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1.
Am J Surg ; 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of procedure volume and improved outcomes has been established with infrequently performed elective operations. However, effect of trauma center volume on outcomes in emergency surgery has not been defined. We hypothesized that high volume centers (HVC) would provide better outcomes for operative major vascular injuries (MVI) than low volume centers (LVC). METHODS: The NTDB was queried from 2010 to 2014. Patients with MVI were identified and HVC were compared to LVC. HVC were defined as >480 patients per year with ISS≥15. RESULTS: There were 37,125 patients with MVI, with 16,461 (44.3%) managed operatively. Of these, 15,965 (97%) underwent surgery at HVC and 496 (3%) at LVC. There was no difference in shunt utilization, however, HVC were more likely to utilize endovascular repair (31.0% vs. 21.9%, p < 0.001). Rates of death, amputation, and compartment syndrome were similar. HVC were more likely to develop pneumonia or sepsis. On logistic regression, HVC was not associated with survival (OR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.60-1.34, p = 0.60). Variables associated with mortality for HVC and LVC included thoracic arterial injury (OR: 1.57, 95%CI: 1.27-1.94, p < 0.001), penetrating mechanism (OR:1.84, 95%CI: 1.57-2.15, p < 0.001), and open repair (OR: 1.95, 95%CI: 1.69-2.26, p < 0.001). Lower ISS (OR: 0.29, 95%CI: 0.24-0.34, p < 0.001) and higher presenting blood pressure (OR: 0.99, 95%CI: 0.99-1.00, p < 0.001) were associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: Although LVC may have less proficiency with endovascular techniques, trauma center volume does not influence survival in emergency surgery for MVI.

2.
J Surg Res ; 250: 112-118, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for trauma patients have been well established. However, the ACA's impact on penetrating trauma patients (PTPs), a population that is historically young and uninsured, has not been defined. We hypothesized that PTPs in the post-ACA era would have better outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) was queried for all PTPs from 2009 (pre-ACA) and 2011-2014 (post-ACA). Subset analysis was performed in patients aged 19-25 y, as this group was eligible for the ACA's dependent care provision (DCP). RESULTS: There were 9,714,471 patients in the study, with 2,053,501 (21.1%) pre-ACA and 7,660,970 (78.9%) post-ACA. When compared to pre-ACA, patients in the post-ACA cohort were more likely to have commercial/private insurance, less likely to have Medicaid, and more likely to be uninsured. On logistic regression, the pre-ACA era was associated with mortality (HR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.04, P = 0.004). Being uninsured was associated with mortality (HR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.87-1.92, P < 0.001). On subset analysis of the DCP age group, post-ACA patients were more likely to be uninsured (24.1% versus 17.6%; P < 0.001). In addition, for the DCP age group, pre-ACA era was not associated with mortality (HR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99-1.06, P = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Although the ACA provided a survival benefit to PTPs overall, it did not increase insurance coverage for this population. In addition, the DCP of the ACA did not improve insurance access for PTP in the eligible age group. Further efforts are needed to extend insurance access to this population.

3.
Shock ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080059

RESUMO

Mortality secondary to trauma related hemorrhagic shock has not improved for several decades. Underlying the stall in progress is the conundrum of effective pre-hospital interventions for hemorrhage control. As we know, neither pressing hard on the gas nor "Stay and play" have changed mortality over the last 20 years. For this reason, when dealing with effective changes that will improve severe hemorrhage mortality outcomes, there is a need for the creation of a hybrid pre-hospital model.Improvements in mortality outcomes for patients with severe hemorrhage based on evidence for common civilian prehospital procedures such as in-field intubation and immediate fluid resuscitation with crystalloid solution is weak at best. The use of tourniquets, once considered too risky to use, however, has risen dramatically in large part due success seen during their use in the military. Their use in the civilian setting shows promising results. Recently updated military Advanced Resuscitative Care (ARC) guidelines propose the use of prehospital whole blood transfusion as well as in-field use of Zone 1 Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA). Several case studies from Europe suggest these strategies are feasible for use in the civilian population, but could they be implemented in the U.S.?

5.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 973-977, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638509

RESUMO

Failure to rescue (FTR), defined as death after a major complication in surgical patients, is being used to measure outcomes for quality improvement. Major complications frequently occur in patients undergoing damage control laparotomy (DCL). No previous FTR studies have looked specifically into DCL patients. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors of FTR and identify potential areas for targeted quality improvement in DCL patients. A 10-year retrospective review of all consecutive adult trauma patients who underwent DCL at a Level I trauma center was performed. Demographic and clinical variables were examined for association with FTR. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors of FTR in DCL patients. A total of 199 DCL patients were analyzed. Overall DCL mortality observed was 11.1 per cent (n = 22/199) and overall FTR for the cohort was n = 16/199. FTR represented 72 per cent (n = 16/22) of the total mortality. The significantly increased risk of FTR was associated with older age (P = 0.027), lower initial Glasgow Coma Scale score (P = 0.037), more units of packed red blood cells (P = 0.028), and respiratory complications (P = 0.035). Renal and infectious complications did not significantly increase the risk of FTR in this population. FTR is an important benchmark of quality for trauma patients. This study elucidates potential initial characteristics and complications related to FTR in DCL patients. Efforts in achieving zero death from FTR can potentially improve overall mortality in this subset of patients. Future quality interventions to help minimize FTR should target these specific areas.


Assuntos
Falha da Terapia de Resgate , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Transtornos Respiratórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Estados Unidos
6.
Ochsner J ; 19(3): 199-203, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31528129

RESUMO

Background: Emergency medical service (EMS) personnel are regularly exposed to traumatic incidents and experience higher rates of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. Grit is a construct proposed to be associated with achievement, but it has demonstrated preliminary evidence of an association with resilience. The current study examined the relationship between grit and resilience among EMS workers. Methods: A link to an online survey was sent to East Baton Rouge Parish Emergency Medical Services personnel via an email distribution list. Demographic variables and the following self-report measures were assessed: the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), the Grit Scale, the Brief COPE scale, and the Professional Exposure to Traumatic Experiences scale (modified from the Life Events Checklist). Results: PCL-5 scores were significantly and negatively correlated with the Grit Scale score (r=-0.57, P<0.01). Hierarchical regression revealed that grit and coping mechanisms were predictive of self-reported PTSD symptoms (adjusted R2=68.7%, F(15,67)=9.81, P<0.001). Examination of the coefficients revealed that lower total Grit Scale scores and higher scores on the following Brief COPE scales were significant predictors of PCL-5 scores: denial, substance abuse, disengagement, and self-blame. Conclusion: This study examined the relationship between grit and resilience, measured by self-reported PTSD symptoms. Our results demonstrate a significant relationship between grit and resilience. Grit is related to, but distinct from, other constructs that predict resilience, such as coping mechanisms. Large prospective studies could have significant implications for hiring practices and building grit in existing personnel to bolster resilience.

7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(1): 117-124, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemodynamically unstable patients with severe pelvic fracture are a significant challenge to trauma surgeons and have high mortality. Significant variability across institutions in hemorrhage control adjuncts used to quell pelvic bleeding has been demonstrated. However, the effect of these methods on time to definitive bleeding control, type of resuscitation given, and outcomes remains unknown. We sought to elucidate those effects. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective review of severe pelvic fracture patients in shock between 2011 and 2016. Shock was defined as systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg, heart rate greater than 120 beats per minute, or base deficit less than -5. Definitive bleeding control was defined as time to surgical control in the operating room or embolization by interventional radiology. Significance level was at p less than 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 279 severe pelvic fracture patients with shock on admission from 12 trauma centers were included. The cohort was primarily male (62%) with median (interquartile range) age of 40 years (28-54 years), Injury Severity Score of 38 (29-50), and Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 (3-15). Overall mortality was 32%. The most common adjunct used was pelvic binder (50%) followed by no adjunct (30.5%); least common was resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) (2.5%). Preperitoneal packing alone and REBOA alone/with other adjunct(s) resulted in the fastest times to operating room/interventional radiology but also had the highest blood utilization and mortality rates. Resuscitative balloon occlusion of the aorta was most often used along with pelvic binder (6 of 13; 46%). CONCLUSION: Marked variation in management of severe pelvic fracture patients in shock indicates the need for a standardized approach to maximize outcomes and minimize transfusion requirements. The use of preperitoneal packing and/or REBOA yielded fastest times to definitive bleeding control. However, REBOA continues to be infrequently used. Future prospective analysis of this combination needs further validation in patients with severe pelvic hemorrhage. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Ossos Pélvicos/lesões , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Técnicas Hemostáticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Am Coll Surg ; 229(3): 252-258, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stored plasma products are widely regarded as being functionally acellular, obviating the need for leukoreduction. We tested the hypothesis that donor plasma is contaminated by leukocytes and platelets, which, after frozen storage, would release cellular debris in quantities sufficient to elicit significant pro-inflammatory responses. STUDY DESIGN: Samples of never-frozen liquid plasma from 2 regional Level I trauma centers were analyzed for leukocyte and platelet contamination. To determine if the cellular contamination and associated debris found in liquid plasma were at levels sufficient to evoke an innate immune response, known quantities of leukocytes were subjected to a freeze-thaw cycle, added to whole blood, and the magnitude of the inflammatory response was determined by induction of interleukin-6. RESULTS: Units of never-frozen plasma from 2 regional Level I trauma centers located in Alabama and Louisiana contained significant amounts of leukocyte contamination (Louisiana, n = 22; 17.3 ± 4.5 million vs Alabama, n = 22; 11.3 ± 2.2 million) and platelet contamination (Louisiana, n = 21; 0.86 ± 0.20 billion vs Alabama, n = 22; 1.0 ± 0.3 billion). Cellular debris from as few as 1 million leukocytes induced significant increases in interleukin-6 levels (R2 = 0.74; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Stored plasma units from trauma center blood banks were highly contaminated with leukocytes and platelets, at levels more than 15-fold higher than sufficient to elicit ex vivo inflammatory responses. In light of paradigm shifts toward the use of more empiric plasma for treatment of hypovolemia, this study suggests that new manufacturing and quality-control processes are needed to eliminate previously unrecognized cellular contamination present in stored plasma products.

9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(5): 791-796, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiological studies on pediatric firearm mortality have focused on overall mortality rather than on-scene mortality. Despite advances in trauma care, the number of potentially preventable deaths remains high. This study used the National Emergency Medical Services Information Systems database to characterize patterns of on-scene mortality in order to identify patients who may benefit from changes to prehospital care practices. METHODS: National Emergency Medical Services Information Systems database was searched for all pediatric firearm incidents from 2010 to 2015. Data on demographics, anatomic location of injury, intent and location of incident, and on-scene mortality were analyzed using Student's t test for continuous variables and χ test for categorical variables. A linear regression model was used to calculate independent predictors of mortality. RESULTS: Sixteen thousand eight hundred eight patients were identified, with a mortality rate of 6.1%. Most mortalities suffered cardiac arrest on-scene; 72.6% of these were prior to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrival, which carried a significantly higher mortality rate than arrest after EMS arrival. No difference was seen in anatomic location of injury in those who arrested before and after EMS arrival. Compressible injuries were most common with the lowest mortality. Noncompressible injuries together accounted for 25.8% of injuries and 23.5% of mortalities. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the largest study of on-scene mortality in pediatric firearm injury. Cardiac arrest prior to EMS arrival was a considerable source of on-scene mortality; significantly more of these patients died than those who arrested after EMS arrival. The mortality of compressible injuries was very low, implying that use of compression and tourniquets have been effective in stopping life-threatening extremity bleeding. Noncompressible injury mortality could be decreased with education of bystanders and more aggressive on-scene intervention. Through the evaluation of on-scene mortality specifically, this study offers insight into potential areas of focus to improve prehospital care of pediatric gunshot victims. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care management, level IV.

11.
Am Surg ; 84(6): 862-867, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981616

RESUMO

Air transport was developed to hasten patient transport based on the "golden hour" belief that delayed care leads to poorer outcome. The primary aim of our study was to identify the critical inflection point of increased nonsurvivors on total prehospital time. This was a multicenter review of adult trauma patients transported by air between November 2014 and August 2015. Primary outcome of interest was all-cause inhospital mortality. Total helicopter emergency medical services times of nonsurvivors were plotted to visualize the distribution of prehospital time. Of 636 patients included, 71 per cent were male and 86 per cent suffered blunt trauma. Among nonsurvivors, mortality doubled once total helicopter emergency medical services time exceeded 30 minutes (P < 0.001). Nonsurvivors presented with significantly lower median [interquartile range (IQR)] Glasgow Coma Score compared with survivors [3 (3-13) vs 15 (12-15), respectively; P < 0.001] as well as a significantly higher median (IQR) Injury Severity Score [26 (19-41) vs 12 (5-22); P < 0.001], increased incidence of penetrating mechanism of injury [21 vs 8%; P = 0.002], and higher median (IQR) shock index [0.84 (0.63-1.06) vs 0.71 (0.6-0.87); P = 0.023]. We identified an inflection point of doubling in mortality after 30 minutes. This suggests a possible threshold effect between time and mortality in severely injured patients. Revised field criteria for determining which injured patients would most benefit from helicopter transport are needed.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
12.
Injury ; 49(1): 15-19, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29017765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various scoring systems have been developed to predict need for massive transfusion in traumatically injured patients. Assessments of Blood Consumption (ABC) score and Shock Index (SI) have been shown to be reliable predictors for Massive Transfusion Protocol (MTP) activation. However, no study has directly compared these two scoring systems to determine which is a better predictor for MTP activation. The primary objective was to determine whether ABC or SI better predicted the need for MTP in adult trauma patients with severe hemorrhage. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study which included all injured patients who were trauma activations between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013 at an urban Level I trauma center. Patients <18 years old or with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were excluded. ABC and SI were calculated for each patient. MTP was defined as need for >10 units PRBC transfusion within 24h of emergency department arrival. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) were used to evaluate scoring systems' ability to predict effective MTP utilization. RESULTS: A total of 645 patients had complete data for analysis. Shock Index ≥1 had sensitivity of 67.7% (95% CI 49.5%-82.6%) and specificity of 81.3% (95% CI 78.0%-84.3%) for predicting MTP, and ABC score ≥2 had sensitivity of 47.0% (95% CI 29.8%-64.9%) and specificity of 89.8% (95% CI 87.2%-92.1%). AUROC analyses showed SI to be the strongest predictor followed by ABC score with AUROC values of 0.83 and 0.74, respectively. SI had a significantly greater sensitivity (P=0.035), but a significantly weaker specificity (P<0.001) compared to ABC score. CONCLUSION: ABC score and Shock Index can both be used to predict need for massive transfusion in trauma patients, however SI is more sensitive and requires less technical skill than ABC score.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Exsanguinação/diagnóstico , Choque Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Protocolos Clínicos , Exsanguinação/mortalidade , Exsanguinação/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
13.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 84(2): 234-244, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29251711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta blockers, a class of medications that inhibit endogenous catecholamines interaction with beta adrenergic receptors, are often administered to patients hospitalized after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We tested the hypothesis that beta blocker use after TBI is associated with lower mortality, and secondarily compared propranolol to other beta blockers. METHODS: The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Clinical Trial Group conducted a multi-institutional, prospective, observational trial in which adult TBI patients who required intensive care unit admission were compared based on beta blocker administration. RESULTS: From January 2015 to January 2017, 2,252 patients were analyzed from 15 trauma centers in the United States and Canada with 49.7% receiving beta blockers. Most patients (56.3%) received the first beta blocker dose by hospital day 1. Those patients who received beta blockers were older (56.7 years vs. 48.6 years, p < 0.001) and had higher head Abbreviated Injury Scale scores (3.6 vs. 3.4, p < 0.001). Similarities were noted when comparing sex, admission hypotension, mean Injury Severity Score, and mean Glasgow Coma Scale. Unadjusted mortality was lower for patients receiving beta blockers (13.8% vs. 17.7%, p = 0.013). Multivariable regression determined that beta blockers were associated with lower mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 0.35; p < 0.001), and propranolol was superior to other beta blockers (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51, p = 0.010). A Cox-regression model using a time-dependent variable demonstrated a survival benefit for patients receiving beta blockers (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42, p < 0.001) and propranolol was superior to other beta blockers (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.50, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Administration of beta blockers after TBI was associated with improved survival, before and after adjusting for the more severe injuries observed in the treatment cohort. This study provides a robust evaluation of the effects of beta blockers on TBI outcomes that supports the initiation of a multi-institutional randomized control trial. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/care management, level III.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Terminal/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Sociedades Médicas , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatologia , Idoso , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Neurocrit Care ; 28(1): 110-116, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28547319

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is frequently observed after various types of acute cerebral injury and has been linked to clinical deterioration in non-traumatic brain injury (TBI). SIRS scores have also been shown to be predictive of length of stay and mortality in trauma patients. We aimed to determine the prognostic utility of SIRS present at admission in trauma patients with isolated TBI. METHODS: This was a 5-year retrospective cohort study of adults (≥18 years) with isolated TBI admitted to a Level II trauma center. The prognostic value of SIRS, total SIRS scores, and each SIRS criterion was examined by Χ 2 and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of the 330 patients identified, 50 (15.2%) met SIRS criteria. SIRS was significantly associated with poor outcome (P < 0.001). Relative risk of poor outcome was 2.7 times higher in patients with a SIRS score of 2 on admission (P = 0.007) and increased significantly to 6.5 times in patients with a SIRS score of 3 (P = 0.002). Logistic regression demonstrated SIRS and each criterion to be significant independent prognostic factors (SIRS, P = 0.030; body temperature, P = 0.006; tachypnea, P = 0.022, tachycardia P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: SIRS at admission is an independent predictor of poor outcome in isolated TBI patients. These data demonstrate SIRS to be an important clinical tool that may be used in facilitating prognostication, particularly in elderly trauma patients. Future prospective studies aimed at therapeutic interventions to mitigate SIRS in TBI patients are warranted. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, Level III.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/terapia , Centros de Traumatologia
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20172017 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29170169

RESUMO

A 39-year-old man sustained an acute grade III aortic injury resulting in a type B aortic dissection in the setting of severe traumatic brain injury, cervical spine injury and multiple orthopaedic injuries following a motorcycle crash. The patient underwent an emergent thoracic endovascular aortic repair, complicated by a thoracic pseudoaneurysm rupture and ongoing exsanguination from a persistent type 1 endoleak. Additional stent grafts were required to gain control of the endoleak. The patient ultimately progressed to brain death post procedure in the intensive care unit. This case reviews treatment considerations in the context of a blunt thoracic aortic transection and distal dissection with concomitant polytrauma.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/etiologia , Aorta Torácica/lesões , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Contusões Miocárdicas/complicações , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Vértebras Cervicais/lesões , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Motocicletas , Traumatismos da Coluna Vertebral/complicações
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 83(5): 888-893, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been associated as a predictor for increased mortality in critically ill patients. We sought to determine the relationship between NLR and outcomes in adult trauma patients with severe hemorrhage requiring the initiation of massive transfusion protocol (MTP). We hypothesized that the NLR would be a prognostic indicator of mortality in this population. METHODS: This was a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of adult trauma patients (≥18 years) with severe hemorrhage who received MTP between November 2014 and November 2015. Differentiated blood cell counts obtained at days 3 and 10 were used to obtain NLR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis assessed the predictive capacity of NLR on mortality. To identify the effect of NLR on survival, Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis and Cox regression models were used. RESULTS: A total of 285 patients with severe hemorrhage managed with MTP were analyzed from six participating institutions. Most (80%) were men, 57.2% suffered blunt trauma. Median (IQR) age, Injury Severity Score, and Glasgow Coma Scale were 35 (25-47), 25 (16-36), and 9 (3-15), respectively. Using ROC curve analysis, optimal NLR cutoff values of 8.81 at day 3 and 13.68 at day 10 were calculated by maximizing the Youden index. KM curves at day 3 (p = 0.05) and day 10 (p = 0.02) revealed an NLR greater than or equal to these cutoff values as a marker for increased in-hospital mortality. Cox regression models failed to demonstrate an NLR over 8.81 as predictive of in-hospital mortality at day 3 (p = 0.056) but was predictive for mortality if NLR was greater than 13.68 at day 10 (p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: NLR is strongly associated with early mortality in patients with severe hemorrhage managed with MTP. Further research is needed to focus on factors that can ameliorate NLR in this patient population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/imunologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Orthopedics ; 40(4): e668-e674, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504809

RESUMO

Pilon fractures are high-energy injuries that often result in considerable edema and compromise of the soft tissue envelope of the ankle. These injuries are typically staged with an external fixator until the soft tissue is amenable for definitive fixation. This study was conducted to determine the effects of lymphedema treatment for the management of pilon fractures. Patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of pilon fractures between 2007 and 2014 at the authors' level II trauma center were identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes indicative of placement of an external fixator (20690) and open reduction and internal fixation of a pilon fracture (27826, 27827, or 27828). The primary efficacy endpoint to determine negative outcomes was 90 days after definitive fixation. Eighty-two patients with 84 pilon fractures met inclusion criteria. Forty-eight ankles (57%) received lymphedema treatment. There were no significant differences in population demographics between the control and treatment groups. Median times to internal fixation in the control and treatment groups were 20 days (inter-quartile range, 15.5-30 days) and 11 days (interquartile range, 6-18 days), respectively. This difference was statistically significant (P=.001). Additionally, there was no significant difference in the overall incidence of wound complications between the control and treatment groups (P=.246). Compression wrapping for posttraumatic edema was effective in reducing the time needed for soft tissues to be appropriate for definitive surgical fixation of pilon fractures without increasing the risk of wound complications. These promising results warrant future study. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e668-e674.].


Assuntos
Fraturas do Tornozelo/cirurgia , Linfedema/terapia , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Fraturas do Tornozelo/complicações , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Linfedema/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redução Aberta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Am Surg ; 83(4): 323-331, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28424124

RESUMO

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) incidence is reported to have decreased in recent years. However, no large-scale study to date has exclusively examined ARDS in the critically injured. We sought to examine the national incidence of ARDS and its associated outcomes exclusively in adult trauma patients. The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) was queried to evaluate the incidence of ARDS and associated outcomes over a 6-year study period (2007-2012). Included patients were ≥18 years old, with at least one ventilator day, and complications recorded. ARDS-associated outcomes and complications were also analyzed. Mean age increased over the study period (48.1-51.4 years, P < 0.003). ARDS incidence decreased from 21.5 to 8.5 per cent (P < 0.001). Length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit LOS (ICU LOS), and ventilator days decreased over time. Mortality increased from 21.3 to 24.9 per cent (P < 0.002). Incidence of pneumonia and acute kidney injury increased marginally (39.5-40.9% and 11.4-12.3%, respectively). Sepsis trended down from 2007 to 2010, after which comparable NTDB data were not available. ARDS incidence in mechanically ventilated adult trauma patients has decreased significantly in recent years. We theorize this is likely attributable to improved critical care strategies. Unlike ARDS incidence, mortality in this patient population has not improved despite these advancements.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
J Trauma Nurs ; 22(3): 148-52, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25961481

RESUMO

Bedside surgical procedures such as percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement in ICU settings are widely accepted; however, these procedures often require the addition of bulky equipment into the patient's room, which consumes valuable space and restrict workflow. A practice modification was developed in our trauma program, which reduces clutter in the patient's room, streamlines workflow, and results in better patient care and teaching. Simple and cost-effective, this has become the standard in our trauma center and could be of benefit to other institutions as well.


Assuntos
Gastrostomia/métodos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/organização & administração , Televisão , Traqueostomia/métodos , Endoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inovação Organizacional
20.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e88633, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24533124

RESUMO

The function of the replication clamp loaders in the semi-conservative telomere replication and their relationship to telomerase- and recombination mechanisms of telomere addition remains ambiguous. We have investigated the variant clamp loader Ctf18 RFC (Replication Factor C). To understand the role of Ctf18 at the telomere, we first investigated genetic interactions after loss of Ctf18 and TLC1 (the yeast telomerase RNA). We find that the tlc1Δ ctf18Δ double mutant confers a rapid >1000-fold decrease in viability. The rate of loss was similar to the kinetics of cell death in rad52Δ tlc1Δ cells. However, the Ctf18 pathway is distinct from Rad52, required for the repair of DSBs, as demonstrated by the synthetic lethality of rad52▵ tlc1Δ ctf18Δ triple mutants. These data suggest that each mutant elicits non-redundant defects acting on the same substrate. Second, interactions of the yeast hyper-recombinational mutant, mre11A470T, with ctf18▵ confer a synergistic cold sensitivity. The phenotype of these double mutants ultimately results in telomere loss and the generation of recombinational survivors. We observed a similar synergism between single mutants that led to hypersensitivity to the DNA alkylating agent, methane methyl sulphonate (MMS), the replication fork inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU), and to a failure to separate telomeres of sister chromatids. Hence, ctf18Δ and mre11A470T act in different pathways on telomere substrates for multiple phenotypes. The mre11A470T cells also displayed a DNA damage response (DDR) at 15°C but not at 30°C while ctf18Δ mutants conferred a constitutive DDR activity. Both the 15°C DDR pattern and growth rate were reversible at 30°C and displayed telomerase activity in vivo. We hypothesize that Ctf18 confers protection against stalling and/or breaks at the replication fork in cells that either lack, or are compromised for, telomerase activity. This Ctf18-based function is likely to contribute another level to telomere size homeostasis.


Assuntos
Endodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Mutação , Proteína de Replicação C/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Telomerase/metabolismo , Telômero/ultraestrutura , Alelos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/metabolismo , Cromátides/química , Reparo do DNA , Endodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Exodesoxirribonucleases/metabolismo , Hidroxiureia/química , Cinética , Metanossulfonato de Metila/química , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
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