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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(15): 560-565, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857068

RESUMO

Persons from racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19, including experiencing increased risk for infection (1), hospitalization (2,3), and death (4,5). Using administrative discharge data, CDC assessed monthly trends in the proportion of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 among racial and ethnic groups in the United States during March-December 2020 by U.S. Census region. Cumulative and monthly age-adjusted COVID-19 proportionate hospitalization ratios (aPHRs) were calculated for racial and ethnic minority patients relative to non-Hispanic White patients. Within each of the four U.S. Census regions, the cumulative aPHR was highest for Hispanic or Latino patients (range = 2.7-3.9). Racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization were largest during May-July 2020; the peak monthly aPHR among Hispanic or Latino patients was >9.0 in the West and Midwest, >6.0 in the South, and >3.0 in the Northeast. The aPHRs declined for most racial and ethnic groups during July-November 2020 but increased for some racial and ethnic groups in some regions during December. Disparities in COVID-19 hospitalization by race/ethnicity varied by region and became less pronounced over the course of the pandemic, as COVID-19 hospitalizations increased among non-Hispanic White persons. Identification of specific social determinants of health that contribute to geographic and temporal differences in racial and ethnic disparities at the local level can help guide tailored public health prevention strategies and equitable allocation of resources, including COVID-19 vaccination, to address COVID-19-related health disparities and can inform approaches to achieve greater health equity during future public health threats.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/terapia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hospitalização/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Geografia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(8): 1318-1326, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159209

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined in youth (12-17 years), young adults (18-24 years), and adults (25+ years): (1) the prevalence of the first menthol cigarette and menthol/mint cigar use among new tobacco users; (2) association between the first menthol/mint use, subsequent tobacco use, and nicotine dependence ~1 year later compared with the first non-menthol/mint use. AIMS AND METHODS: Longitudinal analysis of data from Waves 1 to 4 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study (2013-2017; 10 086 youth and 21 281 adults). Main outcome measures were past 12-month and past 30-day cigarette and cigar use, and nicotine dependence. RESULTS: Youth and young adult new cigarette users are more likely to smoke a menthol cigarette or indicate that they do not know the flavor compared with adults aged 25+. A greater proportion of adults aged 25+ first used menthol/mint-flavored cigars (13.4%) compared with youth (8.5%) and young adults (7.4%). Among young adults, first use of a menthol cigarette is associated with past 12-month use of cigarettes at the subsequent wave and first use of any menthol/mint-flavored cigars is associated with past 30-day use of these products at the subsequent wave in both youth and young adults. In youth and adults, there were no significant relationships between first use of a menthol/mint cigarette or cigar and nicotine dependence scores at a subsequent wave in multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The first use of menthol/mint cigarettes and cigars is associated with subsequent cigarette and cigar use in young people aged 12-24. IMPLICATIONS: This study examined the relationship between initiation with menthol cigarettes and menthol/mint cigars, subsequent tobacco use, and nicotine dependence in US youth, young adults, and adults who participated in Waves 1-4 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study. New use of menthol cigarettes was associated with greater past 12-month cigarette use in young adults and new use of menthol/mint-flavored cigars was associated with greater past 30-day cigar use in youth and young adults compared with non-menthol use. Initiation with menthol/mint cigarette and cigar products may lead to subsequent use of those products.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237938, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More smokers report using e-cigarettes to help them quit than FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of e-cigarettes with future abstinence from cigarette and tobacco use. DESIGN: Cohort study of US sample, with annual follow-up. PARTICIPANTS: US adult (ages 18+) daily cigarette smokers identified at Wave 1 (W1; 2013-14) of the PATH Study, who reported a quit attempt before W2 and completed W3 (n = 2443). EXPOSURES: Use of e-cigarettes, pharmacotherapy (including nicotine replacement therapy), or no product for last quit attempt (LQA), and current daily e-cigarette use at W2. ANALYSIS: Propensity score matching (PSM) of groups using different methods to quit. OUTCOME MEASURES: 12+ months abstinence at W3 from cigarettes and from all tobacco (including e-cigarettes). 30+ days abstinence at W3 was a secondary outcome. RESULTS: Among daily smokers with an LQA, 23.5% used e-cigarettes, 19.3% used pharmacotherapy only (including NRT) and 57.2% used no product. Cigarette abstinence for 12+ months at W3 was ~10% in each group. Half of the cigarette abstainers in the e-cigarette group were using e-cigarettes at W3. Different methods to help quitting had statistically comparable 12+ month cigarette abstinence at W3 (e-cigarettes vs no product: Risk Difference (RD) = 0.01, 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.06; e-cigarettes vs pharmacotherapy: RD = 0.02, 95% CI:-0.04 to 0.09). Likewise, daily e-cigarette users at W2 did not show a cessation benefit over comparable no-e-cigarette users and this finding was robust to sensitivity analyses. Abstinence for 30+ days at W3 was also similar across products. LIMITATIONS: The frequency of e-cigarette use during the LQA was not assessed, nor was it possible to assess continuous abstinence from the LQA. CONCLUSION: Among US daily smokers who quit cigarettes in 2014-15, use of e-cigarettes in that attempt compared to approved cessation aids or no products showed similar abstinence rates 1-2 years later.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Tratamento Farmacológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Environ Res ; 177: 108585, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376627

RESUMO

Evidence indicates that in utero environmental exposures could influence reproduction in female offspring. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are synthetic, ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals that can cross the placental barrier. Lower levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a biomarker of ovarian reserve, are associated with reduced fertility. We investigated the association between in utero PFAS exposure and AMH levels in female adolescents using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a British pregnancy cohort recruited between 1991 and 1992. Maternal serum samples were collected during pregnancy and analyzed for concentrations of commonly found PFAS-perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA). AMH levels were measured in serum of female offspring (mean age, 15.4 years) and log-transformed for analyses. We used a sample of 446 mother-daughter dyads for multivariable linear regression analyses, controlling for maternal age at delivery, pre-pregnancy body-mass index, and maternal education. Multiple imputation was utilized to impute missing values of AMH (61.2%) and covariates. Median PFAS concentrations (ng/mL) were as follows: PFOS 19.8 (IQR:15.1, 24.9), PFOA 3.7 (IQR: 2.8, 4.8), PFHxS 1.6 (IQR: 1.2, 2.2), PFNA 0.5 (IQR: 0.4, 0.7). The geometric mean AMH concentration was 3.9 ng/mL (95% CI: 3.8, 4.0). After controlling for confounders, mean differences in AMH per one ng/mL higher PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA were 3.6% (95% CI: 1.4%, 8.6%), 0.7% (95% CI: 0.2%, 1.5%), 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4%, 2.2%), and 12.0% (95% CI: 42.8%, 66.8%) respectively. These findings suggest there is no association between in utero PFAS exposure and AMH levels in female adolescents.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Adolescente , Hormônio Antimülleriano , Caprilatos , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Disruptores Endócrinos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez
5.
Public Health Rep ; 134(5): 552-558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Foodborne disease is a pervasive problem caused by consuming food or drink contaminated by infectious or noninfectious agents. The 55 US poison centers receive telephone calls for advice on foodborne disease cases that may be related to a foodborne disease outbreak (FBDO). Our objective was to assess whether poison center call records uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) can be used for surveillance of noninfectious FBDOs in the United States. METHODS: We matched NPDS records on noninfectious FBDO agents in the United States with records in the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) for 2000-2010. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis comparing NPDS matched and unmatched records to assess features of NPDS records that may indicate a confirmed noninfectious FBDO. RESULTS: During 2000-2010, FDOSS recorded 491 noninfectious FBDOs of known etiology and NPDS recorded 8773 calls for noninfectious foodborne disease exposures. Of 8773 NPDS calls, 469 (5.3%) were matched to a noninfectious FBDO reported to FDOSS. Multivariable logistic regression indicated severity of medical outcome, whether the call was made by a health care professional, and etiology as significant predictors of NPDS records matching an FDOSS noninfectious FBDO. CONCLUSIONS: NPDS may complement existing surveillance systems and response activities by providing timely information about single cases of foodborne diseases or about a known or emerging FBDO. Prioritizing NPDS records by certain call features could help guide public health departments in the types of noninfectious foodborne records that most warrant public health follow-up.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Notificação de Abuso , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325828

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic, organochlorine compounds previously used in industrial processes. Although banned in 1980's across Europe, these chemicals persist in the environment and are associated with adverse health outcomes in children. We investigated the association between in utero concentrations of PCBs and girls' body fatness. Concentrations of various PCB congeners (PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 170, and PCB 180) were measured in maternal serum samples collected in the early 1990's. Body fatness was measured in the daughters at 9 y of age using body mass index (BMI) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for percent body fat. Using multivariable linear regression, we explored associations between prenatal PCB congener concentrations and body fatness outcomes. Among 339 mother-daughter dyads, the median and interquartile range (IQR) for PCB congeners ranged between 15.0 ng g-1 (11.0-20.8) for PCB 118 to 64.6 ng g-1 (48.6-86.3) for PCB 153. Among daughters, the median was 27.5% (21.7-34.6) for percent body fat, 39.6% (36.4-43.5) for percent trunk fat, 4.9 kg m-2 (3.5-7.0) for fat mass index and 18.1 kg m-2 (16.3-20.6) for body mass index. Multivariable-adjusted regression analyses showed little or no association between prenatal PCB concentrations with daughters' body fatness measures. Prenatal concentrations of PCB congeners were not strongly associated with measures of body fatness in girls.


Assuntos
Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Tecido Adiposo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
7.
Neurotoxicology ; 69: 121-129, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30292654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The developing brain is susceptible to exposure to neurodevelopmental toxicants such as pesticides. AIMS: We explored associations of prenatal serum concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH), 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,1,1-trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) with maternal-reported measures of verbal and non-verbal communication in young girls. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied a sample of 400 singleton girls and their mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) using multivariable linear regression models adjusting for parity, Home Observation Measurement of the Environment (HOME) score, maternal age and education status, and maternal tobacco use during the first trimester of pregnancy. EXPOSURE AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal serum samples (collected at median 15 wks. gestation [IQR 10, 28]) were assessed for selected organochlorine pesticide levels. Communication was assessed at 15 and 38 months, using adapted versions of the MacArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventories for Infants and Toddlers (MCDI). RESULTS: At 15 months, girls born to mothers with prenatal concentrations of HCB in the highest tertile had vocabulary comprehension and production scores approximately 16% (p = 0.007) lower than girls born to mothers with concentrations in the lowest tertile. This association varied by maternal parity in that the evidence was stronger for daughters of nulliparous mothers. At 38 months, girls born to mothers with prenatal concentrations of HCB in the highest tertile had mean adjusted intelligibility scores that were 3% (p = 0.03) lower than those born to mothers with concentrations in the lowest tertile; however, results did not vary significantly by parity. Maternal concentrations of ß-HCH and p,p'-DDE were not significantly associated with MCDI scores at 15 or 36 months. p,p'-DDT had an inconsistent pattern of association; a significant positive association was observed between p,p'-DDT with verbal comprehension scores at 15 months; however, at 38 months a significant inverse association was observed for p,p'-DDT with communicative scores. This inverse association for p,p'-DDT among older girls tended to be stronger among daughters of mothers who had lower depression scores. CONCLUSIONS: Organochlorine pesticide exposure in utero may affect communication development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Arch Osteoporos ; 13(1): 84, 2018 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076472

RESUMO

Prenatal exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been associated with developmental outcomes in offspring. We found that prenatal concentrations of some PFAS may be associated with reduced bone mass and size in 17-year-old British girls, although it is not clear whether these associations are driven by body size. PURPOSE: PFAS are used to make protective coatings on common household products. Prenatal exposures have been associated with developmental outcomes in offspring. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we investigated the association between prenatal concentrations of PFAS and bone health in girls at 17 years of age and whether body composition can explain any associations. METHODS: We measured concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in maternal serum samples collected during pregnancy. We obtained bone health outcomes in the girls, such as bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone area, and area-adjusted bone mineral content from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. We used multivariable linear regression to explore associations between each PFAS and each bone health outcome with adjustment for important confounders such as girls' age at clinic visit, maternal education, and gestational age at sample collection. We also controlled for girls' height and lean mass to explore the role body composition had on observed associations. RESULTS: Prenatal PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA concentrations were associated with inverse effects on bone size and mass after adjusting for important confounders. Conversely, PFNA was positively associated with area-adjusted bone mineral content. However, most significant associations attenuated after additional controlling for height and lean mass. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal concentrations of some PFAS may be associated with reduced bone mass and size in adolescent girls, although it is not clear whether these associations are driven by body size.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Caprilatos/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente
9.
Environ Int ; 116: 116-121, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677556

RESUMO

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals that bioaccumulate in the food chain. PCBs were used primarily for industrial applications due to their insulating and fire retardant properties, but were banned in the 1970s in the United States and in the 1980s in the United Kingdom, as adverse health effects following exposure were identified. Previous studies of populations with high PCB exposure have reported inverse associations with birth weight and gestational length. Birth weight is a powerful predictor of infant survival, and low birth weight can predispose infants to chronic conditions in adult life such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we investigated the association between prenatal exposure to PCBs and fetal growth in a sample of 448 mother-daughter dyads. Concentrations of three common PCB analytes, PCB-118, PCB-153 and PCB-187, were measured in maternal serum collected during pregnancy, and fetal growth was measured by birth weight and birth length. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between PCB analytes and measures of fetal growth, after adjusting for parity, maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, educational status, tobacco use and gestational age of infant at sample collection. Birth length, ponderal index and gestational age were not associated with any of the PCB analytes. Mothers' educational status modified associations for PCB analytes with birthweight. We observed significant inverse associations with birth weight only among daughters of mothers with less education. Daughter's birth weight was -138.4 g lower (95% CI: -218.0, -58.9) for each 10 ng/g lipid increase in maternal serum PCB-118. Similarly, every 10 ng/g lipid increase in maternal serum PCB-153 was associated with a -41.9 g (95% CI: -71.6, -12.2) lower birth weight. Every 10 ng/g lipids increase in maternal serum PCB-187, was associated with a -170.4 g (95% CI: -306.1, -34.7) lower birth weight, among girls with mothers in the lowest education group. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to PCBs is inversely associated with daughters' birth weight and that mothers' education, which is a possible marker for socioeconomic status, significantly modified the association between maternal PCB concentrations and birth weight in female newborns.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Gravidez , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Am J Public Health ; 108(S2): S131-S136, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether non-US citizens have a higher mortality risk of heat-related deaths than do US citizens. METHODS: We used place of residence reported in mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System from 2005 to 2014 as a proxy for citizenship to examine differences in heat-related deaths between non-US and US citizens. Estimates from the US Census Bureau American Community Survey of self-reported citizenship status and place of birth provided the numbers for the study population. We calculated the standardized mortality ratio and relative risk for heat-related deaths between non-US and US citizens nationally. RESULTS: Heat-related deaths accounted for 2.23% (n = 999) of deaths among non-US citizens and 0.02% (n = 4196) of deaths among US citizens. The age-adjusted standardized mortality ratio for non-US citizens compared with US citizens was 3.4 (95% confidence ratio [CI] = 3.2, 3.6). This risk was higher for Hispanic non-US citizens (risk ratio [RR] = 3.6; 95% CI = 3.2, 3.9) and non-US citizens aged 18 to 24 years (RR = 20.6; 95% CI = 16.5, 25.7). CONCLUSIONS: We found an increased mortality risk among non-US citizens compared with US citizens for heat-related deaths, especially those younger and of Hispanic ethnicity.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 14(9): 537-543, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28682115

RESUMO

Each year in the United States, ∼260,000 people get sick from contaminated fish. Fish is also the most commonly implicated food category in outbreaks. We reviewed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System for outbreaks resulting from consumption of fish during the period 1998-2015. We found 857 outbreaks associated with fish, resulting in 4815 illnesses, 359 hospitalizations, and 4 deaths. The median number of illnesses per outbreak was three (range: 2-425). The annual number of fish-associated outbreaks declined from an average of 62 per year during the period 1998-2006 to 34 per year during the period 2007-2015. Hawaii (221 outbreaks [26%]) and Florida (203 [24%]) reported the most outbreaks. Among 637 outbreaks (74%) with a confirmed etiology, scombrotoxin (349 [55%]) and ciguatoxin (227 [36%]) were by far most common. Most outbreak-associated illnesses were caused by scombrotoxin (1299 [34%]), Salmonella (978 [26%]), and ciguatoxin (894 [23%]). Most hospitalizations were caused by Salmonella (97 [31%]) and ciguatoxin (96 [31%]). Norovirus (105 average illnesses; range: [6-380]) and Salmonella (54 [3-425]) caused the largest outbreaks. Fish types implicated most often were tuna (37%), mahi-mahi (10%), and grouper (9%). The etiology-fish pairs responsible for the most outbreaks were scombrotoxin and tuna (223 outbreaks), scombrotoxin and mahi-mahi (64), and ciguatoxin and grouper (54). The pairs responsible for the most illnesses were scombrotoxin and tuna (720 illnesses) and Salmonella and tuna (660). Of the 840 outbreaks (98%) with a single location of food preparation, 52% were associated with fish prepared in a restaurant and 33% with fish prepared in a private home. Upstream control measures targeted to the most common etiologies and controls during processing and preparation could further reduce outbreaks caused by fish.


Assuntos
Ciguatoxinas/toxicidade , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Surtos de Doenças , Peixes , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Restaurantes , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Environ Res ; 156: 420-425, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28410519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from experimental studies suggests that atrazine and its analytes alter the timing of puberty in laboratory animals. Such associations have not been investigated in humans. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between in utero exposure to atrazine analytes and earlier menarche attainment in a nested case-control study of the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. METHODS: Cases were girls who reported menarche before 11.5 years while controls were girls who reported menarche at or after 11.5 years. Seven atrazine analyte concentrations were measured in maternal gestational urine samples (sample gestation week median (IQR): 12 (8-17)) during the period 1991-1992, for 174 cases and 195 controls using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We evaluated the study association using multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. We used multiple imputation to impute missing confounder data for 29% of the study participants. RESULTS: Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) was the most frequently detected analyte (58%>limit of detection [LOD]) followed by desethyl atrazine (6%), desethyl atrazine mercapturate (3%), atrazine mercapturate (1%), hydroxyl atrazine (1%), atrazine (1%) and desisopropyl atrazine (0.5%). Because of low detection of other analytes, only DACT was included in the exposure-outcome analyses. The adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.13 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]:0.82, 1.55) and exposure

Assuntos
Atrazina/toxicidade , Atrazina/urina , Exposição Materna , Menarca/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Herbicidas/urina , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais
13.
Early Hum Dev ; 109: 15-20, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411449

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), found in many household products and classed as endocrine disrupting chemicals, can be transferred through the placenta and are associated with multiple developmental deficits in offspring. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we investigated the association between intrauterine exposure to PFAS and early communication development in 432 mother-daughter dyads at 15 and 38months of age. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were measured in maternal serum collected during pregnancy. Early communication development was measured with the ALSPAC-adapted MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories for Infants and Toddlers. The infant questionnaire measured verbal comprehension, vocabulary comprehension and production, nonverbal communication, and social development. The toddler questionnaire measured language, intelligibility, and communicative sub-scores. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine associations between each PFAS exposure and each communication sub-scale score. The association between maternal PFAS concentrations and early communication development at 15 and 38months of age varied by maternal age at delivery. In daughters of younger mothers (<25years of age), every 1ng/mL of PFOS was associated with a 3.82 point (95% confidence interval (CI): -6.18, -1.47) lower vocabulary score at 15months and a 0.80 point (95% CI: -1.74, 0.14) lower language score at 38months. Prenatal exposure to select PFAS was positively and negatively associated with communication development among girls, with inconsistent pattern of association across all measured PFAS and endpoints.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Núcleo Familiar , Gravidez , Reino Unido
14.
Environ Res ; 155: 287-293, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28259093

RESUMO

Phytoestrogens are estrogenic compounds that occur naturally in plants. Phytoestrogens can cross the placenta, and animal studies have found associations between in utero exposure to phytoestrogens and markers of early puberty. We investigated the association between in utero exposure to phytoestrogens and early menarche (defined as <11.5 years of age at onset) using data from a nested case-control study within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study involving families living in the South West of England. Concentrations of six phytoestrogens were measured in maternal urine samples collected during pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between tertiles of phytoestrogen concentrations and menarche status, with adjustment for maternal age at menarche, maternal education, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), child birth order, duration of breastfeeding, and gestational age at sample collection. Among 367 mother-daughter dyads, maternal median (interquartile range) creatinine-corrected concentrations (in µg/g creatinine) were: genistein 62.1 (27.1-160.9), daidzein 184.8 (88.8-383.7), equol 4.3 (2.8-9.0), O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) 13.0 (4.4-34.5), enterodiol 76.1 (39.1-135.8), and enterolactone 911.7 (448.1-1558.0). In analyses comparing those in the highest tertile relative to those in the lowest tertile of in utero phytoestrogen exposure, higher enterodiol levels were inversely associated with early menarche (odds ratio (OR)=0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.26-0.83), while higher O-DMA levels were associated with early menarche (OR=1.89; 95% CI: 1.04-3.42). These findings suggest that in utero exposure to phytoestrogens may be associated with earlier age at menarche, though the direction of association differs across phytoestrogens.


Assuntos
Menarca , Fitoestrógenos/urina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Troca Materno-Fetal , Razão de Chances , Gravidez/urina
15.
Child Obes ; 13(3): 222-230, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28128969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are used in surface coatings that resist stains, grease, and water. METHODS: The association between in utero PFAS exposure and girls' body fatness at age 9 was analyzed in The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK). Maternal serum [median 15 weeks: interquartile range (IQR) 10 and 28 weeks of gestation] was analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). Body composition was measured by dual X-ray emission absorptiometry, and percent total body fat (%BF) was calculated. Associations between PFASs and body fatness were modeled by multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: Among 359 girls, median (IQR) %BF was 27.5 (IQR 21.7-34.6). Median (IQR) concentrations (all ng/mL) were 3.7 (2.9-4.8) for PFOA, 19.8 (15.0-25.3) for PFOS, 1.6 (1.3-2.2) for PFHxS, and 0.5 (0.4-0.7) for PFNA. Maternal PFAS concentrations were not significantly associated with daughters' total %BF overall. Mothers' educational status modified associations for PFOA and PFOS with %BF (P-interactions: 0.005 and 0.02, respectively). %BF was higher [1.4%; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.3 to 2.5] for each one unit (ng/mL) higher PFOA among girls with mothers in the middle education group, but lower (-0.6%; 95% CI: -1.12 to -0.04) for the corresponding comparison among girls with mothers with the highest education. %BF was lower (-0.2%; 95% CI: -0.3 to -0.1) for each one unit higher PFOS among girls with the most educated mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to PFOA and PFOS was associated with girls' %BF within some strata of maternal education status. PFHxS and PFNA were not associated with %BF.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Escolaridade , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Caprilatos/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Ácidos Sulfônicos/sangue , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Drug Test Anal ; 9(1): 68-74, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27367536

RESUMO

In September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of seven adults who developed acute hepatitis after taking OxyELITE Pro™, a weight loss and sports dietary supplement. CDC assisted HDOH with their investigation, then conducted case-finding outside of Hawaii with FDA and the Department of Defense (DoD). We defined cases as acute hepatitis of unknown etiology that occurred from April 1, 2013, through December 5, 2013, following exposure to a weight loss or muscle-building dietary supplement, such as OxyELITE Pro™. We conducted case-finding through multiple sources, including data from poison centers (National Poison Data System [NPDS]) and FDA MedWatch. We identified 40 case-patients in 23 states and two military bases with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology and exposure to a weight loss or muscle building dietary supplement. Of 35 case-patients who reported their race, 15 (42.9%) reported white and 9 (25.7%) reported Asian. Commonly reported symptoms included jaundice, fatigue, and dark urine. Twenty-five (62.5%) case-patients reported taking OxyELITE Pro™. Of these 25 patients, 17 of 22 (77.3%) with available data were hospitalized and 1 received a liver transplant. NPDS and FDA MedWatch each captured seven (17.5%) case-patients. Improving the ability to search surveillance systems like NPDS and FDA MedWatch for individual and grouped dietary supplements, as well as coordinating case-finding with DoD, may benefit ongoing surveillance efforts and future outbreak responses involving adverse health effects from dietary supplements. This investigation highlights opportunities and challenges in using multiple sources to identify cases of suspected supplement associated adverse events. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/toxicidade , Fármacos Antiobesidade/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/toxicidade , Hepatite/etiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/terapia , Feminino , Hepatite/patologia , Hepatite/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Int ; 94: 467-472, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27297227

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Epidemiologic data supporting the role of organochlorine pesticides in pubertal development are limited. METHODS: Using a nested case-control design, serum collected during pregnancy from mothers of 218 girls who reported menarche before 11.5years of age (cases) and 230 girls who reported menarche at or after 11.5years of age (controls) was analyzed for 9 organochlorines and metabolites. We analyzed the association between in utero organochlorine concentrations and early menarche using multivariate logistic regression controlling for mother's age at menarche, or mother's prenatal BMI. RESULTS: We did not observe an association between in utero exposure to HCB, ß-HCH, ϒ-HCH, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane or trans-nonachlor and early menarche. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine the association between in utero exposure to HCB, ß-HCH, ϒ-HCH, oxychlordane or trans-nonachlor and early menarche. In utero exposure to organochlorine pesticides does not appear to have a role in the timing of menarche in this study.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Menarca , Praguicidas/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
18.
J Med Toxicol ; 12(4): 350-357, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27352081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette use is increasing, and the long-term impact on public health is unclear. We described the acute adverse health effects from e-cigarette exposures reported to U.S. poison centers. METHODS: We compared monthly counts and demographic, exposure, and health effects data of calls about e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes made to poison centers from September 2010 through December 2014. RESULTS: Monthly e-cigarette calls increased from 1 in September 2010, peaked at 401 in April 2014, and declined to 295 in December 2014. Monthly conventional cigarette calls during the same period ranged from 302 to 514. E-cigarette calls were more likely than conventional cigarette calls to report adverse health effects, including vomiting, eye irritation, and nausea. Five e-cigarette calls reported major health effects, such as respiratory failure, and there were two deaths associated with e-cigarette calls. CONCLUSION: E-cigarette calls to U.S. poison centers increased over the study period, and were more likely than conventional cigarettes to report adverse health effects. It is important for health care providers and the public to be aware of potential acute health effects from e-cigarettes. Developing strategies to monitor and prevent poisonings from these novel devices is critical.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Linhas Diretas/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Drug Test Anal ; 8(3-4): 319-27, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26538199

RESUMO

Dietary supplements are increasingly marketed to and consumed by the American public for a variety of purported health benefits. On 9 September 2013, the Hawaii Department of Health (HDOH) was notified of a cluster of acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure among individuals with exposure to the dietary supplement OxyELITE Pro™ (OEP). HDOH conducted an outbreak investigation in collaboration with federal partners. Physicians were asked to report cases, defined as individuals with acute onset hepatitis of unknown etiology on or after 1 April 2013, a history of weight-loss/muscle-building dietary supplement use during the 60 days before illness onset, and residence in Hawaii during the period of exposure. Reported cases' medical records were reviewed, questionnaires were administered, and a product investigation, including chemical analyses and traceback, was conducted. Of 76 reports, 44 (58%) met case definition; of these, 36 (82%) reported OEP exposure during the two months before illness. No other common supplements or exposures were observed. Within the OEP-exposed subset, two patients required liver transplantation, and a third patient died. Excessive product dosing was not reported. No unique lot numbers were identified; there were multiple mainland distribution points, and lot numbers common to cases in Hawaii were also identified in continental states. Product analysis found consumed products were consistent with labeled ingredients; the mechanism of hepatotoxicity was not identified. We report one of the largest statewide outbreaks of dietary supplement-associated hepatotoxicity. The implicated product was OEP. The increasing popularity of dietary supplements raises the potential for additional clusters of dietary supplement-related adverse events. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Hepatite/etiologia , Falência Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hawaii , Hepatite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Falência Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 544: 601-5, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26674689

RESUMO

Water Systems Council (WSC) is a national, non-profit organization providing education and resources to private household well owners. Since 2003, WSC has provided wellcare®, a toll-free telephone hotline to answer questions from the public regarding well stewardship. In order to identify knowledge gaps regarding well stewardship among private well owners, we obtained data from WSC and reviewed calls made during 2013 to wellcare®. WSC records data from each wellcare® call-including caller information, primary reason for call, main use of well water, and if they were calling about a cistern, private well, shared well, or spring. We searched for calls with key words indicating specific contaminants of interest and reviewed primary reasons for calls. Calls classified as primarily testing-related were further categorized depending on whether the caller asked about how to test well water or how to interpret testing results. During 2013, wellcare® received 1100 calls from private well owners who were residents of 48 states. Among these calls, 87 (8%) mentioned radon, 83 (8%) coliforms, 51 (5%) chemicals related to fracking, 34 (3%) arsenic, and 32 (3%) nitrates key words. Only 38% of private well owners reported conducting any well maintenance activities, such as inspecting, cleaning, repairing the well, or testing well water, during the previous 12 months. The primary reason for calls were related to well water testing (n=403), general information relating to wells (n=249), contaminants (n=229), and well water treatment (n=97). Among calls related to testing, 319 had questions about how to test their well water, and 33 had questions about how to interpret testing results. Calls from private well owners to the wellcare® Hotline during 2013 identified key knowledge gaps regarding well stewardship; well owners are generally not testing or maintaining their wells, have questions about well water testing treatment, and concerns about well water contaminants.


Assuntos
Linhas Diretas , Poços de Água , Arsênio , Nitratos , Microbiologia da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Abastecimento de Água
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