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1.
Intern Med J ; 49(7): 911-914, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295788

RESUMO

Transition from paediatric to adult diabetes care can be associated with a deterioration in metabolic control and hospitalisation. This was a retrospective review (2012-2016) of medical records of all patients attending a transition diabetes clinic in a teaching hospital with paediatric and adult diabetes on the same site. Among the 91/102 (89.2%) patients with type 1 diabetes, mean age at first visit was 19 ± 2 years, last body mass index was 25.2 ± 4.7 kg/m2 , diabetes duration was 11 ± 6 years and 22 (24%) used continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions. Loss to follow-up was 15 (14.7%). Mental health issues were common (59%), as were prior pregnancies (23%) and diabetic ketoacidosis since diagnosis (39%). Those with diabetic ketoacidosis had a higher mean glycated haemoglobin (70 ± 19 vs 86 ± 25 mmol/mol or 8.6 ± 1.7 vs 10.0 ± 2.3%; P = 0.001), fewer clinic attendances (8 ± 5 vs 5 ± 4; P = 0.008) and fewer years in clinic (1.8 ± 1.7 vs 2.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.114). Our data suggest that investment in joint approaches with mental health services should be considered.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 116: 137-147, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase III CheckMate 227 study, first-line nivolumab + ipilimumab significantly prolonged progression-free survival (co-primary end-point) versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and high tumour mutational burden (TMB; ≥10 mutations/megabase). AIM: To evaluate patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in this population. METHODS: Disease-related symptoms and general health status were assessed using the validated PRO questionnaires Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) and EQ-5D, respectively. LCSS average symptom burden index (ASBI) and three-item global index (3-IGI) and EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS) and utility index (UI) scores and changes from baseline were analysed descriptively. Longitudinal changes were assessed by mixed-effect model repeated measures (MMRMs) and time to first deterioration/improvement analyses. RESULTS: In the high TMB population, PRO questionnaire completion rates were ∼90% at baseline and >80% for most on-treatment assessments. During treatment, mean changes from baseline with nivolumab + ipilimumab showed early, clinically meaningful improvements in LCSS ASBI/3-IGI and EQ-5D VAS/UI; with chemotherapy, symptoms and health-related quality of life remained stable (LCSS ASBI/3-IGI, EQ-5D UI) or improved following induction (EQ-5D VAS). MMRM-assessed changes in symptom burden were improved with nivolumab + ipilimumab versus chemotherapy. Symptom deterioration by week 12 was lower with nivolumab + ipilimumab versus chemotherapy (22.3% versus 35.0%; absolute risk reduction: 12.7% [95% confidence interval 2.4-22.5]), irrespective of discontinuation. Time to first deterioration was delayed with nivolumab + ipilimumab versus chemotherapy across LCSS and EQ-5D summary measures. CONCLUSION: First-line nivolumab + ipilimumab demonstrated early, sustained improvements in PROs versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC and high TMB. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02477826.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(9): 1594-1607, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationships between morbid obesity, changes in body mass index (BMI) before cancer diagnosis, and lung cancer outcomes by histology (SCLC and NSCLC) have not been well studied. METHODS: Individual level data analysis was performed on 25,430 patients with NSCLC and 2787 patients with SCLC from 16 studies of the International Lung Cancer Consortium evaluating the association between various BMI variables and lung cancer overall survival, reported as adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) from Cox proportional hazards models and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots. RESULTS: Overall survival of NSCLC had putative U-shaped hazard ratio relationships with BMI based on spline plots: being underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2; aHR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.43-1.70) or morbidly overweight (BMI > 40 kg/m2; aHR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.95-1.26) at the time of diagnosis was associated with worse stage-specific prognosis, whereas being overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2; aHR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.95) or obese (30 kg/m2 ≤ BMI ≤ 40 kg/m2; aHR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.82-0.91) was associated with improved survival. Although not significant, a similar pattern was seen with SCLC. Compared with an increased or stable BMI from the period between young adulthood until date of diagnosis, a decreased BMI was associated with worse outcomes in NSCLC (aHR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.2-1.3) and SCLC patients (aHR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.0-1.6). Decreased BMI was consistently associated with worse outcome, across clinicodemographic subsets. CONCLUSIONS: Both being underweight or morbidly obese at time of diagnosis is associated with lower stage-specific survival in independent assessments of NSCLC and SCLC patients. In addition, a decrease in BMI at lung cancer diagnosis relative to early adulthood is a consistent marker of poor survival.

5.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 37(8): 1041-1047, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the CheckMate 141 trial (NCT02105636), nivolumab demonstrated survival, health-related quality of life, and healthcare resource utilization benefits vs single-agent therapy of investigator's choice (IC) (methotrexate, docetaxel or cetuximab) in patients with platinum-refractory recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN). We assessed between-treatment differences in quality-adjusted time without symptoms of disease progression or toxicity (Q-TWiST). METHODS: Survival data from CheckMate 141 (nivolumab, n = 240; IC, n = 121) was partitioned into toxicity (TOX), time without symptoms or toxicity (TWiST), and relapse (REL). TOX was defined as time spent with all-cause grade 3-4 adverse events after randomization, before disease progression. TWiST was defined as time not in TOX or REL. REL was defined as time between disease progression and death. Utility values derived from three-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire data from CheckMate 141 were used to calculate Q-TWiST as the utility-weighted sum of the mean duration in each health state. RESULTS: The between-group difference in Q-TWiST score was 1.23 months (95% confidence interval 1.17-1.29) favoring nivolumab (p < 0.001). The nivolumab group experienced significantly longer mean time in TWiST (3.82 vs 2.78 months) and REL (4.02 vs 3.30 months) compared with the IC group (p < 0.001). Mean time in TOX was lower for nivolumab vs IC (0.30 vs 0.37 months, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In CheckMate 141, nivolumab resulted in statistically significant and clinically meaningful gains (relative difference > 10%) in quality-adjusted survival vs standard of care in patients with R/M SCCHN.

6.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(2): e00507, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 is susceptible to genomic rearrangements and the most frequently reported involve deletions and duplications between low copy repeats LCR22A to LCR22D. Atypical nested deletions and duplications are rarer and can provide a valuable opportunity to investigate the dosage effects of a smaller subset of genes within the 22q11.2 genomic disorder region. METHODS: We describe thirteen individuals from six families, each with atypical nested duplications within the central 22q11.2 region between LCR22B and LCR22D. We then compared the molecular and clinical data for patients from this study and the few reported atypical duplication cases, to the cases with larger typical duplications between LCR22A and LCR22D. Further, we analyzed genes with the nested region to identify candidates highly enriched in human brain tissues. RESULTS: We observed that atypical nested duplications are heterogeneous in size, often familial, and associated with incomplete penetrance and highly variable clinical expressivity. We found that the nested atypical duplications are a possible risk factor for neurodevelopmental phenotypes, particularly for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities. In addition, we analyzed genes within the nested region between LCR22B and LCR22D to identify nine genes (ZNF74, KLHL22, MED15, PI4KA, SERPIND1, CRKL, AIFM3, SLC7A4, and BCRP2) with enriched expression in the nervous system, each with unique spatiotemporal patterns in fetal and adult brain tissues. Interestingly, PI4KA is prominently expressed in the brain, and this gene is included either partially or completely in all of our subjects. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications and identify genes such as PI4KA to be directly relevant to brain development and disorder. We conclude that further work is needed to elucidate the basis of variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes and to exclude the presence of a second disorder. Our findings contribute to the genotype-phenotype data for atypical nested 22q11.2 duplications, with implications for genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Duplicação Cromossômica/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Penetrância , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas , Síndrome
7.
Eur J Cancer ; 102: 23-30, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab, a programmed death-1 inhibitor, prolonged overall survival and had a favourable safety profile versus docetaxel in previously treated patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the phase III CheckMate 057 trial. AIM: To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using patient-reported outcomes. METHODS: Disease-related symptoms and general health status were assessed using two validated patient-reported instruments, the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) and the European Quality of Life Five Dimensions (EQ-5D), respectively. The proportion of patients with disease-related symptom improvement at 12 weeks on the LCSS average symptom burden index (ASBI) was a secondary end-point. LCSS 3-item global index (3-IGI), EQ-5D utility index and EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were also determined. Mixed-effects model repeated measures (MMRM) and time to first deterioration analyses assessed longitudinal changes. RESULTS: Mean baseline LCSS ASBI scores were similar in both arms. By week 12, rates of disease-related improvement (95% confidence interval) were similar between nivolumab (17.8% [13.6-22.7]) and docetaxel (19.7% [15.2-24.7]); however, numerical differences in LCSS ASBI mean change from baseline favoured nivolumab. Subsequently, LCSS ASBI scores improved with nivolumab and worsened with docetaxel, with statistically significant between-arm differences at weeks 12, 24, 30 and 42. HRQoL improvements with nivolumab versus docetaxel were also supported by the LCSS 3-IGI, EQ-5D VAS and MMRM analysis. Time to first HRQoL deterioration was longer with nivolumab than with docetaxel. CONCLUSION: Nivolumab improved disease-related symptoms and overall health status versus docetaxel for second-line treatment of advanced non-squamous NSCLC. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01673867.

8.
Clin Chem ; 64(9): 1338-1346, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial number of melanoma patients develop local or metastatic recurrence, and early detection of these is vital to maximise benefit from new therapies such as inhibitors of BRAF and MEK, or immune checkpoints. This study explored the use of novel DNA copy-number profiles in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a potential biomarker of active disease and survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Melanoma patients were recruited from oncology and dermatology clinics in Sheffield, UK, and cfDNA was isolated from stored blood plasma. Using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing, we created copy-number profiles from cfDNA from 83 melanoma patients, 44 of whom had active disease. We used scoring algorithms to summarize copy-number aberrations and investigated their utility in multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: The copy-number aberration score (CNAS) was a good discriminator of active disease (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.5-6.2; P = 0.002), and CNAS above or below the 75th percentile remained a significant discriminator in multivariable analysis for active disease (P = 0.019, with area under ROC curve of 0.90). Additionally, mortality was higher in those with CNASs above the 75th percentile than in those with lower scores (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5-7.9; P = 0.005), adjusting for stage of disease, disease status (active or resected), BRAF status, and cfDNA concentration. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential of a de novo approach utilizing copy-number profiling of cfDNA as a biomarker of active disease and survival in melanoma. Longitudinal analysis of copy-number profiles as an early marker of relapsed disease is warranted.

9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 113(1): 39-48, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28925989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Functional Dyspepsia Symptom Diary (FDSD) was developed to address the lack of symptom-focused, patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures designed for use in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients and meeting Food and Drug Administration recommendations for PRO instrument development. METHODS: Concept elicitation interviews were conducted with FD participants to identify symptoms important and relevant to FD patients. A preliminary version of the FDSD was constructed, then completed by FD participants on an electronic device in cognitive interviews to evaluate the readability, comprehensibility, relevance, and comprehensiveness of the FDSD, and to preliminarily evaluate its measurement properties. RESULTS: During concept elicitation interviews, 45 participants spontaneously reported 19 symptom concepts. Of those, seven symptoms were selected for assessment by the eight-item FDSD. Cognitive interviews with 57 participants confirmed that participants were able to comprehend and provide meaningful responses to the FDSD, and that the handheld electronic FDSD format was suitable for use in the target population. Scores of the FDSD were well-distributed among response options, item discrimination indices suggested that the FDSD items differentiate among patients with varying degrees of FD severity, and inter-item correlations suggested that no items of the FDSD were capturing redundant information. Internal consistency estimates (0.87) and construct-related validity estimates using known-groups methods were within acceptable ranges. CONCLUSIONS: The FDSD is a content-valid PRO measure, with preliminary psychometric evidence providing support for the FDSD's items and total score. Further psychometric evaluations are recommended to more fully test the FDSD's score performance and other measurement properties in the target patient population.

10.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(3): 336-346, 2018 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059373

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to lung carcinogenesis. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking status (never- versus ever-smokers) in a European-descent population. We adopted a two-step analysis strategy in the discovery stage: we first conducted a case-only interaction analysis to assess the relationship between SNPs and smoking behavior using 13336 non-small cell lung cancer cases. Candidate SNPs with P-value <0.001 were further analyzed using a standard case-control interaction analysis including 13970 controls. The significant SNPs with P-value <3.5 × 10-5 (correcting for multiple tests) from the case-control analysis in the discovery stage were further validated using an independent replication dataset comprising 5377 controls and 3054 non-small cell lung cancer cases. We further stratified the analysis by histological subtypes. Two novel SNPs, rs6441286 and rs17723637, were identified for overall lung cancer risk. The interaction odds ratio and meta-analysis P-value for these two SNPs were 1.24 with 6.96 × 10-7 and 1.37 with 3.49 × 10-7, respectively. In addition, interaction of smoking with rs4751674 was identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma with an odds ratio of 0.58 and P-value of 8.12 × 10-7. This study is by far the largest genome-wide SNP-smoking interaction analysis reported for lung cancer. The three identified novel SNPs provide potential candidate biomarkers for lung cancer risk screening and intervention. The results from our study reinforce that gene-smoking interactions play important roles in the etiology of lung cancer and account for part of the missing heritability of this disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(2): 194-204, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129758

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the phase III CheckMate 017 study, nivolumab prolonged overall survival versus docetaxel in previously treated patients with advanced squamous NSCLC. Study objectives included health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptom assessments. METHODS: Patients serially completed the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS) and European Quality of Life Five Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaires. The LCSS average symptom burden index (ASBI) (mean score for six lung cancer-specific symptoms; range 0-100), LCSS three-item global index, EQ-5D utility index, and EQ-5D visual analog scale scores were analyzed. The proportion of patients exhibiting clinically meaningful improvement (a ≥10-point decrease) in ASBI scores by week 12 was a secondary end point. Mixed-effect model repeated measures analysis of HRQoL changes from baseline and analyses of time to HRQoL deterioration were conducted. RESULTS: Baseline mean plus or minus SD LCSS ASBI scores were similar in the nivolumab (29.6 ± 16.4) and docetaxel (29.6 ± 14.7) groups. By week 12, the proportions of patients (95% confidence interval) with clinically meaningful improvement in ASBI scores were 20.0% (13.6-27.7) with nivolumab and 21.9% (15.3-29.8) with docetaxel. At weeks 16 to 54, significant improvements in ASBI scores from baseline were seen with nivolumab; clinically meaningful improvements were observed at weeks 42 to 84. No significant changes in ASBI scores from baseline were observed with docetaxel; at week 36, a clinically meaningful deterioration was seen. Improvements in HRQoL with nivolumab versus with docetaxel were supported by other measures, and time to first HRQoL deterioration was longer. CONCLUSION: Nivolumab alleviates symptom burden and improves health status versus docetaxel as second-line squamous NSCLC treatment.

12.
Lancet Oncol ; 18(8): 1104-1115, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with platinum-refractory recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck have few treatment options and poor prognosis. Nivolumab significantly improved survival of this patient population when compared with standard single-agent therapy of investigator's choice in Checkmate 141; here we report the effect of nivolumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). METHODS: CheckMate 141 was a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who progressed within 6 months after platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks (n=240) or investigator's choice (n=121) of methotrexate (40-60 mg/m2 of body surface area), docetaxel (30-40 mg/m2), or cetuximab (250 mg/m2 after a loading dose of 400 mg/m2) until disease progression, intolerable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. On Jan 26, 2016, the independent data monitoring committee reviewed the data at the planned interim analysis and declared overall survival superiority for nivolumab over investigator's choice therapy (primary endpoint; described previously). The protocol was amended to allow patients in the investigator's choice group to cross over to nivolumab. All patients not on active therapy are being followed for survival. As an exploratory endpoint, PROs were assessed at baseline, week 9, and every 6 weeks thereafter using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (QLQ-C30), the EORTC head and neck cancer-specific module (EORTC QLQ-H&N35), and the three-level European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire. Differences within and between treatment groups in PROs were analysed by ANCOVA among patients with baseline and at least one other assessment. All randomised patients were included in the time to clinically meaningful deterioration analyses. Median time to clinically meaningful deterioration was analysed by Kaplan-Meier methods. CheckMate 141 was registered with ClinicalTrials.org, number NCT02105636. FINDINGS: Patients were enrolled between May 29, 2014, and July 31, 2015, and subsequently 361 patients were randomly assigned to receive nivolumab (n=240) or investigator's choice (n=121). Among them, 129 patients (93 in the nivolumab group and 36 in the investigator's choice group) completed any of the PRO questionnaires at baseline and at least one other assessment. Treatment with nivolumab resulted in adjusted mean changes from baseline to week 15 ranging from -2·1 to 5·4 across functional and symptom domains measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30, with no domains indicating clinically meaningful deterioration. By contrast, eight (53%) of the 15 domains in the investigator's choice group showed clinically meaningful deterioration (10 points or more) at week 15 (change from baseline range, -24·5 to 2·4). Similarly, on the EORTC QLQ-H&N35, clinically meaningful worsening at week 15 was seen in no domains in the nivolumab group and eight (44%) of 18 domains in the investigator's choice group. Patients in the nivolumab group had a clinically meaningful improvement (according to a difference of 7 points or greater) in adjusted mean change from baseline to week 15 on the EQ-5D visual analogue scale, in contrast to a clinically meaningful deterioration in the investigator's choice group (7·3 vs -7·8). Differences between groups were significant and clinically meaningful at weeks 9 and 15 in favour of nivolumab for role functioning, social functioning, fatigue, dyspnoea, and appetite loss on the EORTC QLQ-C30 and pain and sensory problems on the EORTC QLQ-H&N35. Median time to deterioration was significantly longer with nivolumab versus investigator's choice for 13 (37%) of 35 domains assessed across the three questionnaires. INTERPRETATION: In this exploratory analysis of CheckMate 141, nivolumab stabilised symptoms and functioning from baseline to weeks 9 and 15, whereas investigator's choice led to clinically meaningful deterioration. Nivolumab delayed time to deterioration of patient-reported quality-of-life outcomes compared with single-agent therapy of investigator's choice in patients with platinum-refractory recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. In view of the major unmet need in this population and the importance of maintaining or improving quality of life for patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, these data support nivolumab as a new standard-of-care option in this setting. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Anorexia/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Docetaxel , Dispneia/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/complicações , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/complicações , Nivolumabe , Dor/etiologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Transtornos das Sensações/etiologia , Participação Social , Taxoides/uso terapêutico
13.
Eur J Cancer ; 82: 80-91, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28651159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody of immune checkpoint programmed death 1 on T cells (PD-1), combined with ipilimumab, an immune checkpoint cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor, as combination therapy on the one hand and nivolumab as monotherapy on the other, have both demonstrated improved efficacy compared with ipilimumab alone in the CheckMate 067 study. However, the combination resulted in a higher frequency of grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs), which could result in diminished health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Here we report analyses of HRQoL for patients with advanced melanoma in clinical trial CheckMate 067. PATIENTS AND METHODS: HRQoL was assessed at weeks 1 and 5 per 6-week cycle for the first 6 months, once every 6 weeks thereafter, and at two follow-up visits using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Care Core Quality of Life Questionnaire and the EuroQoL Five Dimensions Questionnaire. In addition to the randomised population, patient subgroups, including BRAF mutation status, partial or complete response, treatment-related AEs of grade 3/4, and those who discontinued due to any reason and due to an AE, were investigated. RESULTS: Nivolumab and ipilimumab combination and nivolumab alone both maintained HRQoL, and no clinically meaningful deterioration was observed over time compared with ipilimumab. In addition, similar results were observed across patient subgroups, and no clinically meaningful changes in HRQoL were observed during follow-up visits for patients who discontinued due to any cause. CONCLUSION: These results further support the clinical benefit of nivolumab monotherapy and nivolumab and ipilimumab combination therapy in patients with advanced melanoma. The finding that the difference in grade 3/4 AEs between the arms did not translate into clinically meaningful differences in the reported HRQoL may be relevant in the clinical setting. STUDY NUMBER: NCT01844505.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Ipilimumab , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe
14.
Glob Heart ; 12(3): 199-208.e8, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27452771

RESUMO

This study sought to determine the effectiveness of multiple risk factor interventions aimed at modifying major cardiovascular risk factors for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials of health promotion interventions to achieve behavior change. The pooled effect indicated a reduction in systolic blood pressure (-6.72 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -9.82 to -3.61; I2 = 91%), diastolic blood pressure (-4.40 mm Hg; 95% CI: -6.47 to -2.34; I2 = 92%), body mass index (-0.76 kg/m2; 95% CI: -1.29 to -0.22; I2 = 80%), and waist circumference (-3.31 cm; 95% CI: -4.77 to -1.86; I2 = 55%) in favor of multiple risk factor interventions. There is some evidence that multiple risk factor interventions may lower blood pressure levels and anthropometrics in populations in LMIC settings at high risk of hypertension and diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos , Morbidade , Prevenção Primária/economia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 924: 29-32, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27753014

RESUMO

Molecular profiling using low coverage whole genome sequencing of cell free DNA (cfDNA) represents a non-targeted approach to identify multiple somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) across different lung cancer subtypes. We aim to establish that SCNA can be detected in cfDNA of lung cancer cases.Standard protocols were followed to process matched cfDNA, formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumour and lymphocyte DNA. Copy number profiles for cfDNA or FFPE DNA were normalised to profiles from matched lymphocyte DNA with the software CNAnorm. Technical sensitivity was determined by spiking different proportions of FFPE tumour DNA into cfDNA from controls.The median genome coverage was 0.26X (range 0.05X-0.97X). For two advanced stage cases there was a positive correlation between copy number ratio profiles of matched cfDNA and FFPE DNA (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.75, p < 0.0001). There was no correlation for four advanced and two early stage cases. There were low magnitude copy number aberrations detected in high-risk controls (N = 5). We detected spiked FFPE DNA derived SCNAs with a tumour fraction as low as 10 % of cfDNA.Our preliminary results demonstrate non-invasive detection of tumour-derived copy number alterations in advanced lung cancer cases with low coverage whole genome sequencing. Clinical characteristics and treatment may influence whether SCNA are detected in cfDNA.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Formaldeído , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Inclusão em Parafina , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fixação de Tecidos
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012371, 2016 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27726123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents who have experienced trauma are at high risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes, all of which are associated with high personal and health costs. A wide range of psychological treatments are used to prevent negative outcomes associated with trauma in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychological therapies in preventing PTSD and associated negative emotional, behavioural and mental health outcomes in children and adolescents who have undergone a traumatic event. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group's Specialised Register to 29 May 2015. This register contains reports of relevant randomised controlled trials from The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO (1967 to date). We also checked reference lists of relevant studies and reviews. We did not restrict the searches by date, language or publication status. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials of psychological therapies compared with a control such as treatment as usual, waiting list or no treatment, pharmacological therapy or other treatments in children or adolescents who had undergone a traumatic event. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two members of the review group independently extracted data. We calculated odds ratios for binary outcomes and standardised mean differences for continuous outcomes using a random-effects model. We analysed data as short-term (up to and including one month after therapy), medium-term (one month to one year after therapy) and long-term (one year or longer). MAIN RESULTS: Investigators included 6201 participants in the 51 included trials. Twenty studies included only children, two included only preschool children and ten only adolescents; all others included both children and adolescents. Participants were exposed to sexual abuse in 12 trials, to war or community violence in ten, to physical trauma and natural disaster in six each and to interpersonal violence in three; participants had suffered a life-threatening illness and had been physically abused or maltreated in one trial each. Participants in remaining trials were exposed to a range of traumas.Most trials compared a psychological therapy with a control such as treatment as usual, wait list or no treatment. Seventeen trials used cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT); four used family therapy; three required debriefing; two trials each used eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), narrative therapy, psychoeducation and supportive therapy; and one trial each provided exposure and CBT plus narrative therapy. Eight trials compared CBT with supportive therapy, two compared CBT with EMDR and one trial each compared CBT with psychodynamic therapy, exposure plus supportive therapy with supportive therapy alone and narrative therapy plus CBT versus CBT alone. Four trials compared individual delivery of psychological therapy to a group model of the same therapy, and one compared CBT for children versus CBT for both mothers and children.The likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD in children and adolescents who received a psychological therapy was significantly reduced compared to those who received no treatment, treatment as usual or were on a waiting list for up to a month following treatment (odds ratio (OR) 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 0.77; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 6.25, 95% CI 3.70 to 16.67; five studies; 874 participants). However the overall quality of evidence for the diagnosis of PTSD was rated as very low. PTSD symptoms were also significantly reduced for a month after therapy (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.42, 95% CI -0.61 to -0.24; 15 studies; 2051 participants) and the quality of evidence was rated as low. These effects of psychological therapies were not apparent over the longer term.CBT was found to be no more or less effective than EMDR and supportive therapy in reducing diagnosis of PTSD in the short term (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.91; 2 studies; 160 participants), however this was considered very low quality evidence. For reduction of PTSD symptoms in the short term, there was a small effect favouring CBT over EMDR, play therapy and supportive therapies (SMD -0.24, 95% CI -0.42 to -0.05; 7 studies; 466 participants). The quality of evidence for this outcome was rated as moderate.We did not identify any studies that compared pharmacological therapies with psychological therapies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analyses in this review provide some evidence for the effectiveness of psychological therapies in prevention of PTSD and reduction of symptoms in children and adolescents exposed to trauma for up to a month. However, our confidence in these findings is limited by the quality of the included studies and by substantial heterogeneity between studies. Much more evidence is needed to demonstrate the relative effectiveness of different psychological therapies for children exposed to trauma, particularly over the longer term. High-quality studies should be conducted to compare these therapies.


Assuntos
Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Dessensibilização Psicológica , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Terapia Familiar , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Exposição à Guerra , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lancet Oncol ; 17(7): 994-1003, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27283863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase 3 CheckMate 025 study, previously treated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who were randomly assigned to nivolumab had an overall survival benefit compared with those assigned to everolimus. We aimed to compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between treatment groups in this trial. METHODS: CheckMate 025 was an open-label study done at 146 oncology centres in 24 countries. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment between Oct 22, 2012, and March 11, 2014. Patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma were randomly assigned (1:1, block size of four) to receive nivolumab every 2 weeks or everolimus once per day. The study was stopped early at the planned interim analysis in July, 2015, because the study met its primary endpoint. A protocol amendment permitted patients in the everolimus group to cross over to nivolumab treatment. All patients not on active study therapy are being followed up for survival. At the interim analysis, HRQoL was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Kidney Symptom Index-Disease Related Symptoms (FKSI-DRS) and European Quality of Life (EuroQol)-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaires. Prespecified endpoints were to assess, in each treatment group, disease-related symptom progression rate based on the FKSI-DRS and changes in reported global health outcomes based on the EQ-5D. Other endpoints were post hoc. We calculated the proportion of FKSI-DRS questionnaires completed using the number of patients with non-missing data at baseline and at least one post-baseline visit. We defined FKSI-DRS completion as completion of five or more of the nine items in the questionnaire; otherwise data were treated as missing. FKSI-DRS symptom index score was prorated for missing items. We made no adjustments for missing EQ-5D data. We used descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses, including mixed-effects model repeated-measures, for between group comparisons. Analyses were powered according to the original study protocol, and we analysed FKSI-DRS and EQ-5D data for all patients who underwent randomisation and had a baseline assessment and at least one post-baseline assessment. CheckMate 025 is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01668784. FINDINGS: HRQoL data were collected at baseline for 362 (88%) of 410 patients in the nivolumab group and 344 (84%) of 411 patients in the everolimus group. The mean difference in FKSI-DRS scores between the nivolumab and everolimus groups was 1·6 (95% CI 1·4-1·9; p<0·0001) with descriptive statistics and 1·7 (1·2-2·1; p<0·0001) with mixed-effects model repeated-measures analysis. In terms of FKSI-DRS score, more patients had a clinically meaningful (ie, an increase of at least 2 points from baseline) HRQoL improvement with nivolumab (200 [55%] of 361 patients) versus everolimus (126 [37%] of 343 patients; p<0·0001). Median time to HRQoL improvement was shorter in patients given nivolumab (4·7 months, 95% CI 3·7-7·5) than in patients given everolimus (median not reached, NE-NE). INTERPRETATION: Nivolumab was associated with HRQoL improvement compared with everolimus in previously treated patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Nivolumabe , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Patient ; 9(5): 409-18, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27020447

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to document, from the perspective of the empirical literature, the primary symptoms of functional dyspepsia (FD), evaluate the extent to which existing questionnaires target those symptoms, and, finally, identify any missing evidence that would impact the questionnaires' use in regulated clinical trials to assess treatment efficacy claims intended for product labeling. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify the primary symptoms of FD and existing symptom-based FD patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. Following a database search, abstracts were screened and articles were retrieved for review. The primary symptoms of FD were organized into a conceptual model and the PRO instruments were evaluated for conceptual coverage as well as compared against evidentiary requirements presented in the FDA's PRO Guidance for Industry. RESULTS: Fifty-six articles and 16 instruments assessing FD symptoms were reviewed. Concepts listed in the Rome III criteria for FD (n = 7), those assessed by existing FD instruments (n = 34), and symptoms reported by patients in published qualitative research (n = 6) were summarized in the FD conceptual model. Except for vomiting, all of the identified symptoms from the published qualitative research reports were also specified in the Rome III criteria. Only three of the 16 instruments, the Dyspepsia Symptom Severity Index (DSSI), Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI), and Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI), measure all seven FD symptoms defined by the Rome III criteria. Among these three, each utilizes a 2-week recall period and 5-point Likert-type scale, and had evidence of patient involvement in development. Despite their coverage, when these instruments were evaluated in light of regulatory expectations, several issues jeopardized their potential qualification for substantiation of a labeling claim. CONCLUSIONS: No existing PRO instruments that measured all seven symptoms adhered to the regulatory principles necessary to support product labeling. As such, the development of a new FD symptom PRO instrument is supported.


Assuntos
Dispepsia/complicações , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
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