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2.
J Urol ; 203(1): 185-192, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Sacral neuromodulation is a guideline recommended treatment of urinary dysfunction and fecal incontinence in patients in whom conservative treatments have failed. Historically sacral neuromodulation has been delivered using a nonrechargeable device with an average life span of 4.4 years. Surgery is required to replace the implanted neurostimulator due to battery depletion. Implantation of a long-lived implanted neurostimulator can eliminate the need for replacement surgeries, potentially reducing patient surgical risks and health care costs. The Axonics r-SNM System™ is a miniaturized, rechargeable sacral neuromodulation system designed to deliver therapy for at least 15 years. The ARTISAN-SNM (Axonics® Sacral Neuromodulation System for Urinary Urgency Incontinence Treatment) study is a pivotal study using rechargeable sacral neuromodulation therapy to treat urinary urgency incontinence. Six-month results are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 129 eligible patients with urinary urgency incontinence were treated. All participants were implanted with a tined lead and the rechargeable sacral neuromodulation system in a nonstaged procedure. Efficacy data were collected using a 3-day bladder diary, the validated ICIQ-OABqol (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder quality of life) questionnaire and a participant satisfaction questionnaire. Therapy responders were identified as participants with a 50% or greater reduction in urinary urgency incontinence episodes compared to baseline. We performed an as-treated analysis in all implanted participants. RESULTS: At 6 months 90% of participants were therapy responders. The mean ± SE number of urinary urgency incontinence episodes per day was reduced from 5.6 ± 0.3 at baseline to 1.3 ± 0.2. Participants experienced a clinically meaningful 34-point improvement on the ICIQ-OABqol questionnaire. There were no serious device related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: The Axonics r-SNM System is safe and effective with 90% of participants experiencing clinically and statistically significant improvements in urinary urgency incontinence symptoms.


Assuntos
Neuroestimuladores Implantáveis , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Sacro , Incontinência Urinária de Urgência/fisiopatologia
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 890-902, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726572

RESUMO

Natural and human disturbance along with climate change pose major challenges for resource management. This is relevant in natural forests, where conflict can occur between water provision and industrial logging. As a result, conversion of old forests to young, fast-growing stands through logging can dramatically reduce streamflow and water yield. We modelled changes in stream run-off and hence water yield from a forest catchment in response to clearcut logging and compared this with projected climate change (using a Representative Climate Futures [RCFs] approach). We focused on the Thomson Catchment, which is the largest single catchment for the city of Melbourne, south-eastern Australia. Within this catchment, we targeted our analysis at montane ash-type eucalypt forests, as these receive the most rainfall and are subject to clearcutting. We used several forest management scenarios to model changes in water yield over time. For our analysis of projected climate change, we employed a range of RCFs that represent 'consensus', 'wettest' and 'driest' scenarios to model the impacts of multiple Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Our initial spatial analysis revealed that 42% of the ash-type eucalypt forests in the Thomson Catchment have been logged. Under historical and continued logging, stream runoff decreases by 40,211 ML by 2090 compared with a hypothetical baseline if logging had ceased in 1995 and 34,059 ML if logging continues beyond 2019. These losses exceed the projected impacts of climate change under the consensus and wettest scenarios, but the driest scenarios are projected to exceed these losses, consisting of 49,998 ML and 69,474 ML for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively. We suggest logging be excluded from the Thomson Catchment because of decreasing stream flows due to climate change and an increasing water demand due to human population growth. This study provides a quantitative approach for highlighting how resource conflicts can be magnified under climate change.

6.
Oncogene ; 38(7): 1136-1150, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237440

RESUMO

Elucidation of mechanisms underlying the increased androgen receptor (AR) activity and subsequent development of aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa) is pivotal in developing new therapies. Using a systems biology approach, we interrogated the AR-regulated proteome and identified PDZ binding kinase (PBK) as a novel AR-regulated protein that regulates full-length AR and AR variants (ARVs) activity in PrCa. PBK overexpression in aggressive PrCa is associated with early biochemical relapse and poor clinical outcome. In addition to its carboxy terminus ligand-binding domain, PBK directly interacts with the amino terminus transactivation domain of the AR to stabilise it thereby leading to increased AR protein expression observed in PrCa. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that PBK is a mediator of global AR signalling with key roles in regulating tumour invasion and metastasis. PBK inhibition decreased growth of PrCa cell lines and clinical specimen cultured ex vivo. We uncovered a novel interplay between AR and PBK that results in increased AR and ARVs expression that executes AR-mediated growth and progression of PrCa, with implications for the development of PBK inhibitors for the treatment of aggressive PrCa.


Assuntos
Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptores Androgênicos/genética
7.
Int J STD AIDS ; 30(3): 256-263, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392463

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to gonorrhoea is a threat to global health security. There have been concerns expressed that countries with high rates of disease have poor surveillance. The objectives of the study were to determine the AMR patterns of Neisseria gonorrhoeae clinical isolates to antimicrobial agents in patients with HIV or high risk of HIV acquisition, to compare the concordance of disk diffusion and agar dilution as methods for determining AMR to N. gonorrhoeae, and to describe methodological challenges to carrying out AMR testing. The study was conducted at an HIV outpatient service for at-risk populations and an outreach clinic for commercial sex workers in Kampala. Patients were offered a sexually transmitted infection screen using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Samples positive for gonorrhoea were cultured. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and isolates were sent to a reference laboratory for agar dilution direct susceptibility testing. Five hundred and seventy-five patients were screened. There were 33 (5.7%) patients with gonorrhoea detected by PCR. Of the 16 viable N. gonorrhoeae isolates, 100% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and tetracycline by disk diffusion and 31% exhibited reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime. By agar dilution, 100% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and all isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefixime. There was concordance between disk diffusion and agar dilution for ciprofloxacin and tetracycline resistance and a significant discordance for third-generation cephalosporins. More than half the women with gonorrhoea were asymptomatic and represent a potential reservoir for ongoing transmission. AMR testing of N. gonorrhoeae isolates is needed to ensure optimal treatment and prevention of antibiotic resistance progression.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Gonorreia/tratamento farmacológico , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 46(21): 11592-11604, 2018 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256975

RESUMO

RNA G-quadruplexes (rG4s) are secondary structures in mRNAs known to influence RNA post-transcriptional mechanisms thereby impacting neurodegenerative disease and cancer. A detailed knowledge of rG4-protein interactions is vital to understand rG4 function. Herein, we describe a systematic affinity proteomics approach that identified 80 high-confidence interactors that assemble on the rG4 located in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the NRAS oncogene. Novel rG4 interactors included DDX3X, DDX5, DDX17, GRSF1 and NSUN5. The majority of identified proteins contained a glycine-arginine (GAR) domain and notably GAR-domain mutation in DDX3X and DDX17 abrogated rG4 binding. Identification of DDX3X targets by transcriptome-wide individual-nucleotide resolution UV-crosslinking and affinity enrichment (iCLAE) revealed a striking association with 5'-UTR rG4-containing transcripts which was reduced upon GAR-domain mutation. Our work highlights hitherto unrecognized features of rG4 structure-protein interactions that highlight new roles of rG4 structures in mRNA post-transcriptional control.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Quadruplex G , Genes ras/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Citoplasma/genética , Citoplasma/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Domínios Proteicos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
AIDS Care ; 30(12): 1586-1594, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114950

RESUMO

Our aim was to review the evidence related to the impact of co-morbid severe mental illness SMI (schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder) and HIV upon mental health, physical health and social outcomes. We carried out a systematic review of scientific evidence, searching online databases (MEDLINE, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Global Health and Scopus) for studies between 1983 and 2017 using search terms for SMI and HIV. Studies were included if they compared health or social outcomes between people living with co-morbid SMI and HIV and people living with either: a) HIV only; or b) SMI only. Outcomes of interest were: mortality, health service use, HIV/SMI-related, co-morbidities, and social outcomes. We identified 20 studies which met our inclusion criteria. Although studies were generally high quality, there was heterogeneity in both selection of outcomes and choice of measure. It was therefore difficult to draw strong conclusions regarding the impact of co-morbid SMI and HIV across any outcome. We found little evidence that co-morbid SMI and HIV were associated with lower levels of treatment, care or poorer clinical outcomes compared to people living with SMI or HIV alone. However, mortality appeared to be higher among the co-morbid group in three out of four analyses identified. Physical and mental co-morbidities and social outcomes were rarely measured. Limited data mean that the impact of co-morbid SMI and HIV is uncertain. In order to develop evidence-based guidelines, there is an urgent need for further research. This may be realized by exploring opportunities for using data from existing cohort studies, routinely collected data and data linkage to investigate important questions relating to this neglected but potentially important area.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Comorbidade , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
10.
Science ; 361(6400): 341, 2018 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049870

Assuntos
Fogo , Fumaça
11.
Microvasc Res ; 118: 173-177, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Despite increasing interest in nailfold capillaroscopy, objective measures of capillary structure and blood flow have been little studied. We aimed to test the hypothesis that structural measurements, capillary flow, and a combined measure have the predictive power to separate patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) from those with primary Raynaud's phenomenon (PRP) and healthy controls (HC). METHODS: 50 patients with SSc, 12 with PRP, and 50 HC were imaged using a novel capillaroscopy system that generates high-quality nailfold images and provides fully-automated measurements of capillary structure and blood flow (capillary density, mean width, maximum width, shape score, derangement and mean flow velocity). Population statistics summarise the differences between the three groups. Areas under ROC curves (AZ) were used to measure classification accuracy when assigning individuals to SSc and HC/PRP groups. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in group means were found between patients with SSc and both HC and patients with PRP, for all measurements, e.g. mean width (µm) ±â€¯SE: 15.0 ±â€¯0.71, 12.7 ±â€¯0.74 and 11.8 ±â€¯0.23 for SSc, PRP and HC respectively. Combining the five structural measurements gave better classification (AZ = 0.919 ±â€¯0.026) than the best single measurement (mean width, AZ = 0.874 ±â€¯0.043), whilst adding flow further improved classification (AZ = 0.930 ±â€¯0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Structural and blood flow measurements are both able to distinguish patients with SSc from those with PRP/HC. Importantly, these hold promise as clinical trial outcome measures for treatments aimed at improving finger blood flow or microvascular remodelling.


Assuntos
Capilares/patologia , Capilares/fisiopatologia , Microcirculação , Angioscopia Microscópica/métodos , Unhas/irrigação sanguínea , Doença de Raynaud/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Automação , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doença de Raynaud/patologia , Doença de Raynaud/fisiopatologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J STD AIDS ; 29(4): 414-417, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059031

RESUMO

A patient with human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection presented with sub-acute liver failure, temporally related to commencement of an antiretroviral therapy regimen containing dolutegravir (Triumeq). The patient was not a carrier of HLA-B5701, and abacavir hypersensitivity was unlikely. We believe this is the first report of severe dolutegravir-related hepatotoxicity resulting in sub-acute liver failure and transplantation and highlights a potential need for closer monitoring after drug initiation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/efeitos adversos , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/uso terapêutico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Falência Hepática Aguda/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , RNA Viral/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 12(11): e0188275, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung Clearance Index (LCI) is recognised as an early marker of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The effect of posture on LCI however is important when considering longitudinal measurements from infancy and when comparing LCI to imaging studies. METHODS: 35 children with CF and 28 healthy controls (HC) were assessed. Multiple breath washout (MBW) was performed both sitting and supine in triplicate and analysed for LCI, Scond, Sacin, and lung volumes. These values were also corrected for the Fowler dead-space to create 'alveolar' indices. RESULTS: From sitting to supine there was a significant increase in LCI and a significant decrease in FRC for both CF and HC (p<0.01). LCI, when adjusted to estimate 'alveolar' LCI (LCIalv), increased the magnitude of change with posture for both LCIalv and FRCalv in both groups, with a greater effect of change in lung volume in HC compared with children with CF. The % change in LCIalv for all subjects correlated significantly with lung volume % changes, most notably tidal volume/functional residual capacity (Vtalv/FRCalv (r = 0.54,p<0.001)). CONCLUSION: There is a significant increase in LCI from sitting to supine, which we believe to be in part due to changes in lung volume and also increasing ventilation heterogeneity related to posture. This may have implications in longitudinal measurements from infancy to older childhood and for studies comparing supine imaging methods to LCI.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/patologia , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Ventilação Pulmonar , Decúbito Dorsal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Capacidade Residual Funcional , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/fisiopatologia
15.
AIDS ; 31(18): 2525-2532, 2017 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare rates of all-cause, liver-related, and AIDS-related mortality among individuals who are HIV-monoinfected with those coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B (HBV) and/or hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. DESIGN: An ongoing observational cohort study collating routinely collected clinical data on HIV-positive individuals attending for care at HIV treatment centres throughout the United Kingdom. METHODS: Individuals were included if they had been seen for care from 2004 onwards and had tested for HBV and HCV. Crude mortality rates (all cause, liver related, and AIDS related) were calculated among HIV-monoinfected individuals and those coinfected with HIV, HBV, and/or HCV. Poisson regression was used to adjust for confounding factors, identify independent predictors of mortality, and estimate the impact of hepatitis coinfection on mortality in this cohort. RESULTS: Among 25 486 HIV-positive individuals, with a median follow-up 4.5 years, HBV coinfection was significantly associated with increased all-cause and liver-related mortality in multivariable analyses: adjusted rate ratios (ARR) [95% confidence intervals (95% CI)] were 1.60 (1.28-2.00) and 10.42 (5.78-18.80), respectively. HCV coinfection was significantly associated with increased all-cause (ARR 1.43, 95% CI 1.15-1.76) and liver-related mortality (ARR 6.20, 95% CI 3.31-11.60). Neither HBV nor HCV coinfection were associated with increased AIDS-related mortality: ARRs (95% CI) 1.07 (0.63-1.83) and 0.40 (0.20-0.81), respectively. CONCLUSION: The increased rate of all-cause and liver-related mortality among hepatitis-coinfected individuals in this HIV-positive cohort highlights the need for primary prevention and access to effective hepatitis treatment for HIV-positive individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/mortalidade , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Int J STD AIDS ; 28(12): 1234-1238, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632479

RESUMO

People held in prison are at a high risk of having hepatitis C virus (HCV) and there is a public health drive in the UK to increase HCV testing in prisons and Young Offender Institutions (YOIs), with opt-out testing. There is an oral antibody test for HCV; this project aims to determine its acceptability in an English YOI setting. This project offered HCV oral point-of-care testing (POCT) using the OraQuick® test to 107 male young offenders attending a sexual health service at an English YOI, monitoring HCV positivity and evaluating acceptability. It also investigated young offenders' histories of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and drug use. Mean age was 19.1 years. A total of 80.4% reported lifetime drug use and 0.9% reported lifetime drug injection. A total of 19.6% reported previous STIs. One patient (0.9%) was positive for HCV on OraQuick® testing. All patients found the POCT acceptable and one stated he would have refused a fingerprick test had it been the only test available for HCV testing. Salivary rapid HCV testing is acceptable among English YOI inmates. It is not as sensitive or specific as standard HCV tests and is more expensive. In our cohort, HCV positivity was low.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Preferência do Paciente , Testes Imediatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Saliva/virologia , Adolescente , Inglaterra , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Prisões , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 31(15): 1250-1260, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28514513

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The tar compositions varied depending on many factors such as the temperature of production and the type of retort used. For this reason a comprehensive database of the compounds found in different tar types is of value to understand both how their compositions differ and what potential chemical hazards are present. This study focuses on the heterocyclic and hydroxylated compounds present in a database produced from 16 different tars from five different production processes. METHODS: Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatized post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatized samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). RESULTS: A total of 865 heterocyclic compounds and 359 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in 16 tar samples produced by five different processes. The contents of both heterocyclic and hydroxylated PAHs varied greatly with the production process used, with the heterocyclic compounds giving information about the feedstock used. Of the 359 hydroxylated PAHs detected the majority would not have been be detected without the use of derivatization. CONCLUSIONS: Coal tars produced using different production processes and feedstocks yielded tars with significantly different heterocyclic and hydroxylated contents. The concentrations of the individual heterocyclic compounds varied greatly even within the different production processes and provided information about the feedstock used to produce the tars. The hydroxylated PAH content of the samples provided important analytical information that would otherwise not have been obtained without the use of derivatization and GCxGC/TOFMS.

18.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 31(15): 1231-1238, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28488792

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. Different manufacturing processes have resulted in the production of distinctly different tar compositions. This study presents a comprehensive database of compounds produced using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS), analysing 16 tar samples produced by five distinct production processes. METHODS: Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatised post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatised samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). RESULTS: A total of 16 tar samples originating from five different production processes: Low Temperature Horizontal Retorts, Horizontal Retorts, Vertical Retorts, Carbureted Water Gas and Coke Ovens, were analysed. A total of 2369 unique compounds were detected with 948 aromatic compounds, 196 aliphatic compounds, 380 sulfur-containing compounds, 209 oxygen-containing compounds, 262 nitrogen-containing compounds and 15 mixed heterocycles. Derivatisation allowed the detection of 359 unique compounds, the majority in the form of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, many of which would not have been detected without derivatisation. Of the 2369 unique compounds detected, 173 were found to be present within all samples. CONCLUSIONS: A unique comprehensive database of compounds detected within 16 tar samples from five different production processes was produced. The 173 compounds identified within every sample may be of particular importance from a regulatory standpoint. This initial study indicates that different production processes produce tars with different chemical signatures and it can be further expanded upon by in-depth analysis of the different compound types. The number of compounds presented within this database clearly demonstrates the analytical power of GCxGC/TOFMS.

19.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 31(15): 1239-1249, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494122

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were produced as a by-product from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. The composition of the tar produced varies depending on many factors; these include the temperature of production and the type of retort used. As different production processes produce different tars, a comprehensive database of the compounds present within coal tars from different production processes is a valuable resource. Such a database would help to understand how their chemical properties differ and what hazards the compounds present within these tars might pose. This study focuses on the aliphatic and aromatic compounds present in a database of 16 different tars from five different production processes. METHODS: Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatised post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatised samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). RESULTS: A total of 198 individual aliphatic and 951 individual aromatic compounds were detected within 16 tar samples produced by five different production processes. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of coal tars varies greatly depending on the production process used to obtain the tars and this is clearly demonstrated within the results. The aliphatic composition of the tars provided an important piece of analytical information that would have otherwise been missed with the detection of petrogenic compounds such as alkyl cyclohexanes. CONCLUSIONS: The aromatic compositions of the tar samples varied greatly between the different production processes investigated and useful analytical information was obtained about the individual production process groups. Alkyl cyclohexanes were detected in all samples from sites known to operate Carbureted Water Gas plants and not detected in those that did not. This suggests that petrogenic material may be expected at many UK gaswork sites.

20.
Thorax ; 72(8): 760-762, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28265032

RESUMO

Hyperpolarised 3He ventilation-MRI, anatomical lung MRI, lung clearance index (LCI), low-dose CT and spirometry were performed on 19 children (6-16 years) with clinically stable mild cystic fibrosis (CF) (FEV1>-1.96), and 10 controls. All controls had normal spirometry, MRI and LCI. Ventilation-MRI was the most sensitive method of detecting abnormalities, present in 89% of patients with CF, compared with CT abnormalities in 68%, LCI 47% and conventional MRI 22%. Ventilation defects were present in the absence of CT abnormalities and in patients with normal physiology, including LCI. Ventilation-MRI is thus feasible in young children, highly sensitive and provides additional information about lung structure-function relationships.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Espirometria/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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