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2.
Ethics Hum Res ; 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620774

RESUMO

In the early days of a pandemic, repurposing biospecimens from established research projects could prove to be extraordinarily useful in achieving substantial and timely public health benefits. Nonetheless, there are potential ethical and regulatory uncertainties that may impede access to those valuable biospecimens. In this article, we argue that there should be a presumption in favor of using previously collected identifiable research biospecimens without reconsent to directly address an infectious disease pandemic, assuming certain conditions are met. This argument fills a unique yet critical gap in decision-making where the specific consent accompanying the identifiable biospecimens would not otherwise permit repurposing. Further, it suggests that even if gaining reconsent is feasible, doing so in a fast-moving crisis is not necessary. This analysis also attempts to address the ethical concerns of public health authorities who already may have the power to use such specimens but are reluctant to do so.

5.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 42, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894402

RESUMO

Navigating an unfamiliar city almost certainly brings out uncertainty about getting from place to place. This uncertainty, in turn, triggers information gathering. While navigational uncertainty is common, little is known about what type of information people seek when they are uncertain. The primary choices for information types with environments include landmarks (distal or local), landmark configurations (relation between two or more landmarks), and a distinct geometry, at least for some environments. Uncertainty could lead individuals to more likely seek one of these information types. Extant research informs both predictions about and empirical work exploring this question. This review covers relevant cognitive literature and then suggests empirical approaches to better understand information-seeking actions triggered by uncertainty. Notably, we propose that examining continuous navigation data can provide important insights into information seeking. Benefits of continuous data will be elaborated through one paradigm, spatial reorientation, which intentionally induces uncertainty through disorientation and cue conflict. While this and other methods have been used previously, data have primarily reflected only the final choice. Continuous behavior during a task can better reveal the cognition-action loop contributing to spatial learning and decision making.

7.
MDM Policy Pract ; 5(1): 2381468320915239, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440569

RESUMO

In making policy decisions with constrained resources, an important consideration is the impact of alternative policy options on social justice. Social justice considers interactions between individuals and society and can be conceptualized across domains of agency, association, and respect. Despite its importance, social justice is rarely considered formally in health policy decision making, partially reflecting challenges in its measurement. We define three criteria for considering social justice in health-related policy decisions: 1) linkage of social justice to a measurable construct; 2) ability to reproducibly and feasibly estimate the impacts of a policy decision on the selected construct; and 3) appropriate presentation to decision makers of the expected social justice implications using that construct. We use preliminary data from qualitative interviews from three groups of respondents in South Africa and Uganda to demonstrate that stigma meets the first of these criteria. We then use the example of policy addressing novel treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and a validated tuberculosis stigma scale to illustrate how policy effects on stigma could be estimated (criterion 2) and presented to decision makers in the form of justice-enhanced cost-effectiveness analysis (criterion 3). Finally, we provide a point-by-point guide for conducting similar assessments to facilitate consideration of social justice in health-related policy decisions. Our case study and guide for how to make social justice impacts more apparent to decision makers also illustrates the importance of local data and local capacity. Performing social justice assessments alongside more traditional evaluations of cost-effectiveness, budget impact, and burden of disease could help represent data-informed considerations of social justice in health care decision making more broadly.

8.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 5(1): 17, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300890

RESUMO

Considering how spatial thinking connects to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) outcomes, recent studies have evaluated how spatial interventions impact elementary students' math learning. While promising, these interventions tend to overlook other factors affecting math learning; perceptions of math abilities, beliefs about math, and math anxiety can also impact math performance. Additionally, perceptions of spatial skill and spatial anxiety impact spatial performance. This study investigated how elementary teachers' perceptions of spatial thinking connects with math perceptions. Specifically, we focused on teachers' attitudes and beliefs around three topics: teaching and learning math, spatial abilities, and spatial thinking in mathematics. We found that lower spatial anxiety related to lower anxiety about teaching math, greater alignment between math beliefs and math standards, and greater efficacy in teaching and learning math. Further, a factor analysis showed one factor that connected stereotypical math thinking with both math and spatial anxiety, and another that connected spatial competencies, teaching and learning math, and spatial thinking within math. To further evaluate spatial thinking in math, we introduced a math categorization and verified it using teachers' ratings of teaching difficulty, visualization helpfulness, and spatial-thinking involvement. Structural equation models revealed that the level of spatial-thinking categorization was the best model of all three of the teachers' ratings. Overall, results showed numerous connections between teachers' attitudes and beliefs about mathematics and spatial thinking. Future intervention studies should consider teachers who are spatial and/or math-anxious, and future research should investigate the role of stereotypical thinking in spatial and math anxiety.

9.
AJOB Empir Bioeth ; 11(1): 1, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096723
10.
Cogn Process ; 21(2): 287-302, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974762

RESUMO

Finding one's way to a destination is a common, everyday task that often relies on spatial information provided by humans and/or automatic devices. However, the information can be inaccurate. How we decide which route to take will depend on our thoughts about the available route information, including who or what provided it, and how these sources may be associated with differential accuracy and fallibility. In three experiments (previously reported in Brunyé et al. (Q J Exper Psychol 68(3):585-607, 2015)), we found that when route directions conflicted with the perceived environment, people trusted the landmark information other humans provided, but relied on the turn direction information from an automatic device. But what guides these behavioral results? Here we present a systematic linguistic analysis of retrospective reports that sheds some light on how information about the direction source affects cognitive focus. A focus on direction sources in the instruction triggered a cognitive focus on the direction source throughout. Participants who systematically switched strategies focused more on features of the scenario than those who did not. Non-switching strategies were associated with a higher focus on the participants' own reasoning processes, in particular when relying on turn information. These results highlight how cognitive focus is guided by scenario factors and individual preferences, triggering inferences that influence decisions.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Navegação Espacial , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Incerteza
11.
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell ; 42(3): 509-520, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507525

RESUMO

Cross-modality face recognition is an emerging topic due to the wide-spread usage of different sensors in day-to-day life applications. The development of face recognition systems relies greatly on existing databases for evaluation and obtaining training examples for data-hungry machine learning algorithms. However, currently, there is no publicly available face database that includes more than two modalities for the same subject. In this work, we introduce the Tufts Face Database that includes images acquired in various modalities: photograph images, thermal images, near infrared images, a recorded video, a computerized facial sketch, and 3D images of each volunteer's face. An Institutional Research Board protocol was obtained and images were collected from students, staff, faculty, and their family members at Tufts University. The database includes over 10,000 images from 113 individuals from more than 15 different countries, various gender identities, ages, and ethnic backgrounds. The contributions of this work are: 1) Detailed description of the content and acquisition procedure for images in the Tufts Face Database; 2) The Tufts Face Database is publicly available to researchers worldwide, which will allow assessment and creation of more robust, consistent, and adaptable recognition algorithms; 3) A comprehensive, up-to-date review on face recognition systems and face datasets.

12.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 46(1): 24-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998073

RESUMO

Students learn more effectively through repeated retrieval of study materials relative to repeated exposure to the materials, a phenomenon known as the testing effect or retrieval practice. This pattern has been demonstrated repeatedly with verbal materials, and more recently with visuospatial materials. The extent to which retrieval practice produces spatial memories that successfully transfer to more diverse task demands remains unknown. Transferring spatial memory to novel task demands can involve challenging orientation and perspective transformations, possibly limiting the benefits of retrieval practice for application to realistic spatial tasks. In 4 experiments, participants learned a map of a large-scale urban environment, engaging in either study practice (repeated exposure) or retrieval practice (exposure and testing). Across experiments we varied the retrieval demands of the final memory test, increasing the breadth of transfer from study to test (from near to far transfer). Final memory tests included reconstructing a map from memory (Experiment 1), judgments of relative direction from an allocentric perspective (Experiment 2), judgments of relative direction from an egocentric perspective (Experiment 3), and navigating between target landmarks within the learned environment (Experiment 4). Results demonstrated that retrieval practice enhances near to medium transfer of memory for the map itself, including accessing spatial memory from varied orientations. However, it does not assist in medium to far transfer of spatial knowledge to pointing or navigation tasks performed from an alternate perspective. Results are considered in the context of domain-specific theories of spatial memory and navigation, and domain-general theories of learning strategies and transfer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mapas como Assunto , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychol Res ; 84(1): 177-191, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29318375

RESUMO

Action-compatibility effects (ACEs) arise due to incongruity between perceptuo-motor traces stored in memory and the perceptuo-motor demands of a retrieval task. Recent research has suggested that ACEs arising during spatial memory retrieval are additionally modulated by individual differences in how experienced participants are with a college campus environment. However, the extent and nature of experience with a real-world environment is difficult to assess and control, and characteristics of the retrieval task itself might modulate ACEs during spatial memory retrieval. The present study provides a more controlled and in-depth examination of how individual differences and task-based factors interact to shape ACEs when participants retrieve spatial memories. In two experiments, participants with varied video game experience learned a virtual environment and then used the computer mouse to verify spatial relationships from different perspectives. Mouse trajectories demonstrated ACEs, differing by retrieval perspective and video game experience. Videogame experts demonstrated the ACE based on learned spatial relationships during egocentric retrieval only, whereas videogame novices showed the ACE based on semantic processing of directional terms only. Specifically, gaming experts invoke perspective-specific perceptuo-motor associations to retrieve spatial knowledge, whereas non-experts are influenced by semantically based associations specific to the retrieval task. Results are discussed in the context of action-compatibility effects, the intentional weighting hypothesis, and the flexible encoding and retrieval of spatial information.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Law Med Ethics ; 47(3): 398-408, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560623

RESUMO

This paper examines the practice implications of various state policies that provide publicly funded prenatal care to undocumented immigrants for health care workers who see undocumented patients. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with purposively sampled health care workers at safety net clinics in California, Maryland, Nebraska, and New York. Health care workers were asked about the process through which undocumented patients receive prenatal care in their health center and the ethical tensions and frustrations they encounter when providing or facilitating this care under policy restrictions. Respondents discussed several professional practice norms as well as the ethical tensions they encountered when policy or institutional constraints prevented them from living up to professional norms. Using Nancy Berlinger's "workarounds" framework, this paper examines health care workers' responses to the misalignment of their professional norms and the policy restrictions in their state. These findings suggest that the prenatal policies in each state raise ethical and professional challenges for the health care workers who implement them.

15.
J Law Med Ethics ; 47(1): 152-160, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994076

RESUMO

To help eliminate perinatal HIV transmission, the US Department of Health and Human Services recommends against breastfeeding for women living with HIV, regardless of viral load or combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) status. However, cART radically improves HIV prognosis and virtually eliminates perinatal transmission, and breastfeeding's health benefits are well-established. In this setting, pregnancy is increasing among American women with HIV, and a harm reduction approach to those who breastfeed despite extensive counseling is suggested. We assess the evidence and ethical justification for current policy, with attention to pertinent racial and health disparities. We first review perinatal transmission and breastfeeding data relevant to US infants. We compare hypothetical risk of HIV transmission from breastmilk to increased mortality from sudden infant death syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis from avoiding breastfeeding, finding that benefits may outweigh risks if mothers maintain undetectable viral load on cART. We then review maternal health considerations. We conclude that avoidance of breastfeeding by women living with HIV may not maximize health outcomes and discuss our recommendation for revising national guidelines in light of autonomy, harm reduction and health inequities.

16.
Brain Behav ; 9(4): e01236, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884216

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Spatial navigation is a complex cognitive skill that varies between individuals, and the mechanisms underlying this variability are not clear. Studying simpler components of spatial navigation may help illuminate factors that contribute to variation in this complex skill; path integration is one such component. Optic flow provides self-motion information while moving through an environment and is sufficient for path integration. This study aims to investigate whether self-reported navigation ability is related to information transfer between optic flow-sensitive (OF-sensitive) cortical regions and regions important to navigation during environmental spatial tasks. METHODS: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to define OF-sensitive regions and map their functional connectivity (FC) with the retrosplenial cortex and hippocampus during visual path integration (VPI) and turn counting (TC) tasks. Both tasks presented visual self-motion through a real-world environment. Correlations predicting a positive association between self-reported navigation ability (measured with the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale) and FC strength between OF-sensitive regions and retrosplenial cortex and OF-sensitive regions and the hippocampus were performed. RESULTS: During VPI, FC strength between left cingulate sulcus visual area (L CSv) and right retrosplenial cortex and L CSv and right hippocampus was positively associated with self-reported navigation ability. FC strength between right cingulate sulcus visual area (R CSv) and right retrosplenial cortex during VPI was also positively associated with self-reported navigation ability. These relationships were specific to VPI, and whole-brain exploratory analyses corroborated these results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that perceived spatial navigation ability is associated with communication strength between OF-sensitive and navigationally relevant regions during visual path integration, which may represent the transformation accuracy of visual motion information into internal spatial representations. More broadly, these results illuminate underlying mechanisms that may explain some variability in spatial navigation ability.


Assuntos
Fluxo Óptico/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia
17.
Behav Res Methods ; 51(2): 602-638, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788797

RESUMO

Individuals with better spatial thinking have increased interest and greater achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines (Wai, Lubinski, & Benbow in Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 817-835, 2009). This relationship means that STEM education may benefit from leveraging spatial thinking, but measures of spatial thinking as they relate to specific STEM disciplines are needed. The present work presents an assessment of spatial and mathematical reasoning, called Make-A-Dice. In Make-A-Dice, individuals are presented with a cube net (i.e., a flattened cube) with numbers on two sides. Their goal is to "make a dice" by filling in the blank sides using two rules: opposite sides add to 7, and the numbers 1 through 6 should be used once each. Make-A-Dice was given to adults (Study 1) and elementary students (Studies 2 and 3) along with math, spatial, and other measures, across two sessions in all studies. Make-A-Dice had both internal and test-retest reliability, with items ordered by difficulty. Furthermore, performance was related to spatial and mathematical reasoning. In Study 1, adults reported a range of strategies used to complete Make-A-Dice, and one strategy predicted performance. Studies 2 and 3 showed that Make-A-Dice is age-appropriate for elementary students. Make-A-Dice shows promise as an individual-difference measure linking spatial and mathematical thinking and has the potential to identify elementary-aged children who may benefit from spatial training.


Assuntos
Matemática , Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção Espacial , Pensamento , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resolução de Problemas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ethics Hum Res ; 41(1): 15-21, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744312

RESUMO

We reviewed the public comments submitted in response to the Department of Health and Human Services' (DHHS's) original and revised proposal for mandated single-IRB review of federally funded multisite research to see who responded to the proposed mandate and to determine what they said and how the agency addressed the public comments in its revised proposal. Our analysis indicates that support for the single-IRB mandate was limited. The most common argument against the proposed mandate came from those concerned with the loss of site-specific institutional review board (IRB) review of the protocol for a multisite study to address issues relevant to local context. Concerns were also raised that the single-IRB approach would replace one inefficient system (that entails, for example, multiple reviews of a single study) with another potentially inefficient system (involving the negotiation and management of multiple interinstitutional agreements). Empirical research about the implementation of DHHS's final rule-and the separate rule of the National Institutes of Health-mandating single-IRB review is needed to determine whether the single-IRB model achieves the stated goals.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional/normas , Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa , Ética em Pesquisa , Opinião Pública , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Estados Unidos , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services , Universidades
19.
Emotion ; 19(7): 1236-1243, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321039

RESUMO

Individuals with stressful occupations, such as law enforcement and military personnel, are required to operate in high stakes environments that can be simultaneously physically and emotionally demanding. These individuals are tasked with maintaining peak performance under stressful and often unpredictable conditions, exerting high levels of cognitive control to sustain attention and suppress task-irrelevant actions. Previous research has shown that physical and emotional stressors differentially influence such cognitive control processes. For example, physical stress impairs while emotional stress facilitates the ability to inhibit a prepotent response, yet, interactions between the two remain poorly understood. Here we examined whether emotional stress induced by threat of unpredictable electric shock mitigates the effects of physical stress on response inhibition. Participants performed an auditory Go/NoGo task under safe versus threat conditions while cycling at high intensity (84% HRmax) for 50 min. In threat conditions, participants were told they would receive mild electric shocks that were unpredictable and unrelated to task performance. Self-reported anxiety increased under threat versus safe conditions, and perceived exertion increased with exercise duration. As predicted, we observed decrements in response inhibition (increased false alarms) as exertion increased under safe conditions, but improved response inhibition as exertion increased under threat conditions. These findings are consistent with previous work showing that anxiety induced by unpredictable threat promotes adaptive survival mechanisms, such as improved vigilance, threat detection, cautious behavior, and harm avoidance. Here, we suggest that emotional stress induced by unpredictable threat can also mitigate decrements in cognitive performance experienced under physically demanding conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 14(3): 190-196, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541368

RESUMO

There are several reasons to believe that Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and Human Research Protection Programs (HRPPs) contribute to ethical research and the protection of research participants, but there are also important reasons to interrogate this belief. Determining whether IRBs and HRPPs "work" requires empirical evaluation of whether and how well they actually achieve what they were designed to do. In other words, it is critical to examine their outcomes and not only their procedures and structures. In this response to Tsan, we argue that the concept of IRB and HRPP quality entails three dimensions: (1) effectiveness, (2) procedures and structures likely to promote effectiveness, and (3) features unrelated to effectiveness but nonetheless essential, such as efficiency, fairness, and proportionality. Because not all types of quality necessarily guarantee or entail effectiveness, we suggest that broad quality assessments, including such features as regulatory compliance and other procedural measures suggested by Tsan, are unhelpful as the first step in evaluating IRBs and HRPPs. Instead, we must start with outcomes relevant to effectiveness. To do this, we launched the Consortium to Advance Effective Research Ethics Oversight (AEREO), with a mission to define and specify ways to measure relevant outcomes for research ethics oversight, empirically evaluate whether those outcomes are achieved, test new approaches to achieving them, and ultimately, develop and implement empirically-based policy and practice to advance IRB and HRPP effectiveness. We describe several anticipated AEREO projects and call for collaboration between various stakeholders to more meaningfully evaluate IRB and HRPPs.


Assuntos
Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Ética em Pesquisa , Experimentação Humana , Humanos
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