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1.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(9): 4224-4235, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387990

RESUMO

With the rapidly evolving SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, there is an urgent need for the discovery of further treatments for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Drug repurposing is one of the most rapid strategies for addressing this need, and numerous compounds have already been selected for in vitro testing by several groups. These have led to a growing database of molecules with in vitro activity against the virus. Machine learning models can assist drug discovery through prediction of the best compounds based on previously published data. Herein, we have implemented several machine learning methods to develop predictive models from recent SARS-CoV-2 in vitro inhibition data and used them to prioritize additional FDA-approved compounds for in vitro testing selected from our in-house compound library. From the compounds predicted with a Bayesian machine learning model, lumefantrine, an antimalarial was selected for testing and showed limited antiviral activity in cell-based assays while demonstrating binding (Kd 259 nM) to the spike protein using microscale thermophoresis. Several other compounds which we prioritized have since been tested by others and were also found to be active in vitro. This combined machine learning and in vitro testing approach can be expanded to virtually screen available molecules with predicted activity against SARS-CoV-2 reference WIV04 strain and circulating variants of concern. In the process of this work, we have created multiple iterations of machine learning models that can be used as a prioritization tool for SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drug discovery programs. The very latest model for SARS-CoV-2 with over 500 compounds is now freely available at www.assaycentral.org.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
2.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(4): 759-776, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689276

RESUMO

Antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action and wide therapeutic potential are needed to pave the way for malaria eradication. Violacein is a natural compound known for its biological activity against cancer cells and several pathogens, including the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Herein, using chemical genomic profiling (CGP), we found that violacein affects protein homeostasis. Mechanistically, violacein binds Pf chaperones, PfHsp90 and PfHsp70-1, compromising the latter's ATPase and chaperone activities. Additionally, violacein-treated parasites exhibited increased protein unfolding and proteasomal degradation. The uncoupling of the parasite stress response reflects the multistage growth inhibitory effect promoted by violacein. Despite evidence of proteotoxic stress, violacein did not inhibit global protein synthesis via UPR activation-a process that is highly dependent on chaperones, in agreement with the notion of a violacein-induced proteostasis collapse. Our data highlight the importance of a functioning chaperone-proteasome system for parasite development and differentiation. Thus, a violacein-like small molecule might provide a good scaffold for development of a novel probe for examining the molecular chaperone network and/or antiplasmodial drug design.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Chaperonas Moleculares , Plasmodium falciparum
3.
ACS Omega ; 6(11): 7454-7468, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33778258

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly identified virus that has resulted in over 2.5 million deaths globally and over 116 million cases globally in March, 2021. Small-molecule inhibitors that reverse disease severity have proven difficult to discover. One of the key approaches that has been widely applied in an effort to speed up the translation of drugs is drug repurposing. A few drugs have shown in vitro activity against Ebola viruses and demonstrated activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vivo. Most notably, the RNA polymerase targeting remdesivir demonstrated activity in vitro and efficacy in the early stage of the disease in humans. Testing other small-molecule drugs that are active against Ebola viruses (EBOVs) would appear a reasonable strategy to evaluate their potential for SARS-CoV-2. We have previously repurposed pyronaridine, tilorone, and quinacrine (from malaria, influenza, and antiprotozoal uses, respectively) as inhibitors of Ebola and Marburg viruses in vitro in HeLa cells and mouse-adapted EBOV in mice in vivo. We have now tested these three drugs in various cell lines (VeroE6, Vero76, Caco-2, Calu-3, A549-ACE2, HUH-7, and monocytes) infected with SARS-CoV-2 as well as other viruses (including MHV and HCoV 229E). The compilation of these results indicated considerable variability in antiviral activity observed across cell lines. We found that tilorone and pyronaridine inhibited the virus replication in A549-ACE2 cells with IC50 values of 180 nM and IC50 198 nM, respectively. We used microscale thermophoresis to test the binding of these molecules to the spike protein, and tilorone and pyronaridine bind to the spike receptor binding domain protein with K d values of 339 and 647 nM, respectively. Human Cmax for pyronaridine and quinacrine is greater than the IC50 observed in A549-ACE2 cells. We also provide novel insights into the mechanism of these compounds which is likely lysosomotropic.

4.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33299990

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly identified virus that has resulted in over 1.3 M deaths globally and over 59 M cases globally to date. Small molecule inhibitors that reverse disease severity have proven difficult to discover. One of the key approaches that has been widely applied in an effort to speed up the translation of drugs is drug repurposing. A few drugs have shown in vitro activity against Ebola virus and demonstrated activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vivo . Most notably the RNA polymerase targeting remdesivir demonstrated activity in vitro and efficacy in the early stage of the disease in humans. Testing other small molecule drugs that are active against Ebola virus would seem a reasonable strategy to evaluate their potential for SARS-CoV-2. We have previously repurposed pyronaridine, tilorone and quinacrine (from malaria, influenza, and antiprotozoal uses, respectively) as inhibitors of Ebola and Marburg virus in vitro in HeLa cells and of mouse adapted Ebola virus in mouse in vivo . We have now tested these three drugs in various cell lines (VeroE6, Vero76, Caco-2, Calu-3, A549-ACE2, HUH-7 and monocytes) infected with SARS-CoV-2 as well as other viruses (including MHV and HCoV 229E). The compilation of these results indicated considerable variability in antiviral activity observed across cell lines. We found that tilorone and pyronaridine inhibited the virus replication in A549-ACE2 cells with IC 50 values of 180 nM and IC 50 198 nM, respectively. We have also tested them in a pseudovirus assay and used microscale thermophoresis to test the binding of these molecules to the spike protein. They bind to spike RBD protein with K d values of 339 nM and 647 nM, respectively. Human C max for pyronaridine and quinacrine is greater than the IC 50 hence justifying in vivo evaluation. We also provide novel insights into their mechanism which is likely lysosomotropic.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601162

RESUMO

Widespread resistance against antimalarial drugs thwarts current efforts for controlling the disease and urges the discovery of new effective treatments. Drug repositioning is increasingly becoming an attractive strategy since it can reduce costs, risks, and time-to-market. Herein, we have used this strategy to identify novel antimalarial hits. We used a comparative in silico chemogenomics approach to select Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax proteins as potential drug targets and analyzed them using a computer-assisted drug repositioning pipeline to identify approved drugs with potential antimalarial activity. Among the seven drugs identified as promising antimalarial candidates, the anthracycline epirubicin was selected for further experimental validation. Epirubicin was shown to be potent in vitro against sensitive and multidrug-resistant P. falciparum strains and P. vivax field isolates in the nanomolar range, as well as being effective against an in vivo murine model of Plasmodium yoelii Transmission-blocking activity was observed for epirubicin in vitro and in vivo Finally, using yeast-based haploinsufficiency chemical genomic profiling, we aimed to get insights into the mechanism of action of epirubicin. Beyond the target predicted in silico (a DNA gyrase in the apicoplast), functional assays suggested a GlcNac-1-P-transferase (GPT) enzyme as a potential target. Docking calculations predicted the binding mode of epirubicin with DNA gyrase and GPT proteins. Epirubicin is originally an antitumoral agent and presents associated toxicity. However, its antiplasmodial activity against not only P. falciparum but also P. vivax in different stages of the parasite life cycle supports the use of this drug as a scaffold for hit-to-lead optimization in malaria drug discovery.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Vivax , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Epirubicina/uso terapêutico , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium vivax/genética
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