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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

2.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300791

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The natural history of adrenal function in autoimmune Addison disease once diagnosed and treated has not been systematically studied, but several case reports of recovery from established adrenal failure suggest it may not be uniform. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain steroidogenic function in autoimmune Addison disease immediately following diagnosis and during prolonged treatment. DESIGN: We studied peak serum cortisol in response to ACTH1-24 in 20 newly diagnosed autoimmune Addison disease patients at first presentation and then again within a month. We also studied 37 patients with established Addison disease (for between 7 months and 44 years) in a medication-free state, measuring peak serum cortisol responses to ACTH1-24 and the urine LC-MS steroid metabolome. RESULTS: Adrenal steroidogenesis declined rapidly after steroid replacement treatment for newly diagnosed Addison disease was started, with a peak serum cortisol falling from 138 ±â€…19 nmol/L (SEM) at presentation to 63 ±â€…13 nmol/L over 4 weeks (P < 0.003).Six of 37 participants (16%) with established Addison disease had detectable serum cortisol and urine glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid metabolites during repeat testing, indicating variable degrees of residual adrenal function. CONCLUSION: Autoimmune Addison disease is a heterogeneous condition, showing a rapid decline in adrenal steroidogenesis during the first few weeks following diagnosis, but low-level residual function in a minority of patients, which appears to persist for many years.

3.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170323

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with adrenal insufficiency require increased hydrocortisone cover during major stress to avoid a life-threatening adrenal crisis. However, current treatment recommendations are not evidence-based. OBJECTIVE: To identify the most appropriate mode of hydrocortisone delivery in patients with adrenal insufficiency who are exposed to major stress. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional study: 122 unstressed healthy subjects and 288 subjects exposed to different stressors (major trauma [N = 83], sepsis [N = 100], and combat stress [N = 105]). Longitudinal study: 22 patients with preserved adrenal function undergoing elective surgery. Pharmacokinetic study: 10 patients with primary adrenal insufficiency undergoing administration of 200 mg hydrocortisone over 24 hours in 4 different delivery modes (continuous intravenous infusion; 6-hourly oral, intramuscular or intravenous bolus administration). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We measured total serum cortisol and cortisone, free serum cortisol, and urinary glucocorticoid metabolite excretion by mass spectrometry. Linear pharmacokinetic modeling was used to determine the most appropriate mode and dose of hydrocortisone administration in patients with adrenal insufficiency exposed to major stress. RESULTS: Serum cortisol was increased in all stress conditions, with the highest values observed in surgery and sepsis. Continuous intravenous hydrocortisone was the only administration mode persistently achieving median cortisol concentrations in the range observed during major stress. Linear pharmacokinetic modeling identified continuous intravenous infusion of 200 mg hydrocortisone over 24 hours, preceded by an initial bolus of 50-100 mg hydrocortisone, as best suited for maintaining cortisol concentrations in the required range. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous intravenous hydrocortisone infusion should be favored over intermittent bolus administration in the prevention and treatment of adrenal crisis during major stress.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101296

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Survival rates after severe injury are improving, but complication rates and outcomes are variable. OBJECTIVE: This cohort study addressed the lack of longitudinal data on the steroid response to major trauma and during recovery. DESIGN: We undertook a prospective, observational cohort study from time of injury to 6 months postinjury at a major UK trauma centre and a military rehabilitation unit, studying patients within 24 hours of major trauma (estimated New Injury Severity Score (NISS) > 15). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured adrenal and gonadal steroids in serum and 24-hour urine by mass spectrometry, assessed muscle loss by ultrasound and nitrogen excretion, and recorded clinical outcomes (ventilator days, length of hospital stay, opioid use, incidence of organ dysfunction, and sepsis); results were analyzed by generalized mixed-effect linear models. FINDINGS: We screened 996 multiple injured adults, approached 106, and recruited 95 eligible patients; 87 survived. We analyzed all male survivors <50 years not treated with steroids (N = 60; median age 27 [interquartile range 24-31] years; median NISS 34 [29-44]). Urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle loss peaked after 1 and 6 weeks, respectively. Serum testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate decreased immediately after trauma and took 2, 4, and more than 6 months, respectively, to recover; opioid treatment delayed dehydroepiandrosterone recovery in a dose-dependent fashion. Androgens and precursors correlated with SOFA score and probability of sepsis. CONCLUSION: The catabolic response to severe injury was accompanied by acute and sustained androgen suppression. Whether androgen supplementation improves health outcomes after major trauma requires further investigation.

5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(44): 22294-22299, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611378

RESUMO

Androgen biosynthesis in the human fetus proceeds through the adrenal sex steroid precursor dehydroepiandrosterone, which is converted to testosterone in the gonads, followed by further activation to 5α-dihydrotestosterone in genital skin, thereby facilitating male external genital differentiation. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase deficiency results in disrupted dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, explaining undervirilization in affected boys. However, many affected girls are born virilized, despite low circulating androgens. We hypothesized that this is due to a prenatally active, alternative androgen biosynthesis pathway from 17α-hydroxyprogesterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone, which bypasses dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone, with increased activity in congenital adrenal hyperplasia variants associated with 17α-hydroxyprogesterone accumulation. Here we employ explant cultures of human fetal organs (adrenals, gonads, genital skin) from the major period of sexual differentiation and show that alternative pathway androgen biosynthesis is active in the fetus, as assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We found androgen receptor expression in male and female genital skin using immunohistochemistry and demonstrated that both 5α-dihydrotestosterone and adrenal explant culture supernatant induce nuclear translocation of the androgen receptor in female genital skin primary cultures. Analyzing urinary steroid excretion by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that neonates with P450 oxidoreductase deficiency produce androgens through the alternative androgen pathway during the first weeks of life. We provide quantitative in vitro evidence that the corresponding P450 oxidoreductase mutations predominantly support alternative pathway androgen biosynthesis. These results indicate a key role of alternative pathway androgen biosynthesis in the prenatal virilization of girls affected by congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.


Assuntos
17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/metabolismo , Androgênios/biossíntese , Fenótipo de Síndrome de Antley-Bixler/genética , Feto/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Virilismo/metabolismo , Glândulas Suprarrenais/embriologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Androgênios/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Feto/embriologia , Genitália/embriologia , Genitália/metabolismo , Gônadas/embriologia , Gônadas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Sexual , Virilismo/genética
7.
Endocr Rev ; 40(6): 1605-1625, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294783

RESUMO

Steroid biosynthesis and metabolism are reflected by the serum steroid metabolome and, in even more detail, by the 24-hour urine steroid metabolome, which can provide unique insights into alterations of steroid flow and output indicative of underlying conditions. Mass spectrometry-based steroid metabolome profiling has allowed for the identification of unique multisteroid signatures associated with disorders of steroid biosynthesis and metabolism that can be used for personalized approaches to diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and prognostic prediction. Additionally, steroid metabolome analysis has been used successfully as a discovery tool, for the identification of novel steroidogenic disorders and pathways as well as revealing insights into the pathophysiology of adrenal disease. Increased availability and technological advances in mass spectrometry-based methodologies have refocused attention on steroid metabolome profiling and facilitated the development of high-throughput steroid profiling methods soon to reach clinical practice. Furthermore, steroid metabolomics, the combination of mass spectrometry-based steroid analysis with machine learning-based approaches, has facilitated the development of powerful customized diagnostic approaches. In this review, we provide a comprehensive up-to-date overview of the utility of steroid metabolome analysis for the diagnosis and management of inborn disorders of steroidogenesis and autonomous adrenal steroid excess in the context of adrenal tumors.


Assuntos
Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo de Esteroides/metabolismo , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo de Esteroides/diagnóstico
8.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 194: 105439, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362062

RESUMO

Advances in technology have allowed for the sensitive, specific, and simultaneous quantitative profiling of steroid precursors, bioactive steroids and inactive metabolites, facilitating comprehensive characterization of the serum and urine steroid metabolomes. The quantification of steroid panels is therefore gaining favor over quantification of single marker metabolites in the clinical and research laboratories. However, although the biochemical pathways for the biosynthesis and metabolism of steroid hormones are now well defined, a gulf still exists between this knowledge and its application to the measured steroid profiles. In this review, we present an overview of steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism by the liver and peripheral tissues, specifically highlighting the pathways linking and differentiating the serum and urine steroid metabolomes. A brief overview of the methodology used in steroid profiling is also provided.


Assuntos
Esteroides/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Esteroides/sangue , Esteroides/urina
9.
Histochem Cell Biol ; 151(3): 201-216, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725173

RESUMO

Metabolic alterations have implications in a spectrum of tissue functions and disease. Aided by novel molecular biological and computational tools, our understanding of physiological and pathological processes underpinning endocrine and endocrine-related disease has significantly expanded over the last decade. Herein, we focus on novel metabolomics-related methodologies in adrenal research: in situ metabolomics by mass spectrometry imaging, steroid metabolomics by gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, energy pathway metabologenomics by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of Krebs cycle intermediates, and cellular reprogramming to generate functional steroidogenic cells and hence to modulate the steroid metabolome. All four techniques to assess and/or modulate the metabolome in biological systems provide tremendous opportunities to manage neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease of the adrenal glands in the era of precision medicine. In this context, we discuss emerging clinical applications and/or promising metabolic-driven research towards diagnostic, prognostic, predictive and therapeutic biomarkers in tumours arising from the adrenal gland and extra-adrenal paraganglia as well as modern approaches to delineate and reprogram adrenal metabolism.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Glândulas Suprarrenais/citologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas
10.
JCI Insight ; 4(6)2019 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753168

RESUMO

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of unknown etiology, characterized by elevated intracranial pressure frequently manifesting with chronic headaches and visual loss. Similar to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), IIH predominantly affects obese women of reproductive age. In this study, we comprehensively examined the systemic and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) androgen metabolome in women with IIH in comparison with sex-, BMI-, and age-matched control groups with either simple obesity or PCOS (i.e., obesity and androgen excess). Women with IIH showed a pattern of androgen excess distinct to that observed in PCOS and simple obesity, with increased serum testosterone and increased CSF testosterone and androstenedione. Human choroid plexus expressed the androgen receptor, alongside the androgen-activating enzyme aldoketoreductase type 1C3. We show that in a rat choroid plexus cell line, testosterone significantly enhanced the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase, a surrogate of CSF secretion. We demonstrate that IIH patients have a unique signature of androgen excess and provide evidence that androgens can modulate CSF secretion via the choroid plexus. These findings implicate androgen excess as a potential causal driver and therapeutic target in IIH.

11.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 91(1): 72-81, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE AND CONTEXT: Increasing adiposity, ageing and tissue-specific regeneration of cortisol through the activity of 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 have been associated with deterioration in glucose tolerance. We undertook a longitudinal, prospective clinical study to determine if alterations in local glucocorticoid metabolism track with changes in glucose tolerance. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND MEASUREMENTS: Sixty-five overweight/obese individuals (mean age 50.3 ± 7.3 years) underwent oral glucose tolerance testing, body composition assessment, subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and urinary steroid metabolite analysis annually for up to 5 years. Participants were categorized into those in whom glucose tolerance deteriorated ("deteriorators") or improved ("improvers"). RESULTS: Deteriorating glucose tolerance was associated with increasing total and trunk fat mass and increased subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of lipogenic genes. Subcutaneous adipose tissue 11ß-HSD1 gene expression decreased in deteriorators, and at study completion, it was highest in the improvers. There was a significant negative correlation between change in area under the curve glucose and 11ß-HSD1 expression. Global 11ß-HSD1 activity did not change and was not different between deteriorators and improvers at baseline or follow-up. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal deterioration in metabolic phenotype is not associated with increased 11ß-HSD1 activity, but decreased subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression. These changes may represent a compensatory mechanism to decrease local glucocorticoid exposure in the face of an adverse metabolic phenotype.

12.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 90(1): 241-249, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have dysregulated cortisol metabolism secondary to changes in 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD) enzymes. The determinants of this and its clinical implications are poorly defined. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to characterize shifts in cortisol metabolism in relation to renal function, inflammation and glycaemic control. Systemic activation of cortisol by 11ß-HSD was measured as the metabolite ratio (tetrahydrocortisol [THF]+5α-tetrahydrocortisol [5αTHF])/tetrahydrocortisone (THE) in urine. RESULTS: The cohort included 342 participants with a median age of 63 years, median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 28 mL/min/1.73 m2 and median urine albumin-creatinine ratio of 35.5 mg/mmol. (THF+5αTHF)/THE correlated negatively with eGFR (Spearman's ρ = -0.116, P = 0.032) and positively with C-reactive protein (ρ = 0.208, P < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, C-reactive protein remained a significant independent predictor of (THF+5αTHF)/THE, but eGFR did not. Elevated (THF+5αTHF)/THE was associated with HbA1c (ρ = 0.144, P = 0.008) and diabetes mellitus (odds ratio for high vs low tertile of (THF+5αTHF)/THE 2.57, 95% confidence interval 1.47-4.47). Associations with diabetes mellitus and with HbA1c among the diabetic subgroup were independent of eGFR, C-reactive protein, age, sex and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, glucocorticoid activation by 11ß-HSD in our cohort comprising a spectrum of renal function was associated with inflammation and impaired glucose control.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Inflamação/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/enzimologia , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia
13.
Data Brief ; 20: 426-435, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175209

RESUMO

The data presented is related to the research article "Analysis of multiple vitamin D metabolites by ultra performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPSFC-MS/MS)" (Jenkinson et al., 2018) [1]. This article will include data obtained from method development, optimization and analysis of multiple vitamin D metabolites on an ultra performance supercritical fluid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (UPSFC-MS/MS). This includes chromatograms from column screening to confirm the most suitable column for analyte separation. Additionally, further chromatograms and figures compare separation and analyte signal strength during the optimization of other UPSFC parameters. Mass spectra will demonstrate the optimization of MS conditions for the UPSFC-MS/MS method. Chromatogram data from UHPLC vitamin D analysis is also presented in order to compare the separation and elution of vitamin D metabolites using UPSFC and UHPLC. This data will highlight the outputs that aid in method development and identifying the separation technique suited for vitamin D quantitation.

14.
Endocrinology ; 159(8): 2836-2849, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850793

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated a potential new treatment target for ACC, focusing on the mitochondrial reduced form of NAD phosphate (NADPH) generator nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT). NNT has a central role within mitochondrial antioxidant pathways, protecting cells from oxidative stress. Inactivating human NNT mutations result in congenital adrenal insufficiency. We hypothesized that NNT silencing in ACC cells will induce toxic levels of oxidative stress. To explore this, we transiently knocked down NNT in NCI-H295R ACC cells. As predicted, this manipulation increased intracellular levels of oxidative stress; this resulted in a pronounced suppression of cell proliferation and higher apoptotic rates, as well as sensitization of cells to chemically induced oxidative stress. Steroidogenesis was paradoxically stimulated by NNT loss, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling. Next, we generated a stable NNT knockdown model in the same cell line to investigate the longer lasting effects of NNT silencing. After long-term culture, cells adapted metabolically to chronic NNT knockdown, restoring their redox balance and resilience to oxidative stress, although their proliferation remained suppressed. This was associated with higher rates of oxygen consumption. The molecular pathways underpinning these responses were explored in detail by RNA sequencing and nontargeted metabolome analysis, revealing major alterations in nucleotide synthesis, protein folding, and polyamine metabolism. This study provides preclinical evidence of the therapeutic merit of antioxidant targeting in ACC as well as illuminating the long-term adaptive response of cells to oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/genética , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/genética , NADP Trans-Hidrogenase Específica para A ou B/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Corticosteroides/biossíntese , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/terapia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/metabolismo , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/terapia , Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Metabolômica , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Oxirredução , Consumo de Oxigênio/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627638

RESUMO

Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assays are considered the reference standard for serum steroid hormone analyses, while full urinary steroid profiles are only achievable by gas chromatography (GC-MS). Both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS have well documented strengths and limitations. Recently, commercial ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS/MS) systems have been developed. These systems combine the resolution of GC with the high-throughput capabilities of UHPLC. Uptake of this new technology into research and clinical labs has been slow, possibly due to the perceived increase in complexity. Here we therefore present fundamental principles of UHPSFC-MS/MS and the likely applications for this technology in the clinical research setting, while commenting on potential hurdles based on our experience to date.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Esteroides , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Esteroides/sangue , Esteroides/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(12): 4435-4447, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28945888

RESUMO

Context: Estrogens affect the incidence and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), although the precise molecular mechanisms remain ill-defined. Objective: The present study investigated prereceptor estrogen metabolism through steroid sulphatase (STS) and 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity and subsequent nongenomic estrogen signaling in human CRC tissue, in The Cancer Genome Atlas colon adenocarcinoma data set, and in in vitro and in vivo CRC models. We aimed to define and therapeutically target pathways through which estrogens alter CRC proliferation and progression. Design, Setting, Patients, and Interventions: Human CRC samples with normal tissue-matched controls were collected from postmenopausal female and age-matched male patients. Estrogen metabolism enzymes and nongenomic downstream signaling pathways were determined. CRC cell lines were transfected with STS and cultured for in vitro and in vivo analysis. Estrogen metabolism was determined using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Primary Outcome Measure: The proliferative effects of estrogen metabolism were evaluated using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine assays and CRC mouse xenograft studies. Results: Human CRC exhibits dysregulated estrogen metabolism, favoring estradiol synthesis. The activity of STS, the fundamental enzyme that activates conjugated estrogens, is significantly (P < 0.001) elevated in human CRC compared with matched controls. STS overexpression accelerates CRC proliferation in in vitro and in vivo models, with STS inhibition an effective treatment. We defined a G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) proproliferative pathway potentially through increased expression of connective tissue growth factor in CRC. Conclusion: Human CRC favors estradiol synthesis to augment proliferation via GPER stimulation. Further research is required regarding whether estrogen replacement therapy should be used with caution in patients at high risk of developing CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Esteril-Sulfatase/farmacologia , Ativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimetabólitos/farmacologia , Bromodesoxiuridina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(9): 3327-3339, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28645211

RESUMO

Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent metabolic disorder occurring in up to 10% of women of reproductive age. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk. Androgen excess is a defining feature of PCOS and has been suggested as causally associated with insulin resistance; however, mechanistic evidence linking both is lacking. We hypothesized that adipose tissue is an important site linking androgen activation and metabolic dysfunction in PCOS. Methods: We performed a human deep metabolic in vivo phenotyping study examining the systemic and intra-adipose effects of acute and chronic androgen exposure in 10 PCOS women, in comparison with 10 body mass index-matched healthy controls, complemented by in vitro experiments. Results: PCOS women had increased intra-adipose concentrations of testosterone (P = 0.0006) and dihydrotestosterone (P = 0.01), with increased expression of the androgen-activating enzyme aldo-ketoreductase type 1 C3 (AKR1C3) (P = 0.04) in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Adipose glycerol levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue microdialysate supported in vivo suppression of lipolysis after acute androgen exposure in PCOS (P = 0.04). Mirroring this, nontargeted serum metabolomics revealed prolipogenic effects of androgens in PCOS women only. In vitro studies showed that insulin increased adipose AKR1C3 expression and activity, whereas androgen exposure increased adipocyte de novo lipid synthesis. Pharmacologic AKR1C3 inhibition in vitro decreased de novo lipogenesis. Conclusions: These findings define an intra-adipose mechanism of androgen activation that contributes to adipose remodeling and a systemic lipotoxic metabolome, with intra-adipose androgens driving lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in PCOS. AKR1C3 represents a promising therapeutic target in PCOS.


Assuntos
3-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Desidroepiandrosterona/farmacologia , Hidroxiprostaglandina Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Membro C3 da Família 1 de alfa-Ceto Redutase , Análise de Variância , Androgênios/metabolismo , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipólise , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Endocrinology ; 158(5): 1474-1485, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323936

RESUMO

The ovarian follicle is a major site of steroidogenesis, crucially required for normal ovarian function and female reproduction. Our understanding of androgen synthesis and metabolism in the developing follicle has been limited by the sensitivity and specificity issues of previously used assays. Here we used liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to map the stage-dependent endogenous steroid metabolome in an encapsulated in vitro follicle growth system, from murine secondary through antral follicles. Furthermore, follicles were cultured in the presence of androgen precursors, nonaromatizable active androgen, and androgen receptor (AR) antagonists to assess effects on steroidogenesis and follicle development. Cultured follicles showed a stage-dependent increase in endogenous androgen, estrogen, and progesterone production, and incubations with the sex steroid precursor dehydroepiandrosterone revealed the follicle as capable of active androgen synthesis at early developmental stages. Androgen exposure and antagonism demonstrated AR-mediated effects on follicle growth and antrum formation that followed a biphasic pattern, with low levels of androgens inducing more rapid follicle maturation and high doses inhibiting oocyte maturation and follicle growth. Crucially, our study provides evidence for an intrafollicular feedback circuit regulating steroidogenesis, with decreased follicle androgen synthesis after exogenous androgen exposure and increased androgen output after additional AR antagonist treatment. We propose that this feedback circuit helps maintain an equilibrium of androgen exposure in the developing follicle. The observed biphasic response of follicle growth and function in increasing androgen supplementations has implications for our understanding of polycystic ovary syndrome pathophysiology and the dose-dependent utility of androgens in in vitro fertilization settings.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Androgênios/farmacologia , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/biossíntese , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia
19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 176(4): 471-480, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28223394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mortality in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is significantly increased, with respiratory infections as a major cause of death. Moreover, patients with PAI report an increased rate of non-fatal infections. Neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that provide frontline protection against invading pathogens. Thus, we compared the function and phenotype of NK cells and neutrophils isolated from PAI patients and healthy controls to ascertain whether altered innate immune responses could be a contributory factor for the increased susceptibility of PAI patients to infection. DESIGN AND METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional study of 42 patients with PAI due to autoimmune adrenalitis (n = 37) or bilateral adrenalectomy (n = 5) and 58 sex- and age-matched controls. A comprehensive screen of innate immune function, consisting of measurements of neutrophil phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) and NK cell surface receptor expression, was performed on all subjects. RESULTS: Neutrophil function did not differ between PAI and controls. However, NKCC was significantly reduced in PAI (12.0 ± 1.5% vs 21.1 ± 2.6%, P < 0.0001). Phenotypically, the percentage of NK cells expressing the activating receptors NKG2D and NKp46 was significantly lower in PAI, as was the surface density of NKG2D (all P < 0.0001). Intracellular granzyme B expression was significantly increased in NK cells from PAI patients (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Adrenal insufficiency is associated with significantly decreased NKCC, thereby potentially compromising early recognition and elimination of virally infected cells. This potential impairment in anti-viral immune defense may contribute to the increased rate of respiratory infections and ultimately mortality in PAI.


Assuntos
Doença de Addison/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Doença de Addison/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fagocitose/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 102(3): 840-848, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27901631

RESUMO

Context: Androgen excess is a defining feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the exact origin of hyperandrogenemia remains a matter of debate. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the 11-oxygenated C19 steroid pathway to androgen metabolism in humans. In this study, we analyzed the contribution of 11-oxygenated androgens to androgen excess in women with PCOS. Methods: One hundred fourteen women with PCOS and 49 healthy control subjects underwent measurement of serum androgens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Twenty-four-hour urinary androgen excretion was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fasting plasma insulin and glucose were measured for homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Baseline demographic data, including body mass index, were recorded. Results: As expected, serum concentrations of the classic androgens testosterone (P < 0.001), androstenedione (P < 0.001), and dehydroepiandrosterone (P < 0.01) were significantly increased in PCOS. Mirroring this, serum 11-oxygenated androgens 11ß-hydroxyandrostenedione, 11-ketoandrostenedione, 11ß-hydroxytestosterone, and 11-ketotestosterone were significantly higher in PCOS than in control subjects, as was the urinary 11-oxygenated androgen metabolite 11ß-hydroxyandrosterone. The proportionate contribution of 11-oxygenated to total serum androgens was significantly higher in patients with PCOS compared with control subjects [53.0% (interquartile range, 48.7 to 60.3) vs 44.0% (interquartile range, 32.9 to 54.9); P < 0.0001]. Obese (n = 51) and nonobese (n = 63) patients with PCOS had significantly increased 11-oxygenated androgens. Serum 11ß-hydroxyandrostenedione and 11-ketoandrostenedione correlated significantly with markers of insulin resistance. Conclusions: We show that 11-oxygenated androgens represent the majority of circulating androgens in women with PCOS, with close correlation to markers of metabolic risk.


Assuntos
Androgênios/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Hiperandrogenismo/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Adulto , Androstenodiona/análogos & derivados , Androstenodiona/metabolismo , Androstenos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Hidroxitestosteronas/metabolismo , Hiperandrogenismo/complicações , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/complicações , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
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