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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(2): 1145-1154, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400865

RESUMO

Very-short- (vSCCPs, C6-9), short- (SCCPs, C10-13), medium- (MCCPs, C14-17), and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCPs, C>17) were analyzed in indoor air and dust collected from the living rooms and personal 24 h air of 61 adults from a Norwegian cohort. Relatively volatile CPs, i.e., vSCCPs and SCCPs, showed a greater tendency to partition from settled indoor dust to paired stationary indoor air from the same living rooms than MCCPs and LCCPs, with median logarithmic dust-air partition ratios of 1.3, 2.9, 4.1, and 5.4, respectively. Using the stationary indoor air and settled indoor dust concentrations, the combined median daily exposures to vSCCPs, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were estimated to be 0.074, 2.7, 0.93, and 0.095 ng/kg bw/d, respectively. Inhalation was the predominant exposure pathway for vSCCPs (median 99%) and SCCPs (59%), while dust ingestion was the predominant exposure pathway for MCCPs (75%) and LCCPs (95%). The estimated inhalation exposure to total CPs was ∼ 5 times higher when the personal 24 h air results were used rather than the corresponding stationary indoor air results in 13 paired samples, indicating that exposure situations other than living rooms contributed significantly to the overall personal exposure. The 95th percentile exposure for CPs did not exceed the reference dose.

2.
Environ Sci Technol Lett ; 7(3): 198-205, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953926

RESUMO

Up to 18000 ng of total chlorinated paraffins (CPs) was found in hand wipes of individual adult participants in a Norwegian cohort study (n = 60), with a geometric mean (SD) value of 870 (2700) ng. The CPs covered a wide range of alkane chain lengths from C7 to C48 with variable chlorine substitution. Complex mixtures of very-short-chain (vSCCPs, C<10), short-chain (SCCPs, C10-13), medium-chain (MCCPs, C14-17), and long-chain (LCCPs, C>17) CPs were found, contributing on average 0.3%, 20%, 58%, and 22%, respectively, of the total CPs. Significant positive correlations were found between CP levels and factors related to the indoor environment and product use, including living in a house/apartment built before the ban of SCCPs, having a sofa, the number of TVs in the home, and owning a car, which mirrors CP usage as flame retardants and/or plasticizers in consumer products. Compared to previous studies of other organic contaminants in hand wipe samples from the same cohort, CPs were the most abundant flame retardants. This is the first report of CPs in hand wipes, and dermal exposure based on these data suggested that hand contact could be an important human exposure pathway for LCCPs.

3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 156: 111269, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510409

RESUMO

Brunei Bay is one of the most important marine environments of East Malaysia (South China Sea), covering many productive ecosystems with activities including fisheries, tourism, and main shipping lanes for petroleum transfers. Evaluation of the sources and distributions of steroids in the surface sedimentary organic matter was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of the total identified sterols (TIS) ranged between 0.81 and 12.69 µg g-1 dry weight, and the total sterones were between 0.11 and 5.66 µg g-1 dry weight. The coprostanol level was comparatively low (<0.10 µg g-1), and the multi-biomarker proxies indicated that the region did not exhibit significant contamination from sewage effluents. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the coastal environment of the study area was dominated by allochthonous (mainly terrestrial) organic matter input.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Baías , Brunei , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Malásia
4.
Environ Res ; 178: 108731, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539819

RESUMO

Sixty-one serum samples from a Norwegian cohort were analyzed for 43 emerging and legacy halogenated flame retardants (HFRs). BDE-47, -153, -197 and -209 were detected in >56% of the samples with median concentrations of 0.23, 1.0, 0.64 and 1.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. BDE-49, -85, -99, -100, -154, -206, -207, -208 as well as HBB, syn- and anti-DDC-CO, OBTMPI, DBDPE, α-HBCDD and TBBPA were also detected in some serum samples (detection frequencies of 2-36%). Other tri-octaBDEs, TBP-AE, α- and ß-DBE-DBCH, BATE, pTBX, αß-TBCO, PBBz, TBCT, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, EH-TBB, BTBPE, BEH-TEBP, HCDBCO, ß- and γ-HBCDD were below the limits of detection (mLOD). Concentrations of individual BDE congeners detected in this study were within the range from previous European studies. Positive correlations were seen between concentrations of BDE-47 in dust and BDE-153 in serum, between BDE-153 in dust and BDE-153 in serum, and between BDE-153 masses in handwipes and BDE-47 concentrations in serum (Spearman's rank, 0.29 < r < 0.43). Associations between the number of phones/mobiles, numbers of electronic equipment per person in the home and the consumption of specific food categories (such as soups/spices/sauces and alcoholic beverages) with BDE-47 and -153 serum levels were confirmed by multivariate linear regression analyses. The measured median serum level of BDE-47 was slightly over-predicted by a factor of 5.5 whereas other BDE congeners were under-predicted by factors of 13-6000 when compared to serum concentrations predicted from external exposure media (inhalation, dermal uptake, dietary intake from duplicate diet and dust ingestion) using a simple one compartment pharmacokinetic (PK) model. BDE-153 was not detected and BDE-197 not analyzed in food so no dietary intake assessments for these could be made, which may partially explain the discrepancies between their measured and predicted serum concentrations. Overall, our results suggest that exposure via diet is the most important exposure pathway for BDE-47 and -209, with diet being responsible for more than 96% of the total daily intake of these two BDEs in the Norwegian cohort.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Noruega
5.
Environ Int ; 115: 285-294, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621716

RESUMO

There are few studies estimating dermal exposure to halogenated flame retardants in adults. To fill this gap, sixty-one hand wipe samples were collected from a Norwegian adult cohort using gauze pads immersed in isopropanol. BDE-47, BDE-209, bis(2­ethyl­hexyl)­3,4,5,6­tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the most frequently detected chemicals. The highest median mass in hand wipes was that of sumEHFR (570 ng), followed by sumHBCDD (180 ng) and sumPBDE (2.9 ng). The high EHFR level was mainly driven by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) which accounted for 77% of the total mass. Positive and significant correlations were observed between FR levels in hand wipes and settled dust (0.26 < r < 0.56, p < 0.05), as well as between FR levels in hand wipes and the number of electronic consumer products at home (0.27 < r < 0.40, p < 0.05). Significant bivariate associations with number of laptops/tablets and phones/mobiles were further confirmed by multivariate linear regression analyses. Dermal exposure was estimated using the levels measured in handwipes. The estimated median dermal exposure was 2600, 840 and 6.2 pg/kg bw/d for sumEHFR, sumHBCDD and sumPBDE, respectively. Further, we compared these results with the dermal exposure as estimated indirectly by utilizing previously reported FR levels in settled dust collected from the residences of the same studied cohort. With the indirect approach, higher dermal exposures to sumPBDE but lower exposures to sumEHFR and sumHBCDD were observed compared to the direct dermal exposure estimated via hand wipes. Comparable exposure estimates between hand wipes and the indirect method were obtained for α­, ß­tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (DBE-DBCH), DBDPE, BDE-28, -35, -49, -99, -153, 154, and -183. For other individual HFRs, the exposure estimates obtained from the two approaches were significantly different (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05). Both methods gave similar dermal exposure estimates for many individual FRs. However, it is important to be aware of the value and limitations of each method when using them to estimate human exposure.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(14): 8176-8184, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28661659

RESUMO

In this study, we estimated human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), and several emerging flame retardants (EFRs) via inhalation and dust ingestion. Sixty indoor stationary air samples, 13 personal air samples, and 60 settled dust samples were collected from a Norwegian cohort during winter 2013. PBDEs showed the highest median concentration in dust (1200 ng/g), followed by EFRs (730 ng/g) and HBCDDs (190 ng/g). The PBDE concentrations in dust were mainly driven by BDE-209 and those of EFRs by bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate. EFRs predominated in stationary air samples, with 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate and 4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-1,2-dibromocyclohexane having the highest median concentrations (150 and 25 pg/m3 (sum of α- and ß-isomers), respectively). Different profiles and concentrations were observed in personal air samples compared to the corresponding stationary air samples. In relation to inhalation exposure, dust ingestion appears to be the major exposure pathway to FRs (median total exposure 230 pg/kg bw/d, accounting for more than 65% of the total exposure) for the Norwegian cohort. The calculated exposure due to air inhalation was substantially lower when the stationary air concentrations were used rather than personal air concentrations (43 pg/kg bw/d versus 130 pg/kg bw/d). This suggests that other exposure situations (such as outdoors or in offices) contributed significantly to the overall personal exposure, which cannot be included by using only a stationary air sampling technique. The median and 95th percentile exposures for all target FRs did not exceed the reference dose.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Exposição por Inalação , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Estudos de Coortes , Poeira , Humanos , Noruega
7.
Environ Int ; 102: 236-243, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28335995

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging halogenated flame retardants (EHFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were detected in 24h duplicate diet samples from a Norwegian cohort (n=61), with concentrations ranging from

Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega
8.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 92(3): 329-33, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24435136

RESUMO

A short-term investigation on the chemical composition of rainwater was carried out at five selected sampling stations in Kuantan district, Pahang, Malaysia. Sampling of rainwater was conducted by event basis between September and November 2011. Rainwater samples were collected using polyethylene containers and the parameters measured were cations (sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium and magnesium) and anions (chlorides, nitrates and sulphates). The average pH value for rainwater samples was 6.0 ± 0.57 in which most of the sampling sites exhibited pH values >5.6. Calcium and sulphate were the most abundant cation and anion, respectively, whilst the concentrations of other major ions varied according to sampling location.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chuva/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íons/análise , Malásia
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