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1.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 122, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although epigenetic mechanisms are important risk factors for allergic disease, few studies have evaluated DNA methylation differences associated with atopic dermatitis (AD), and none has focused on AD with eczema herpeticum (ADEH+). We will determine how methylation varies in AD individuals with/without EH and associated traits. We modeled differences in genome-wide DNA methylation in whole blood cells from 90 ADEH+, 83 ADEH-, and 84 non-atopic, healthy control subjects, replicating in 36 ADEH+, 53 ADEH-, and 55 non-atopic healthy control subjects. We adjusted for cell-type composition in our models and used genome-wide and candidate-gene approaches. RESULTS: We replicated one CpG which was significantly differentially methylated by severity, with suggestive replication at four others showing differential methylation by phenotype or severity. Not adjusting for eosinophil content, we identified 490 significantly differentially methylated CpGs (ADEH+ vs healthy controls, genome-wide). Many of these associated with severity measures, especially eosinophil count (431/490 sites). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a CpG in IL4 associated with serum tIgE levels, supporting a role for Th2 immune mediating mechanisms in AD. Changes in eosinophil level, a measure of disease severity, are associated with methylation changes, providing a potential mechanism for phenotypic changes in immune response-related traits.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 156(5): 1496-1507.e7, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurs in approximately 30% of infected persons and less often in populations of African ancestry. Variants in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and in interferon lambda genes are associated with spontaneous HCV clearance, but there have been few studies of these variants in persons of African ancestry. We performed a dense multi-ancestry genome-wide association study of spontaneous clearance of HCV, focusing on individuals of African ancestry. METHODS: We performed genotype analyses of 4423 people from 3 ancestry groups: 2201 persons of African ancestry (445 with HCV clearance and 1756 with HCV persistence), 1739 persons of European ancestry (701 with HCV clearance and 1036 with HCV persistence), and 486 multi-ancestry Hispanic persons (173 with HCV clearance and 313 with HCV persistence). Samples were genotyped using Illumina (San Diego, CA) arrays and statistically imputed to the 1000 Genomes Project. For each ancestry group, the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms with HCV clearance was tested by log-additive analysis, and then a meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis, significant associations with HCV clearance were confirmed at the interferon lambda gene locus IFNL4-IFNL3 (19q13.2) (P = 5.99 × 10-50) and the MHC locus 6p21.32 (P = 1.15 × 10-21). We also associated HCV clearance with polymorphisms in the G-protein-coupled receptor 158 gene (GPR158) at 10p12.1 (P = 1.80 × 10-07). These 3 loci had independent, additive effects of HCV clearance, and account for 6.8% and 5.9% of the variance of HCV clearance in persons of European and African ancestry, respectively. Persons of African or European ancestry carrying all 6 variants were 24-fold and 11-fold, respectively, more likely to clear HCV infection compared with individuals carrying none or 1 of the clearance-associated variants. CONCLUSIONS: In a meta-analysis of data from 3 studies, we found variants in MHC genes, IFNL4-IFNL3, and GPR158 to increase odds of HCV clearance in patients of European and African ancestry. These findings could increase our understanding of immune response to and clearance of HCV infection.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Hepacivirus/fisiologia , Hepatite C/genética , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/etnologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interleucinas/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Masculino , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Remissão Espontânea , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
4.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455414

RESUMO

We used a deeply sequenced dataset of 910 individuals, all of African descent, to construct a set of DNA sequences that is present in these individuals but missing from the reference human genome. We aligned 1.19 trillion reads from the 910 individuals to the reference genome (GRCh38), collected all reads that failed to align, and assembled these reads into contiguous sequences (contigs). We then compared all contigs to one another to identify a set of unique sequences representing regions of the African pan-genome missing from the reference genome. Our analysis revealed 296,485,284 bp in 125,715 distinct contigs present in the populations of African descent, demonstrating that the African pan-genome contains ~10% more DNA than the current human reference genome. Although the functional significance of nearly all of this sequence is unknown, 387 of the novel contigs fall within 315 distinct protein-coding genes, and the rest appear to be intergenic.

5.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246882

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated how sharing of rare variants (RVs) in distant affected relatives can be used to identify variants causing a complex and heterogeneous disease. This approach tested whether single RVs were shared by all sequenced affected family members. However, as with other study designs, joint analysis of several RVs (e.g., within genes) is sometimes required to obtain sufficient statistical power. Further, phenocopies can lead to false negatives for some causal RVs if complete sharing among affected is required. Here, we extend our methodology (Rare Variant Sharing, RVS) to address these issues. Specifically, we introduce gene-based analyses, a partial sharing test based on RV sharing probabilities for subsets of affected relatives and a haplotype-based RV definition. RVS also has the desirable feature of not requiring external estimates of variant frequency or control samples, provides functionality to assess and address violations of key assumptions, and is available as open source software for genome-wide analysis. Simulations including phenocopies, based on the families of an oral cleft study, revealed the partial and complete sharing versions of RVS achieved similar statistical power compared with alternative methods (RareIBD and the Gene-Based Segregation Test), and had superior power compared with the pedigree Variant Annotation, Analysis, and Search Tool (pVAAST) linkage statistic. In studies of multiplex cleft families, analysis of rare single nucleotide variants in the exome of 151 affected relatives from 54 families revealed no significant excess sharing in any one gene, but highlighted different patterns of sharing revealed by the complete and partial sharing tests.

6.
Platelets ; : 1-7, 2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29553866

RESUMO

Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aggregation of activated platelets on a ruptured atherosclerotic plaque is a critical step in most acute cardiovascular events like myocardial infarction. Platelet aggregation both at baseline and after aspirin is highly heritable. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a common variant within the first intron of the platelet endothelial aggregation receptor1 (PEAR1), to be robustly associated with platelet aggregation. In this study, we used targeted deep sequencing to fine-map the prior GWAS peak and identify additional rare variants of PEAR1 that account for missing heritability in platelet aggregation within the GeneSTAR families. In this study, 1709 subjects (1043 European Americans, EA and 666 African Americans, AA) from families in the GeneSTAR study were included. In vitro platelet aggregation in response to collagen, ADP and epinephrine was measured at baseline and 14 days after aspirin therapy (81 mg/day). Targeted deep sequencing of PEAR1 in addition to 2kb of upstream and downstream of the gene was performed. Under an additive genetic model, the association of single variants of PEAR1 with platelet aggregation phenotypes were examined. Additionally, we examined the association between the burden of PEAR1 rare non-synonymous variants and platelet aggregation phenotypes. Of 532 variants identified through sequencing, the intron 1 variant, rs12041331, was significantly associated with all platelet aggregation phenotypes at baseline and after platelet inhibition with aspirin therapy. rs12566888, which is in linkage disequilibrium with rs12041331, was associated with platelet aggregation phenotypes but to a lesser extent. In the EA families, the burden of PEAR1 missense variants was associated with platelet aggregation after aspirin therapy when the platelets were stimulated with epinephrine (p = 0.0009) and collagen (p = 0.03). In AAs, the burden of PEAR1 missense variants was associated, to a lesser degree, with platelet aggregation in response to epinephrine (p = 0.02) and ADP (p = 0.04). Our study confirmed that the GWAS-identified variant, rs12041331, is the strongest variant associated with platelet aggregation both at baseline and after aspirin therapy in our GeneSTAR families in both races. We identified additional association of rare missense variants in PEAR1 with platelet aggregation following aspirin therapy. However, we observed a racial difference in the contribution of these rare variants to the platelet aggregation, most likely due to higher residual missing heritability of platelet aggregation after accounting for rs12041331 in the EAs compared to AAs.

7.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(5): 570-579, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonsyndromic oral clefts are craniofacial malformations, which include cleft lip with or without cleft palate. The etiology for oral clefts is complex with both genetic and environmental factors contributing to risk. Previous genome-wide association (GWAS) studies have identified multiple loci with small effects; however, many causal variants remain elusive. METHODS: In this study, we address this by specifically looking for rare, potentially damaging variants in family-based data. We analyzed both whole exome sequence (WES) data and whole genome sequence (WGS) data in multiplex cleft families to identify variants shared by affected individuals. RESULTS: Here we present the results from these analyses. Our most interesting finding was from a single Syrian family, which showed enrichment of nonsynonymous and potentially damaging rare variants in two genes: CASP9 and FAT4. CONCLUSION: Neither of these candidate genes has previously been associated with oral clefts and, if confirmed as contributing to disease risk, may indicate novel biological pathways in the genetic etiology for oral clefts.

8.
Birth Defects Res ; 109(13): 1030-1038, 2017 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28762674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orofacial clefts (OFCs), including nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P), are common birth defects. NSCL/P is highly heterogeneous with multiple phenotypic presentations. Two common subtypes of NSCL/P are cleft lip (CL) and cleft lip with cleft palate (CLP) which have different population prevalence. Similarly, NSCL/P can be divided into bilateral and unilateral clefts, with unilateral being the most common. Individuals with unilateral NSCL/P are more likely to be affected on the left side of the upper lip, but right side affection also occurs. Moreover, NSCL/P is twice as common in males as in females. The goal of this study is to discover genetic variants that have different effects in case subgroups. METHODS: We conducted both common variant and rare variant analyses in 1034 individuals of Asian ancestry with NSCL/P, examining four sources of heterogeneity within CL/P: cleft type, sex, laterality, and side. RESULTS: We identified several regions associated with subtype differentiation: cleft type differences in 8q24 (p = 1.00 × 10-4 ), laterality differences in IRF6, a gene previously implicated with wound healing (p = 2.166 × 10-4 ), sex differences and side of unilateral CL differences in FGFR2 (p = 3.00 × 10-4 ; p = 6.00 × 10-4 ), and sex differences in VAX1 (p < 1.00 × 10-4 ) among others. CONCLUSION: Many of the regions associated with phenotypic modification were either adjacent to or overlapping functional elements based on ENCODE chromatin marks and published craniofacial enhancers. We have identified multiple common and rare variants as potential phenotypic modifiers of NSCL/P, and suggest plausible elements responsible for phenotypic heterogeneity, further elucidating the complex genetic architecture of OFCs. Birth Defects Research 109:1030-1038, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Anormalidades da Boca/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
10.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0167794, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28107356

RESUMO

Previously, we have described our feeder-free, xeno-free approach to generate megakaryocytes (MKs) in culture from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Here, we focus specifically on the integrity of these MKs using: (1) genotype discordance between parent cell DNA to iPSC cell DNA and onward to the differentiated MK DNA; (2) genomic structural integrity using copy number variation (CNV); and (3) transcriptomic signatures of the derived MK lines compared to the iPSC lines. We detected a very low rate of genotype discordance; estimates were 0.0001%-0.01%, well below the genotyping error rate for our assay (0.37%). No CNVs were generated in the iPSCs that were subsequently passed on to the MKs. Finally, we observed highly biologically relevant gene sets as being upregulated in MKs relative to the iPSCs: platelet activation, blood coagulation, megakaryocyte development, platelet formation, platelet degranulation, and platelet aggregation. These data strongly support the integrity of the derived MK lines.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Megacariócitos/citologia , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Megacariócitos/metabolismo
11.
Bioinformatics ; 33(8): 1147-1153, 2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28035032

RESUMO

Motivation: Variant calling from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data is susceptible to false positive calls due to sequencing, mapping and other errors. To better distinguish true from false positive calls, we present a method that uses genotype array data from the sequenced samples, rather than public data such as HapMap or dbSNP, to train an accurate classifier using Random Forests. We demonstrate our method on a set of variant calls obtained from 642 African-ancestry genomes from the Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA), sequenced to high depth (30X). Results: We have applied our classifier to compare call sets generated with different calling methods, including both single-sample and multi-sample callers. At a False Positive Rate of 5%, our method determines true positive rates of 97.5%, 95% and 99% on variant calls obtained using Illuminas single-sample caller CASAVA, Real Time Genomics multisample variant caller, and the GATK UnifiedGenotyper, respectively. Since NGS sequencing data may be accompanied by genotype data for the same samples, either collected concurrent to sequencing or from a previous study, our method can be trained on each dataset to provide a more accurate computational validation of site calls compared to generic methods. Moreover, our method allows for adjustment based on allele frequency (e.g. a different set of criteria to determine quality for rare versus common variants) and thereby provides insight into sequencing characteristics that indicate call quality for variants of different frequencies. Availability and Implementation: Code is available on Github at: https://github.com/suyashss/variant_validation. Contacts: suyashs@stanford.edu or mtaub@jhsph.edu. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Genômica/normas , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/normas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas
12.
Genet Epidemiol ; 41(3): 244-250, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28019042

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is the most common craniofacial birth defect in humans, affecting 1 in 700 live births. This malformation has a complex etiology where multiple genes and several environmental factors influence risk. At least a dozen different genes have been confirmed to be associated with risk of NSCL/P in previous studies. However, all the known genetic risk factors cannot fully explain the observed heritability of NSCL/P, and several authors have suggested gene-gene (G × G) interaction may be important in the etiology of this complex and heterogeneous malformation. We tested for G × G interactions using common single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers from targeted sequencing in 13 regions identified by previous studies spanning 6.3 Mb of the genome in a study of 1,498 NSCL/P case-parent trios. We used the R-package trio to assess interactions between polymorphic markers in different genes, using a 1 degree of freedom (1df) test for screening, and a 4 degree of freedom (4df) test to assess statistical significance of epistatic interactions. To adjust for multiple comparisons, we performed permutation tests. The most significant interaction was observed between rs6029315 in MAFB and rs6681355 in IRF6 (4df P = 3.8 × 10-8 ) in case-parent trios of European ancestry, which remained significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. However, no significant interaction was detected in trios of Asian ancestry.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Epistasia Genética/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Fatores de Risco
13.
Genome Med ; 8(1): 124, 2016 11 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Twin studies are powerful models to elucidate epigenetic modifications resulting from gene-environment interactions. Yet, commonly a limited number of clinical twin samples are available, leading to an underpowered situation afflicted with false positives and hampered by low sensitivity. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation data from two small sets of monozygotic twins representing different phases during the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to find novel genes for further research. METHODS: We implemented a robust statistical methodology aimed at investigating a small number of samples to identify differential methylation utilizing the comprehensive CHARM platform with whole blood cell DNA from two sets of twin pairs discordant either for ACPA (antibodies to citrullinated protein antigens)-positive RA versus ACPA-negative healthy or for ACPA-positive healthy (a pre-RA stage) versus ACPA-negative healthy. To deconvolute cell type-dependent differential methylation, we assayed the methylation patterns of sorted cells and used computational algorithms to resolve the relative contributions of different cell types and used them as covariates. RESULTS: To identify methylation biomarkers, five healthy twin pairs discordant for ACPAs were profiled, revealing a single differentially methylated region (DMR). Seven twin pairs discordant for ACPA-positive RA revealed six significant DMRs. After deconvolution of cell type proportions, profiling of the healthy ACPA discordant twin-set revealed 17 genome-wide significant DMRs. When methylation profiles of ACPA-positive RA twin pairs were adjusted for cell type, the analysis disclosed one significant DMR, associated with the EXOSC1 gene. Additionally, the results from our methodology suggest a temporal connection of the protocadherine beta-14 gene to ACPA-positivity with clinical RA. CONCLUSIONS: Our biostatistical methodology, optimized for a low-sample twin design, revealed non-genetically linked genes associated with two distinct phases of RA. Functional evidence is still lacking but the results reinforce further study of epigenetic modifications influencing the progression of RA. Our study design and methodology may prove generally useful in twin studies.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Idoso , Algoritmos , Artrite Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12521, 2016 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27725664

RESUMO

To characterize the extent and impact of ancestry-related biases in precision genomic medicine, we use 642 whole-genome sequences from the Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA) project to evaluate typical filters and databases. We find significant correlations between estimated African ancestry proportions and the number of variants per individual in all variant classification sets but one. The source of these correlations is highlighted in more detail by looking at the interaction between filtering criteria and the ClinVar and Human Gene Mutation databases. ClinVar's correlation, representing African ancestry-related bias, has changed over time amidst monthly updates, with the most extreme switch happening between March and April of 2014 (r=0.733 to r=-0.683). We identify 68 SNPs as the major drivers of this change in correlation. As long as ancestry-related bias when using these clinical databases is minimally recognized, the genetics community will face challenges with implementation, interpretation and cost-effectiveness when treating minority populations.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Genômica , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Medicina de Precisão , Viés , Variação Genética , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12522, 2016 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27725671

RESUMO

The African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere represents one of the largest forced migrations in history and had a profound impact on genetic diversity in modern populations. To date, the fine-scale population structure of descendants of the African Diaspora remains largely uncharacterized. Here we present genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas. We summarize genetic variation in these populations, quantifying the postcolonial sex-biased European gene flow across multiple regions. Moreover, we refine estimates on the burden of deleterious variants carried across populations and how this varies with African ancestry. Our data are an important resource for empowering disease mapping studies in African-admixed individuals and will facilitate gene discovery for diseases disproportionately affecting individuals of African ancestry.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , Sequência de Bases , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sexismo
16.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 73(5): 506-14, 2016 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27074206

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: DNA methylation may play an important role in schizophrenia (SZ), either directly as a mechanism of pathogenesis or as a biomarker of risk. OBJECTIVE: To scan genome-wide DNA methylation data to identify differentially methylated CpGs between SZ cases and controls. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Epigenome-wide association study begun in 2008 using DNA methylation levels of 456 513 CpG loci measured on the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array (Illumina) in a consortium of case-control studies for initial discovery and in an independent replication set. Primary analyses used general linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, batch, and cell type heterogeneity. The discovery set contained 689 SZ cases and 645 controls (n = 1334), from 3 multisite consortia: the Consortium on the Genetics of Endophenotypes in Schizophrenia, the Project among African-Americans To Explore Risks for Schizophrenia, and the Multiplex Multigenerational Family Study of Schizophrenia. The replication set contained 247 SZ cases and 250 controls (n = 497) from the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Identification of differentially methylated positions across the genome in SZ cases compared with controls. RESULTS: Of the 689 case participants in the discovery set, 477 (69%) were men and 258 (37%) were non-African American; of the 645 controls, 273 (42%) were men and 419 (65%) were non-African American. In our replication set, cases/controls were 76% male and 100% non-African American. We identified SZ-associated methylation differences at 923 CpGs in the discovery set (false discovery rate, <0.2). Of these, 625 showed changes in the same direction including 172 with P < .05 in the replication set. Some replicated differentially methylated positions are located in a top-ranked SZ region from genome-wide association study analyses. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This analysis identified 172 replicated new associations with SZ after careful correction for cell type heterogeneity and other potential confounders. The overlap with previous genome-wide association study data can provide potential insights into the functional relevance of genetic signals for SZ.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 68(1): 191-200, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26473621

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of rare variants as genetic modifiers of the expressivity, penetrance, and severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing of 78 European American patients with SSc, including 35 patients without pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and 43 patients with PAH. Association testing of case-control probability for rare variants was performed using the unified sequence kernel association test with optimal kernel weighting and small sample adjustment by comparing all SSc patients with a reference population of 3,179 controls from the Exome Sequencing Project 5,500 exome data set. Replication genotyping was performed in an independent sample of 3,263 patients (415 patients with SSc and 2,848 controls). We conducted expression profiling of messenger RNA from 61 SSc patients (19 without PAH and 42 with PAH) and 41 corresponding controls. RESULTS: The ATP8B4 gene was associated with a significant increase in the risk of SSc (P = 2.77 × 10(-7)). Among the 64 ATP8B4 variants tested, a single missense variant, c.1308C>G (F436L, rs55687265), provided the most compelling evidence of association (P = 9.35 × 10(-10), odds ratio [OR] 6.11), which was confirmed in the replication cohort (P = 0.012, OR 1.86) and meta-analysis (P = 1.92 × 10(-7), OR 2.5). Genes involved in E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex (ASB10) and cyclic nucleotide gated channelopathies (CNGB3) as well as HLA-DRB5 and HSPB2 (heat-shock protein 27) provided additional evidence of association (P < 10(-5)). Differential ATP8B4 expression was observed among the SSc patients compared to the controls (P = 0.0005). CONCLUSION: ATP8B4 may represent a putative genetic risk factor for SSc and pulmonary vascular complications.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Hipertensão Pulmonar/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Análise de Sequência de DNA
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(3): 397-411, 2015 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25704602

RESUMO

Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for nonsyndromic orofacial clefts have identified multiple strongly associated regions, the causal variants are unknown. To address this, we selected 13 regions from GWASs and other studies, performed targeted sequencing in 1,409 Asian and European trios, and carried out a series of statistical and functional analyses. Within a cluster of strongly associated common variants near NOG, we found that one, rs227727, disrupts enhancer activity. We furthermore identified significant clusters of non-coding rare variants near NTN1 and NOG and found several rare coding variants likely to affect protein function, including four nonsense variants in ARHGAP29. We confirmed 48 de novo mutations and, based on best biological evidence available, chose two of these for functional assays. One mutation in PAX7 disrupted the DNA binding of the encoded transcription factor in an in vitro assay. The second, a non-coding mutation, disrupted the activity of a neural crest enhancer downstream of FGFR2 both in vitro and in vivo. This targeted sequencing study provides strong functional evidence implicating several specific variants as primary contributory risk alleles for nonsyndromic clefting in humans.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 2 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética
19.
Biom J ; 56(6): 1076-92, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25123830

RESUMO

Case-parent trio studies considering genotype data from children affected by a disease and their parents are frequently used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with disease. The most popular statistical tests for this study design are transmission/disequilibrium tests (TDTs). Several types of these tests have been developed, for example, procedures based on alleles or genotypes. Therefore, it is of great interest to examine which of these tests have the highest statistical power to detect SNPs associated with disease. Comparisons of the allelic and the genotypic TDT for individual SNPs have so far been conducted based on simulation studies, since the test statistic of the genotypic TDT was determined numerically. Recently, however, it has been shown that this test statistic can be presented in closed form. In this article, we employ this analytic solution to derive equations for calculating the statistical power and the required sample size for different types of the genotypic TDT. The power of this test is then compared with the one of the corresponding score test assuming the same mode of inheritance as well as the allelic TDT based on a multiplicative mode of inheritance, which is equivalent to the score test assuming an additive mode of inheritance. This is, thus, the first time the power of these tests are compared based on equations, yielding instant results and omitting the need for time-consuming simulation studies. This comparison reveals that these tests have almost the same power, with the score test being slightly more powerful.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Genótipo , Pais , Tamanho da Amostra , Criança , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Regressão
20.
Genet Epidemiol ; 38(6): 516-22, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25048299

RESUMO

Case-parent trio studies are commonly employed in genetics to detect variants underlying common complex disease risk. Both commercial and freely available software suites for genetic data analysis usually contain methods for case-parent trio designs. A user might, however, experience limitations with these packages, which can include missing functionality to extend the software if a desired analysis has not been implemented, and the inability to programmatically capture all the software versions used for low-level processing and high-level inference of genomic data, a critical consideration in particular for high-throughput experiments. Here, we present a software vignette (i.e., a manual with step by step instructions and examples to demonstrate software functionality) for reproducible genome-wide analyses of case-parent trio data using the open source Bioconductor package trio. The workflow for the practitioner uses data from previous genetic trio studies to illustrate functions for marginal association tests, assessment of parent-of-origin effects, power and sample size calculations, and functions to detect gene-gene and gene-environment interactions associated with disease.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Software , Criança , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Pais , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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