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PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008992, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465086


BACKGROUND: Dengue Fever (DF) is a viral disease primarily transmitted by Aedes (Ae.) aegypti mosquitoes. Outbreaks in Eastern Ethiopia were reported during 2014-2016. In May 2017, we investigated the first suspected DF outbreak from Kabridahar Town, Somali region (Eastern Ethiopia) to describe its magnitude, assess risk factors, and implement control measures. METHODS: Suspected DF cases were defined as acute febrile illness plus ≥2 symptoms (headache, fever, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, or hemorrhage) in Kabridahar District residents. All reported cases were identified through medical record review and active searches. Severe dengue was defined as DF with severe organ impairment, severe hemorrhage, or severe plasma leakage. We conducted a neighborhood-matched case-control study using a subset of suspected cases and conveniently-selected asymptomatic community controls and interviewed participants to collect demographic and risk factor data. We tested sera by RT-PCR to detect dengue virus (DENV) and identify serotypes. Entomologists conducted mosquito surveys at community households to identify species and estimate larval density using the house index (HI), container index (CI) and Breteau index (BI), with BI≥20 indicating high density. RESULTS: We identified 101 total cases from May 12-31, 2017, including five with severe dengue (one death). The attack rate (AR) was 17/10,000. Of 21 tested samples, 15 (72%) were DENV serotype 2 (DENV 2). In the case-control study with 50 cases and 100 controls, a lack of formal education (AOR [Adjusted Odds Ratio] = 4.2, 95% CI [Confidence Interval] 1.6-11.2) and open water containers near the home (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.5) were risk factors, while long-lasting insecticide treated-net (LLITN) usage (AOR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.79) was protective. HI and BI were 66/136 (49%) and 147 per 100 homes (147%) respectively, with 151/167 (90%) adult mosquitoes identified as Ae. aegypti. CONCLUSION: The epidemiologic, entomologic, and laboratory investigation confirmed a DF outbreak. Mosquito indices were far above safe thresholds, indicating inadequate vector control. We recommended improved vector surveillance and control programs, including best practices in preserving water and disposal of open containers to reduce Aedes mosquito density.

BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 148, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070275


BACKGROUND: The influenza virus spreads rapidly around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza-related incidence data are limited in many countries in Africa despite established sentinel surveillance. This study aimed to address the information gap by estimating the burden and seasonality of medically attended influenza like illness in Ethiopia. METHOD: Influenza sentinel surveillance data collected from 3 influenza like illness (ILI) and 5 Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (SARI) sites from 2012 to 2017 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics were applied for simple analysis. The proportion of medically attended influenza positive cases and incidence rate of ILI was determined using total admitted patients and catchment area population. Seasonality was estimated based on weekly trend of ILI and predicted threshold was done by applying the "Moving Epidemic Method (MEM)". RESULT: A total of 5715 medically attended influenza suspected patients who fulfills ILI and SARI case definition (77% ILI and 23% SARI) was enrolled. Laboratory confirmed influenza virus (influenza positive case) among ILI and SARI suspected case was 25% (1130/4426) and 3% (36/1289). Of which, 65% were influenza type A. The predominantly circulating influenza subtype were seasonal influenza A(H3N2) (n = 455, 60%) and Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (n = 293, 38.81%). The estimated mean annual influenza positive case proportion and ILI incidence rate was 160.04 and 52.48 per 100,000 population. The Incidence rate of ILI was higher in the age group of 15-44 years of age ['Incidence rate (R) = 254.6 per 100,000 population', 95% CI; 173.65, 335.55] and 5-14 years of age [R = 49.5, CI 95%; 31.47, 130.43]. The seasonality of influenza has two peak seasons; in a period from October-December and from April-June. CONCLUSION: Significant morbidity of influenza like illness was observed with two peak seasons of the year and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) remains the predominantly circulating influenza subtype. Further study need to be considered to identify potential risks and improving the surveillance system to continue early detection and monitoring of circulating influenza virus in the country has paramount importance.

Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Laboratórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(1): 173-176, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855544


We examined nasal swabs and serum samples acquired from dromedary camels in Nigeria and Ethiopia during 2015-2017 for evidence of influenza virus infection. We detected antibodies against influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) viruses and isolated an influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-like virus from a camel in Nigeria. Influenza surveillance in dromedary camels is needed.

BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 449, 2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176806


BACKGROUND: Influenza is an acute viral disease of the respiratory tract which is characterized by fever, headache, myalgia, prostration, coryza, sore throat and cough. Globally, an estimated 3 to 5 million cases of severe influenza illness and 291 243-645 832 seasonal influenza-associated respiratory deaths occur annually. Although recent efforts from some African countries to describe burden of influenza disease and seasonality, these data are missing for the vast majority, including Ethiopia. Ethiopia established influenza sentinel surveillance in 2008 aiming to determine influenza strains circulating in the country and know characteristics, trend and burden of influenza viruses. METHODS: We used influenza data from sentinel surveillance sites and respiratory disease outbreak investigations from 2009 to 2015 for this analysis. We obtained the data by monitoring patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) at three health-centers, severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) at five hospitals and investigating patients during different respiratory infection outbreaks. Throat-swab specimens in viral transport media were transported to the national reference laboratory within 72 h of collection using a cold-chain system. We extracted viral RNA from throat-swabs and subjected to real-time PCR amplification. We further subtyped and characterized Influenza A-positive specimens using CDC real-time reverse transcription PCR protocol. RESULTS: A total of 4962 throat-swab samples were collected and 4799 (96.7%) of them were tested. Among them 988 (20.6%) were influenza-positive and of which 349 (35.3%) were seasonal influenza A(H3N2), 321 (32.5%) influenza A(H1N1)pdm2009 and 318 (32.0%) influenza B. Positivity rate was 29.5% in persons 5-14 years followed by 26.4% in 15-44 years, 21.2% in > 44 years and 6.4% in under five children. The highest positivity rate observed in November (37.5%) followed by March (27.6%), December (26.4%), October (24.4%) and January (24.3%) while the lowest positivity rate was in August (7.7%). CONCLUSION: In Ethiopia, seasonal Influenza A(H3N2), Influenza A(H1N1)pdm2009 and Influenza B viruses were circulating during 2009-2015. Positivity rate and number of cases peaked in November and December. Influenza is one of public health problems in Ethiopia and the need to introduce influenza vaccine and antivirus is important to prevent and treat the disease in future.

Surtos de Doenças , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza B/genética , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1011, 2018 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107830


BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF) is a viral hemorrhagic fever, endemic in the tropical forests of Africa and Central and South America. The disease is transmitted by mosquitoes infected with the yellow fever virus (YFV). Ethiopia was affected by the largest YF outbreak since the vaccination era during 1960-1962. The recent YF outbreak occurred in 2013 in Southern part of the country. The current survey of was carried out to determine the YF seroprevalence so as to make recommendations from YF prevention and control in Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A multistage cluster design was utilized. Consequently, the country was divided into 5 ecological zones and two sampling towns were picked per zone randomly. A total of 1643 serum samples were collected from human participants. The serum samples were tested for IgG antibody against YFV using ELISA. Any serum sample testing positive by ELISA was confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). In addition, differential testing was performed for other flaviviruses, namely dengue, Zika and West Nile viruses. RESULT: Of the total samples tested, 10 (0.61%) were confirmed to be IgG positive against YFV and confirmed with PRNT. Nine (0.5%) samples were antibody positive for dengue virus, 15(0.9%) forWest Nile virus and 7 (0.4%) for Zika virus by PRNT. Three out of the five ecological zones namely zones 1, 3 and 5 showed low levels (< 2%) of IgG positivity against YFV. A total of 41(2.5%) cases were confirmed to be positive for one of flaviviruses tested. CONCLUSION: Based on the seroprevalence data, the level of YFV activity and the risk of a YF epidemic in Ethiopia are low. However additional factors that could impact the likelihood of such an epidemic occurring should be considered before making final recommendations for YF prevention and control in Ethiopia. Based on the results of the serosurvey and other YF epidemic risk factors considered, a preventive mass vaccination campaign is not recommended, however the introduction of YF vaccine in routine EPI is proposed nationwide, along with strong laboratory based YF surveillance.

Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , Saúde Pública , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Adulto Jovem