95-6.01) following CAR-T cell therapy. A majority of centres (70%) did not use a standard screening protocol. Serum ferritin was the most commonly used screening marker at 78% of centres, followed by soluble IL-2 receptor (24%), triglycerides (15%), and fibrinogen (11%). There was significant variation in definition of "clinically significant" serum ferritin levels ranging from 500 to 10,000 µg/mL. The most commonly used criteria to support diagnosis were HLH-2004 (43%) and the H score (15%). Eighty percent of responders reported using no standard management protocol, but reported using combinations of corticosteroids, chemotherapeutic agents, cytokine blockade, and monoclonal antibodies. Conclusions: There is a remarkable lack of consistency between EBMT centres in the approach to screening, diagnosis and management. Further research in this field is needed to raise awareness of and inform harmonised, evidence-based approaches to the recognition and treatment of sHLH/MAS following HSCT/CAR-T cell therapy.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/etiologia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(Suppl 6): vi23-vi30, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769857

RESUMO

Haemophagocytic lymphohisticytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of uncontrolled, severe systemic inflammation (hyperinflammation) arising either from a genetic immune system defect [primary (pHLH)] or triggered as a complication of malignancy, infection, or rheumatologic disease [secondary (sHLH)]. Patients with HLH often have non-specific symptoms and become progressively and critically unwell, with fever, cytopenia and multi-organ failure. Untreated, HLH is almost universally fatal, but even when treated, mortality is high, particularly when HLH complicates malignancy. HLH is managed with immunosuppression, and this can seem difficult to justify in such unwell patients. This review aims to examine the diagnostic and treatment challenges posed by sHLH and to improve recognition among rheumatologists who, being expert in the management of multisystem diseases and in the use of immunosuppression, are ideally placed to deliver care and build an evidence base for better disease characterization and treatment.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Inflamação/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Neoplasias/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/mortalidade , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/complicações , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Doenças Raras , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Síndrome
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313597

RESUMO

Objective: Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (SNIP) is a commonly used clinical measure of respiratory impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is used to guide the initiation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). SNIP can be completed with either an occluded or an un-occluded contralateral nostril. The aim of this study was to compare occluded and un-occluded SNIP measurements and to examine the decline in occluded SNIP over time compared to the ALSFRS-R respiratory subscore. Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal study examining occluded and un-occluded SNIP scores in ALS and PLS patients recorded between 2001 and 2018. Bland and Altman graphs were plotted for occluded vs. un-occluded SNIP measurements taking account of the repeated measures nature of the data. Longitudinal models were constructed as linear mixed effects multi-level models with follow-up in ALS limited to 6 years. Results: SNIP measured with an occluded contralateral nostril was systematically higher than with an un-occluded nostril. SNIP measured using both methods declined non-linearly, particularly after 2-3 years. The best fit model for decline in occluded SNIP included a main effect and interaction between site of onset and time, with age and diagnostic delay as independent variables. This showed a linear decline in spinal onset with a floor effect in bulbar-onset ALS. Conclusion: SNIP measured with an occluded and un-occluded contralateral nostril is not interchangeable, which is relevant in interpreting thresholds for initiation of NIV. SNIP declines non-linearly, which is explained in spinal onset ALS by age and diagnostic delay, but an apparent floor effect remains in bulbar onset.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Doença dos Neurônios Motores/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Respiratórios
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