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1.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485960

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In CheckMate 227 (NCT02477826), patients with treatment-naive stage IV or recurrent NSCLC and 1% or greater tumor programmed death ligand 1 expression had significantly improved overall survival with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy. We present the patient-reported outcomes (PROs). METHODS: Patients (N = 1189) were randomized to nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab, or chemotherapy. PROs were exploratory. Changes in Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) average symptom burden index, LCSS 3-item global index, EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS), and EQ-5D utility index were analyzed descriptively. Mixed-effect model repeated measures and time-to-first deterioration and improvement analyses were conducted. RESULTS: PRO completion rates were generally greater than 80%. On-treatment improvements from baseline in LCSS measures of symptom burden and global health status with nivolumab plus ipilimumab generally met or exceeded the minimal important difference (smallest clinically meaningful change) from weeks 24 and 30, respectively; improvements with chemotherapy generally remained below the minimal important difference. Mean on-treatment EQ-5D VAS scores for both treatments approached the U.K. population norm at week 24, remaining so throughout the treatment period. Mixed-effect model repeated measures analyses revealed numerically greater improvements from baseline with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy across LCSS average symptom burden index and 3-item global index, and EQ-5D VAS and utility index. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab had delayed time-to-first deterioration (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 0.74 [0.56-0.98]) and a trend for more rapid time-to-first improvement (1.24 [0.98-1.59]) versus chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Nivolumab plus ipilimumab revealed delayed deterioration and numerical improvement in symptoms and health-related quality of life versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC and 1% or greater programmed death ligand 1 expression.

2.
Lung Cancer ; 150: 145-151, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) remains a major oncological challenge with limited therapeutic options. HSV1716 is a replication restricted oncolytic herpes simplex virus with anti-tumor effects in multiple cell lines including MPM. Intrapleural treatment appeals because MPM is typically multifocal but confined to the pleura, and distant metastases are uncommon. We assessed the safety and possible efficacy of intrapleural HSV1716 for inoperable MPM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with MPM received 1 × 107iu HSV1716 injected via an indwelling intrapleural catheter (IPC) on one, two or four occasions a week apart. The primary endpoint was the safety and tolerability of HSV1716. Secondary endpoints were assessment of HSV1716 replication, detection of immune response and evaluation of tumor response. RESULTS: Of thirteen patients enrolled, five had received previous pemetrexed-cisplatin chemotherapy, and eight were chemotherapy naïve. Three patients were enrolled to receive one dose, three patients to two doses and seven patients to four doses. The treatment was well-tolerated with few virus-related adverse events and no dose limiting toxicities. Twelve patients were evaluable for response, as one patient withdrew early after a catheter fracture. There was evidence of viral replication/persistence in pleural fluid in seven of the twelve patients. Induction of Th1 cytokine responses to HSV1716 treatment occurred in eight patients and four patients developed novel anti-tumor IgG. No objective responses were observed but disease stabilization was reported in 50 % of patients at 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural HSV1716 was well-tolerated and demonstrated an anti-tumor immune response in MPM patients. These results provide a rationale for further studies with this agent in MPM and in combination with other therapies.

3.
Colorectal Dis ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Failure of primary Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) occurs in up to 15% of patients. Revision surgery may be offered to patients wishing to maintain gastrointestinal continuity. This paper explores the literature relating to IPAA revision surgery, focusing on pouch function after revision and factors associated with pouch failure. METHODS: Search of Pubmed database for "ileal pouch anal anastomoses", "ileoanal pouch", "restorative proctocolectomy", "revision surgery", "redo surgery", "failure", "refashion surgery", "reconstruction surgery" and "salvage surgery". Papers were screened using PRISMA Literature review strategy. Studies of adults published after 1980, in English with an available abstract were included. Case reports and studies that were superceded using the same data were excluded. RESULTS: 19 papers (1424 patients) were identified. Bowel motion frequency doubled following revision surgery compared to primary IPAA although the increase was not always statistically significant. In patients failing primary IPAA, frequency of daytime bowel motions improved following revision in three studies but only reached significance in one (12.1 vs 6.9, p= 0.021). Risk of pouch failure is increased in patients who develop pelvic sepsis after primary procedure with the largest study demonstrating a four-fold increased risk (HR 3.691 p <0.0001). Final diagnosis of Crohn's causes a four-fold increased risk of pouch failure (n=81; OR 3.92, 95% CI 1.1-15.9 p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing revisional surgery, improved outcomes are observed but are inferior compared to primary IPAA patients. Pelvic sepsis after primary IPAA and a final diagnosis of Crohn's are associated with increased risk of pouch failure.

4.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 13(6): 73, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005407

RESUMO

Dacarbazine chemotherapy has been the mainstay of melanoma treatment for >30 years. In the early 2000s, carboplatin (with or without other agents, such as paclitaxel) was the most commonly used second-line therapy in the UK. The aim of the present study was to report a significant response rate to second-line carboplatin in patients from three UK institutions who had been previously treated and failed to respond to dacarbazine, and investigate whether sequential therapy may be more effective compared with combination therapy. A total of 104 patients were identified, the majority of whom were treated with carboplatin (area under the curve 5-6) every 3 weeks for a maximum of 6 cycles. A total of 102 patients were evaluable for response, among whom 11 patients had an objective response (1 complete response and 10 partial responses) and 15 had stable disease, giving an overall response rate of 11% and disease control rate of 26%. The median progression-free survival was 1.8 months (range, 0.2-36+ months) and the median overall survival was 4.6 months (range, 0.2-36+ months). Surprisingly, the majority of the patients who benefited from second-line carboplatin therapy were those with visceral metastases, the survival of whom would not be expected to exceed 6 months after first-line treatment.

5.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 4(1): 13, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a common, chronic, impactful condition in women of reproductive age. In the absence of established sensitive and specific biomarkers, disease severity is determined by patient-reported symptoms and impacts. This article details the development of two new patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures designed to assess efficacy endpoints in clinical studies: The Endometriosis Symptom Diary (ESD) and the Endometriosis Impact Scale (EIS). METHODS: The ESD and EIS were developed according to best practice and scientific standards (including the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) PRO Guidance) and with extensive input from women with surgically-confirmed endometriosis. Research included: a review of published qualitative literature; concept elicitation interviews in the US, Germany and France (n = 45) to explore the experiences of women with endometriosis and to inform ESD and EIS development; and cognitive interviews in the US and Germany (n = 31) to assess relevance and understanding of the ESD and EIS and usability of administration using an electronic handheld device. The FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as well as PRO and clinical experts were consulted throughout the process. RESULTS: Pelvic pain was identified as the most frequent, severe and bothersome symptom for women with endometriosis. Pain was reported to be greatest during menstruation (dysmenorrhea) and during or after sexual intercourse (dyspareunia). Pain resulted in significant impairments in physical activities, work/study, social/leisure activities, household activities and sexual functioning. All women highlighted the emotional impact of endometriosis. Descriptions of pain and associated impacts were largely consistent across participants from the US and Europe, with the most notable differences being the words used to describe the location of pain (e.g., 'pelvis' vs. 'abdomen'). Testing during cognitive interviews indicated that the ESD and EIS were well understood and consistently interpreted. Furthermore, all participants found the ePRO devices easy to use and no issues regarding visual presentation, selection of responses or navigation were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from extensive qualitative research supports the content validity of the ESD and EIS as patient-reported measures of the disease-defining symptoms of endometriosis and the associated impact on women's lives. Future research will seek to establish the measurement properties of the measures.

6.
BJPsych Bull ; 44(3): 103-107, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769376

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The Royal College of Psychiatrists' Parliamentary Scholar Scheme gives higher trainees in psychiatry the opportunity to spend 1 day a week in the House of Lords working alongside a peer with an interest in health. This article describes the work of the House of Lords and Parliament using examples from the experiences of 2017-2018 scholars and outlines ways doctors can get more involved in policy and politics.

7.
Qual Manag Health Care ; 29(1): 7-14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitals establish surgical assessment units to promote efficiency and improve patient experience. Surgical assessment units are believed to reduce unnecessary admissions. We evaluated a hospital's on-call surgery service without this facility to determine benefits of implementation. METHODS: All emergency surgery referrals made over a 3-month period were recorded, including whether the patient was immediately discharged directly from emergency surgery. Data collection was undertaken by each surgical firm on-call. Immediate discharges were classed as patients not admitted to the hospital overnight (regardless of whether the patient had outpatient follow-up planned). RESULTS: Nine hundred eighty-four referrals were identified. Seven hundred ninety-three referrals had complete data and therefore were included for analysis. Of these, 349 patients (44.0% of referrals) were immediately discharged from emergency surgery, thereby preventing unnecessary admissions (a high proportion of surgical referrals not requiring hospital admission). This improves hospital efficiency, cost savings, and patient experience. Immediate discharge was less frequent and more difficult to accomplish if patients were initially assessed on wards (instead of in the emergency department). This is likely due to patients' perceptions that admission was required when transferred from emergency department to a ward. CONCLUSIONS: Establishment of surgical assessment units has multiple potential benefits to patients, hospitals and clinicians. Appropriateness of surgical assessment unit implementation by every hospital ought to be evaluated.

8.
Intern Med J ; 49(7): 911-914, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295788

RESUMO

Transition from paediatric to adult diabetes care can be associated with a deterioration in metabolic control and hospitalisation. This was a retrospective review (2012-2016) of medical records of all patients attending a transition diabetes clinic in a teaching hospital with paediatric and adult diabetes on the same site. Among the 91/102 (89.2%) patients with type 1 diabetes, mean age at first visit was 19 ± 2 years, last body mass index was 25.2 ± 4.7 kg/m2 , diabetes duration was 11 ± 6 years and 22 (24%) used continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions. Loss to follow-up was 15 (14.7%). Mental health issues were common (59%), as were prior pregnancies (23%) and diabetic ketoacidosis since diagnosis (39%). Those with diabetic ketoacidosis had a higher mean glycated haemoglobin (70 ± 19 vs 86 ± 25 mmol/mol or 8.6 ± 1.7 vs 10.0 ± 2.3%; P = 0.001), fewer clinic attendances (8 ± 5 vs 5 ± 4; P = 0.008) and fewer years in clinic (1.8 ± 1.7 vs 2.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.114). Our data suggest that investment in joint approaches with mental health services should be considered.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Cetoacidose Diabética/diagnóstico , Cetoacidose Diabética/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/psicologia , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina/tendências , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 116: 137-147, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase III CheckMate 227 study, first-line nivolumab + ipilimumab significantly prolonged progression-free survival (co-primary end-point) versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and high tumour mutational burden (TMB; ≥10 mutations/megabase). AIM: To evaluate patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in this population. METHODS: Disease-related symptoms and general health status were assessed using the validated PRO questionnaires Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) and EQ-5D, respectively. LCSS average symptom burden index (ASBI) and three-item global index (3-IGI) and EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS) and utility index (UI) scores and changes from baseline were analysed descriptively. Longitudinal changes were assessed by mixed-effect model repeated measures (MMRMs) and time to first deterioration/improvement analyses. RESULTS: In the high TMB population, PRO questionnaire completion rates were ∼90% at baseline and >80% for most on-treatment assessments. During treatment, mean changes from baseline with nivolumab + ipilimumab showed early, clinically meaningful improvements in LCSS ASBI/3-IGI and EQ-5D VAS/UI; with chemotherapy, symptoms and health-related quality of life remained stable (LCSS ASBI/3-IGI, EQ-5D UI) or improved following induction (EQ-5D VAS). MMRM-assessed changes in symptom burden were improved with nivolumab + ipilimumab versus chemotherapy. Symptom deterioration by week 12 was lower with nivolumab + ipilimumab versus chemotherapy (22.3% versus 35.0%; absolute risk reduction: 12.7% [95% confidence interval 2.4-22.5]), irrespective of discontinuation. Time to first deterioration was delayed with nivolumab + ipilimumab versus chemotherapy across LCSS and EQ-5D summary measures. CONCLUSION: First-line nivolumab + ipilimumab demonstrated early, sustained improvements in PROs versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC and high TMB. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02477826.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida
10.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(9): 1594-1607, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationships between morbid obesity, changes in body mass index (BMI) before cancer diagnosis, and lung cancer outcomes by histology (SCLC and NSCLC) have not been well studied. METHODS: Individual level data analysis was performed on 25,430 patients with NSCLC and 2787 patients with SCLC from 16 studies of the International Lung Cancer Consortium evaluating the association between various BMI variables and lung cancer overall survival, reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) from Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots. RESULTS: Overall survival of NSCLC had putative U-shaped hazard ratio relationships with BMI based on spline plots: being underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2; aHR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.43-1.70) or morbidly overweight (BMI > 40 kg/m2; aHR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.95-1.26) at the time of diagnosis was associated with worse stage-specific prognosis, whereas being overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2; aHR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.95) or obese (30 kg/m2 ≤ BMI ≤ 40 kg/m2; aHR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.82-0.91) was associated with improved survival. Although not significant, a similar pattern was seen with SCLC. Compared with an increased or stable BMI from the period between young adulthood until date of diagnosis, a decreased BMI was associated with worse outcomes in NSCLC (aHR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.2-1.3) and SCLC patients (aHR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.0-1.6). Decreased BMI was consistently associated with worse outcome, across clinicodemographic subsets. CONCLUSIONS: Both being underweight or morbidly obese at time of diagnosis is associated with lower stage-specific survival in independent assessments of NSCLC and SCLC patients. In addition, a decrease in BMI at lung cancer diagnosis relative to early adulthood is a consistent marker of poor survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
12.
Oncotarget ; 10(19): 1760-1774, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956756

RESUMO

The development of cancer is driven by the accumulation of many oncogenesis-related genetic alterations and tumorigenesis is triggered by complex networks of involved genes rather than independent actions. To explore the epistasis existing among oncogenesis-related genes in lung cancer development, we conducted pairwise genetic interaction analyses among 35,031 SNPs from 2027 oncogenesis-related genes. The genotypes from three independent genome-wide association studies including a total of 24,037 lung cancer patients and 20,401 healthy controls with Caucasian ancestry were analyzed in the study. Using a two-stage study design including discovery and replication studies, and stringent Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical analysis, we identified significant genetic interactions between SNPs in RGL1:RAD51B (OR=0.44, p value=3.27x10-11 in overall lung cancer and OR=0.41, p value=9.71x10-11 in non-small cell lung cancer), SYNE1:RNF43 (OR=0.73, p value=1.01x10-12 in adenocarcinoma) and FHIT:TSPAN8 (OR=1.82, p value=7.62x10-11 in squamous cell carcinoma) in our analysis. None of these genes have been identified from previous main effect association studies in lung cancer. Further eQTL gene expression analysis in lung tissues provided information supporting the functional role of the identified epistasis in lung tumorigenesis. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed potential pathways and gene networks underlying molecular mechanisms in overall lung cancer as well as histology subtypes development. Our results provide evidence that genetic interactions between oncogenesis-related genes play an important role in lung tumorigenesis and epistasis analysis, combined with functional annotation, provides a valuable tool for uncovering functional novel susceptibility genes that contribute to lung cancer development by interacting with other modifier genes.

13.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(8): 1041-1047, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the CheckMate 141 trial (NCT02105636), nivolumab demonstrated survival, health-related quality of life, and healthcare resource utilization benefits vs single-agent therapy of investigator's choice (IC) (methotrexate, docetaxel or cetuximab) in patients with platinum-refractory recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN). We assessed between-treatment differences in quality-adjusted time without symptoms of disease progression or toxicity (Q-TWiST). METHODS: Survival data from CheckMate 141 (nivolumab, n = 240; IC, n = 121) was partitioned into toxicity (TOX), time without symptoms or toxicity (TWiST), and relapse (REL). TOX was defined as time spent with all-cause grade 3-4 adverse events after randomization, before disease progression. TWiST was defined as time not in TOX or REL. REL was defined as time between disease progression and death. Utility values derived from three-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire data from CheckMate 141 were used to calculate Q-TWiST as the utility-weighted sum of the mean duration in each health state. RESULTS: The between-group difference in Q-TWiST score was 1.23 months (95% confidence interval 1.17-1.29) favoring nivolumab (p < 0.001). The nivolumab group experienced significantly longer mean time in TWiST (3.82 vs 2.78 months) and REL (4.02 vs 3.30 months) compared with the IC group (p < 0.001). Mean time in TOX was lower for nivolumab vs IC (0.30 vs 0.37 months, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In CheckMate 141, nivolumab resulted in statistically significant and clinically meaningful gains (relative difference > 10%) in quality-adjusted survival vs standard of care in patients with R/M SCCHN.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Cetuximab/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Sobrevida
14.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(2): e00507, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 is susceptible to genomic rearrangements and the most frequently reported involve deletions and duplications between low copy repeats LCR22A to LCR22D. Atypical nested deletions and duplications are rarer and can provide a valuable opportunity to investigate the dosage effects of a smaller subset of genes within the 22q11.2 genomic disorder region. METHODS: We describe thirteen individuals from six families, each with atypical nested duplications within the central 22q11.2 region between LCR22B and LCR22D. We then compared the molecular and clinical data for patients from this study and the few reported atypical duplication cases, to the cases with larger typical duplications between LCR22A and LCR22D. Further, we analyzed genes with the nested region to identify candidates highly enriched in human brain tissues. RESULTS: We observed that atypical nested duplications are heterogeneous in size, often familial, and associated with incomplete penetrance and highly variable clinical expressivity. We found that the nested atypical duplications are a possible risk factor for neurodevelopmental phenotypes, particularly for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities. In addition, we analyzed genes within the nested region between LCR22B and LCR22D to identify nine genes (ZNF74, KLHL22, MED15, PI4KA, SERPIND1, CRKL, AIFM3, SLC7A4, and BCRP2) with enriched expression in the nervous system, each with unique spatiotemporal patterns in fetal and adult brain tissues. Interestingly, PI4KA is prominently expressed in the brain, and this gene is included either partially or completely in all of our subjects. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications and identify genes such as PI4KA to be directly relevant to brain development and disorder. We conclude that further work is needed to elucidate the basis of variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes and to exclude the presence of a second disorder. Our findings contribute to the genotype-phenotype data for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications, with implications for genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Penetrância , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas , Síndrome
15.
Eur J Cancer ; 102: 23-30, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab, a programmed death-1 inhibitor, prolonged overall survival and had a favourable safety profile versus docetaxel in previously treated patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the phase III CheckMate 057 trial. AIM: To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using patient-reported outcomes. METHODS: Disease-related symptoms and general health status were assessed using two validated patient-reported instruments, the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) and the European Quality of Life Five Dimensions (EQ-5D), respectively. The proportion of patients with disease-related symptom improvement at 12 weeks on the LCSS average symptom burden index (ASBI) was a secondary end-point. LCSS 3-item global index (3-IGI), EQ-5D utility index and EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were also determined. Mixed-effects model repeated measures (MMRM) and time to first deterioration analyses assessed longitudinal changes. RESULTS: Mean baseline LCSS ASBI scores were similar in both arms. By week 12, rates of disease-related improvement (95% confidence interval) were similar between nivolumab (17.8% [13.6-22.7]) and docetaxel (19.7% [15.2-24.7]); however, numerical differences in LCSS ASBI mean change from baseline favoured nivolumab. Subsequently, LCSS ASBI scores improved with nivolumab and worsened with docetaxel, with statistically significant between-arm differences at weeks 12, 24, 30 and 42. HRQoL improvements with nivolumab versus docetaxel were also supported by the LCSS 3-IGI, EQ-5D VAS and MMRM analysis. Time to first HRQoL deterioration was longer with nivolumab than with docetaxel. CONCLUSION: Nivolumab improved disease-related symptoms and overall health status versus docetaxel for second-line treatment of advanced non-squamous NSCLC. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01673867.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Clin Chem ; 64(9): 1338-1346, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial number of melanoma patients develop local or metastatic recurrence, and early detection of these is vital to maximise benefit from new therapies such as inhibitors of BRAF and MEK, or immune checkpoints. This study explored the use of novel DNA copy-number profiles in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a potential biomarker of active disease and survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Melanoma patients were recruited from oncology and dermatology clinics in Sheffield, UK, and cfDNA was isolated from stored blood plasma. Using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, we created copy-number profiles from cfDNA from 83 melanoma patients, 44 of whom had active disease. We used scoring algorithms to summarize copy-number aberrations and investigated their utility in multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: The copy-number aberration score (CNAS) was a good discriminator of active disease (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.5-6.2; P = 0.002), and CNAS above or below the 75th percentile remained a significant discriminator in multivariable analysis for active disease (P = 0.019, with area under ROC curve of 0.90). Additionally, mortality was higher in those with CNASs above the 75th percentile than in those with lower scores (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5-7.9; P = 0.005), adjusting for stage of disease, disease status (active or resected), BRAF status, and cfDNA concentration. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential of a de novo approach utilizing copy-number profiling of cfDNA as a biomarker of active disease and survival in melanoma. Longitudinal analysis of copy-number profiles as an early marker of relapsed disease is warranted.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 113(1): 39-48, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28925989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Functional Dyspepsia Symptom Diary (FDSD) was developed to address the lack of symptom-focused, patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures designed for use in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients and meeting Food and Drug Administration recommendations for PRO instrument development. METHODS: Concept elicitation interviews were conducted with FD participants to identify symptoms important and relevant to FD patients. A preliminary version of the FDSD was constructed, then completed by FD participants on an electronic device in cognitive interviews to evaluate the readability, comprehensibility, relevance, and comprehensiveness of the FDSD, and to preliminarily evaluate its measurement properties. RESULTS: During concept elicitation interviews, 45 participants spontaneously reported 19 symptom concepts. Of those, seven symptoms were selected for assessment by the eight-item FDSD. Cognitive interviews with 57 participants confirmed that participants were able to comprehend and provide meaningful responses to the FDSD, and that the handheld electronic FDSD format was suitable for use in the target population. Scores of the FDSD were well-distributed among response options, item discrimination indices suggested that the FDSD items differentiate among patients with varying degrees of FD severity, and inter-item correlations suggested that no items of the FDSD were capturing redundant information. Internal consistency estimates (0.87) and construct-related validity estimates using known-groups methods were within acceptable ranges. CONCLUSIONS: The FDSD is a content-valid PRO measure, with preliminary psychometric evidence providing support for the FDSD's items and total score. Further psychometric evaluations are recommended to more fully test the FDSD's score performance and other measurement properties in the target patient population.


Assuntos
Dispepsia/fisiopatologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Compreensão , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(3): 336-346, 2018 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059373

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to lung carcinogenesis. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking status (never- versus ever-smokers) in a European-descent population. We adopted a two-step analysis strategy in the discovery stage: we first conducted a case-only interaction analysis to assess the relationship between SNPs and smoking behavior using 13336 non-small cell lung cancer cases. Candidate SNPs with P-value <0.001 were further analyzed using a standard case-control interaction analysis including 13970 controls. The significant SNPs with P-value <3.5 × 10-5 (correcting for multiple tests) from the case-control analysis in the discovery stage were further validated using an independent replication dataset comprising 5377 controls and 3054 non-small cell lung cancer cases. We further stratified the analysis by histological subtypes. Two novel SNPs, rs6441286 and rs17723637, were identified for overall lung cancer risk. The interaction odds ratio and meta-analysis P-value for these two SNPs were 1.24 with 6.96 × 10-7 and 1.37 with 3.49 × 10-7, respectively. In addition, interaction of smoking with rs4751674 was identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma with an odds ratio of 0.58 and P-value of 8.12 × 10-7. This study is by far the largest genome-wide SNP-smoking interaction analysis reported for lung cancer. The three identified novel SNPs provide potential candidate biomarkers for lung cancer risk screening and intervention. The results from our study reinforce that gene-smoking interactions play important roles in the etiology of lung cancer and account for part of the missing heritability of this disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(2): 194-204, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129758

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the phase III CheckMate 017 study, nivolumab prolonged overall survival versus docetaxel in previously treated patients with advanced squamous NSCLC. Study objectives included health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptom assessments. METHODS: Patients serially completed the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) and European Quality of Life Five Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaires. The LCSS average symptom burden index (ASBI) (mean score for six lung cancer-specific symptoms; range 0-100), LCSS three-item global index, EQ-5D utility index, and EQ-5D visual analog scale scores were analyzed. The proportion of patients exhibiting clinically meaningful improvement (a ≥10-point decrease) in ASBI scores by week 12 was a secondary end point. Mixed-effect model repeated measures analysis of HRQoL changes from baseline and analyses of time to HRQoL deterioration were conducted. RESULTS: Baseline mean plus or minus SD LCSS ASBI scores were similar in the nivolumab (29.6 ± 16.4) and docetaxel (29.6 ± 14.7) groups. By week 12, the proportions of patients (95% confidence interval) with clinically meaningful improvement in ASBI scores were 20.0% (13.6-27.7) with nivolumab and 21.9% (15.3-29.8) with docetaxel. At weeks 16 to 54, significant improvements in ASBI scores from baseline were seen with nivolumab; clinically meaningful improvements were observed at weeks 42 to 84. No significant changes in ASBI scores from baseline were observed with docetaxel; at week 36, a clinically meaningful deterioration was seen. Improvements in HRQoL with nivolumab versus with docetaxel were supported by other measures, and time to first HRQoL deterioration was longer. CONCLUSION: Nivolumab alleviates symptom burden and improves health status versus docetaxel as second-line squamous NSCLC treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Docetaxel , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Eur J Cancer ; 82: 80-91, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody of immune checkpoint programmed death 1 on T cells (PD-1), combined with ipilimumab, an immune checkpoint cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor, as combination therapy on the one hand and nivolumab as monotherapy on the other, have both demonstrated improved efficacy compared with ipilimumab alone in the CheckMate 067 study. However, the combination resulted in a higher frequency of grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs), which could result in diminished health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Here we report analyses of HRQoL for patients with advanced melanoma in clinical trial CheckMate 067. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HRQoL was assessed at weeks 1 and 5 per 6-week cycle for the first 6 months, once every 6 weeks thereafter, and at two follow-up visits using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Care Core Quality of Life Questionnaire and the EuroQoL Five Dimensions Questionnaire. In addition to the randomised population, patient subgroups, including BRAF mutation status, partial or complete response, treatment-related AEs of grade 3/4, and those who discontinued due to any reason and due to an AE, were investigated. RESULTS: Nivolumab and ipilimumab combination and nivolumab alone both maintained HRQoL, and no clinically meaningful deterioration was observed over time compared with ipilimumab. In addition, similar results were observed across patient subgroups, and no clinically meaningful changes in HRQoL were observed during follow-up visits for patients who discontinued due to any cause. CONCLUSION: These results further support the clinical benefit of nivolumab monotherapy and nivolumab and ipilimumab combination therapy in patients with advanced melanoma. The finding that the difference in grade 3/4 AEs between the arms did not translate into clinically meaningful differences in the reported HRQoL may be relevant in the clinical setting. STUDY NUMBER: NCT01844505.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Ipilimumab , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe
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