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1.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 99-105, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930425

RESUMO

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(11): e2024329, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146735

RESUMO

Importance: Neighborhood deprivation is associated with age-related disease, mortality, and reduced life expectancy. However, biological pathways underlying these associations are not well understood. Objective: To evaluate the association between neighborhood deprivation and epigenetic measures of age acceleration and genome-wide methylation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the Sister Study, a prospective cohort study comprising 50 884 women living in the US and Puerto Rico aged 35 to 74 years at enrollment who had a sister with breast cancer but had not had breast cancer themselves. Cohort enrollment occurred between July 2003 and March 2009. Participants completed a computer-assisted telephone interview on demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and residential factors and provided anthropometric measures and peripheral blood samples at a home examination. DNA methylation data obtained for 2630 non-Hispanic White women selected for a case-cohort study in 2014 were used in this cross-sectional analysis. DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChips in whole blood samples collected at baseline. Data analysis for this study was performed from October 17, 2019, to August 27, 2020. Exposures: Each participants' primary address was linked to an established index of neighborhood deprivation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Epigenetic age was estimated using 4 epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum, PhenoAge, and GrimAge). Age acceleration was determined using residuals from regressing chronologic age on each of the 4 epigenetic age metrics. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between neighborhood deprivation and epigenetic age acceleration as well as DNA methylation at individual cytosine-guanine sites across the genome. Results: Mean (SD) age of the 2630 participants was 56.9 (8.7) years. Those with the greatest (>75th percentile) vs least (≤25th percentile) neighborhood deprivation had higher epigenetic age acceleration estimated by Hannum (ß = 0.23; 95% CI, 0.01-0.45), PhenoAge (ß = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.06-.50), and GrimAge (ß = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.12-0.62). Increasing US quartiles of neighborhood deprivation exhibited a trend with Hannum, PhenoAge, and GrimAge. For example, GrimAge showed a significant dose-response (P test for trend <.001) as follows: level 2 vs level 1 (ß = 0.30; 95% CI, 0.17-0.42), level 3 vs level 1 (ß = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.50), and level 4 vs level 1 (ß = 0.37; 95% CI, 0.12-0.62). Neighborhood deprivation was found to be associated with 3 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites, with 1 of these annotated to a known gene MAOB (P = 9.71 × 10-08). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that residing in a neighborhood with a higher deprivation index appears to be reflected by methylation-based markers of aging.

4.
Epigenetics ; : 1-8, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749174

RESUMO

Illumina BeadChips are widely utilized in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS). Several studies have reported that many probes on these arrays have poor reliability. Here, we compare different pre-processing methods to improve intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). We describe the characteristics of ICC across the genome, within and between studies, and across different array platforms. Using technical duplicates from 128 subjects, we find that with raw data only 22.5% of the CpGs on 450 K array have 'acceptable' ICCs (>0.5). Data preprocessing steps, such as background correction and dye bias correction, can reduce technical noise and improve the percentage to 38.5%. Similar to previous studies, we found that ICC is associated with CpG methylation level such that 83% of CpGs with intermediate methylation (0.1< beta-value <0.9) have acceptable ICCs, whereas only 21% of CpGs with low or high methylation (beta-value <0.1 or >0.9) have acceptable ICCs. ICC is also correlated with CpG methylation variance; after mutual adjustment for beta-value and variance, only variance remains correlated. Many CpGs with poor ICCs (<0.5) are located in biologically important regulatory regions, including gene promoters and CpG islands. Poor ICC at these sites appears to be a consequence of low biologic variation among individuals rather than increased technical measurement variation. ICCs quality classifications are highly concordant across different array platforms and across different studies. We find that ICC can be reliably estimated with 30 pairs of duplicate samples. CpGs with acceptable ICC have higher study power and are more commonly reported in published epigenome-wide studies.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803843

RESUMO

Cannabis use is highly prevalent and is associated with adverse and beneficial effects. To better understand the full spectrum of health consequences, biomarkers that accurately classify cannabis use are needed. DNA methylation (DNAm) is an excellent candidate, yet no blood-based epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) in humans exist. We conducted an EWAS of lifetime cannabis use (ever vs. never) using blood-based DNAm data from a case-cohort study within Sister Study, a prospective cohort of women at risk of developing breast cancer (Discovery N = 1,730 [855 ever users]; Replication N = 853 [392 ever users]). We identified and replicated an association with lifetime cannabis use at cg15973234 (CEMIP): combined p = 3.3 × 10-8 . We found no overlap between published blood-based cis-meQTLs of cg15973234 and reported lifetime cannabis use-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs; p < .05), suggesting that the observed DNAm difference was driven by cannabis exposure. We also developed a multi-CpG classifier of lifetime cannabis use using penalized regression of top EWAS CpGs. The resulting 50-CpG classifier produced an area under the curve (AUC) = 0.74 (95% CI [0.72, 0.76], p = 2.00 × 10-5 ) in the discovery sample and AUC = 0.54 ([0.51, 0.57], p = 2.87 × 10-2 ) in the replication sample. Our EWAS findings provide evidence that blood-based DNAm is associated with lifetime cannabis use.

6.
Bioinformatics ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805005

RESUMO

SUMMARY: ipDMR is an R software tool for identification of differentially methylated regions using auto-correlated P values for individual CpGs from epigenome-wide association analysis using array or bisulfite sequencing data. It summarizes p-values for adjacent CpGs, identifies association peaks, and then extends peaks to find boundaries of differentially methylated regions. ipDMR uses BED format files as input and is easy to use. Simulations guided by real data found that ipDMR outperformed current available methods and provided slightly higher true positive rates and much lower false discovery rates. AVAILABILITY: ipDMR is available at https://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/ENmix.html.

7.
Br J Nutr ; 124(6): 611-619, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321598

RESUMO

At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case-control and one nested case-cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados , Alimentos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1919536, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951276

RESUMO

Importance: Higher overall leukocyte counts in women may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer, but the association of specific leukocyte subtypes with breast cancer risk remains unknown. Objective: To determine associations between circulating leukocyte subtypes and risk of breast cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: Between 2003 and 2009, the Sister Study enrolled 50 884 women who had a sister previously diagnosed with breast cancer but were themselves breast cancer free. A case-cohort subsample was selected in July 2014 from the full Sister Study cohort. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, and women were followed up through October 2016. Data analysis was performed in April 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was the development of breast cancer in women. Whole-blood DNA methylation was measured, and methylation values were deconvoluted using the Houseman method to estimate proportions of 6 leukocyte subtypes (B cells, natural killer cells, CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes). Leukocyte subtype proportions were dichotomized at their population median value, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate associations with breast cancer. Results: Among 2774 non-Hispanic white women included in the analysis (mean [SD] age at enrollment, 56.6 [8.8] years), 1295 women were randomly selected from the full cohort (of whom 91 developed breast cancer) along with an additional 1479 women who developed breast cancer during follow-up (mean [SD] time to diagnosis, 3.9 [2.2] years). Circulating proportions of B cells were positively associated with later breast cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.36; P = .04). Among women who were premenopausal at blood collection, the association between B cells and breast cancer was significant (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.05-1.82; P = .02), and an inverse association for circulating proportions of monocytes was found (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57-0.99; P = .05). Among all women, associations between leukocyte subtypes and breast cancer were time dependent: higher monocyte proportions were associated with decreased near-term risk (within 1 year of blood collection, HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.89; P = .01), whereas higher B cell proportions were associated with increased risk 4 or more years after blood collection (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.15-1.67; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Circulating leukocyte profiles may be altered before clinical diagnoses of breast cancer and may be time-dependent markers for breast cancer risk, particularly among premenopausal women.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Imunidade Celular , Leucócitos/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(1): 87-94, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood DNA methylation may be associated with breast cancer, but studies of candidate genes and global and genome-wide DNA methylation have been inconsistent. METHODS: We performed an epigenome-wide study using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips with prospectively collected blood DNA samples from the Sister Study (1552 cases, 1224 subcohort). Differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (dmCpGs) were identified using case-cohort proportional hazard models and replicated using deposited data from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition in Italy (EPIC-Italy) (n = 329). The correlation between methylation and time to diagnosis was examined using robust linear regression. Causal or consequential relationships of methylation to breast cancer were examined by Mendelian randomization using OncoArray 500 K single-nucleotide polymorphism data. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 9601 CpG markers associated with invasive breast cancer (false discovery rate = q < 0.01), with 510 meeting a strict Bonferroni correction threshold (10-7). A total of 2095 of these CpGs replicated in the independent EPIC-Italy dataset, including 144 meeting the Bonferroni threshold. Sister Study women who developed ductal carcinoma in situ had methylation similar to noncases. Most (1501, 71.6%) dmCpGs showed lower methylation in invasive cases. In case-only analysis, methylation was statistically significantly associated (false discovery rate = q < 0.05) with time to diagnosis for 892 (42.6%) of the dmCpGs. Analyses based on genetic association suggest that methylation differences are likely a consequence rather than a cause of breast cancer. Pathway analysis shows enrichment of breast cancer-related gene pathways, and dmCpGs are overrepresented in known breast cancer susceptibility genes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the DNA methylation profile of blood starts to change in response to invasive breast cancer years before the tumor is clinically detected.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Biologia Computacional , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Irmãos
11.
Epigenetics ; 15(5): 524-535, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822152

RESUMO

Although underlying mechanisms of long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular disease remain obscure, effects might partially act through changes in DNA methylation. We examined the associations between long-term ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and methylation, considering both a global measure and methylation at several specific inflammation-related loci, in two random sub-cohorts selected from a nationwide prospective study of US women. In one sub-cohort we measured long interspersed nucleotide element (LINE-1); in the other, we measured methylation at three candidates CpG loci related to inflammatory pathways [tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2)]. Annual average contemporaneous ambient PM2.5 concentrations were estimated for the current residence. We used both classical least-squares and quantile regression models to estimate the long-term effects. The women in sub-cohorts 1 (n = 491) and 2 (n = 882) had mean ages of 55.8 and 56.7, respectively. Neither modelling approach showed an association between long-term PM2.5 and LINE-1 methylation or between PM2.5 and either of the two CpG sites in TLR-2. Using linear regression, there was an estimated change of -6.5% (95% confidence interval CI: -13.34%, 0.35%) in mean methylation of TNF-α per 5 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Quantile regression showed that the downward shift was mainly in the lower half of the distribution of DNA methylation. Long-term residence in regions with higher ambient PM2.5 may be associated with increased TNF-α through a reduction in methylation, particularly in the lower tail. Epigenetic markers and quantile regression might provide insight into mechanisms underlying the relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(24): 11975-11987, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848323

RESUMO

Measures derived using blood DNA methylation are increasingly under investigation as indicators of disease and mortality risk. Three existing epigenetic age measures or "epigenetic clocks" appear associated with breast cancer. Two newly-developed epigenetic mortality predictors may be related to all-cancer incidence, but associations with specific cancers have not been examined in large studies. Using HumanMethylation450 BeadChips to measure blood DNA methylation in 2,773 cancer-free women enrolled in the Sister Study, we calculated two epigenetic mortality predictors: 'GrimAgeAccel' and the 'mortality score' (MS). Using Cox proportional hazard models, neither GrimAgeAccel nor the MS were associated with overall breast cancer incidence (GrimAgeAccel hazard ratio [HR]: 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-1.14, P=0.17; MS HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.92-1.07, P=0.85); however, a weak, positive association was observed for GrimAgeAccel and invasive breast cancer (HR: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.99-1.17, P=0.08). Stratification of invasive cancers by menopause status at diagnoses revealed the association was predominantly observed for postmenopausal breast cancer (HR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.20, P=0.04). Although the MS was unrelated to breast cancer risk, we find evidence that GrimAgeAccel may be weakly associated with invasive breast cancer, particularly for women diagnosed after menopause.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Adulto , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Hum Reprod ; 34(10): 1965-1973, 2019 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600381

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Are reproductive characteristics associated with genome-wide DNA methylation and epigenetic age? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our data suggest that increasing parity is associated with differences in blood DNA methylation and small increases in epigenetic age. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A study of 397 young Filipino women (ages 20-22) observed increasing epigenetic age with an increasing number of pregnancies. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We used data from 2356 non-Hispanic white women (ages 35-74) enrolled in the Sister Study cohort. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Data on reproductive history were ascertained via questionnaire. Of the 2356 women, 1897 (81%) reported at least one live birth. Among parous women, 487 (26%) women reported ever experiencing a pregnancy complication. Three epigenetic clocks (i.e. Hannum, Horvath and Levine) and genome-wide methylation were measured in DNA from whole blood using Illumina's HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We estimated association ß-values and 95% CIs using linear regression. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: All three epigenetic clocks showed weak associations between number of births and epigenetic age (per live birth; Hannum: ß = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.29, P = 0.03; Horvath: ß = 0.12, 95% CI = -0.04, 0.27, P = 0.14; Levine: ß = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.45, P = 0.01); however, additional adjustment for current BMI attenuated the associations. Among parous women, a history of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy was associated with increased epigenetic age by the Hannum clock (ß = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.10, 1.81; P = 0.03) and Levine clocks (ß = 1.69; 95% CI = 0.54, 2.84; P < 0.01). In epigenome-wide analysis, increasing parity was associated with methylation differences at 17 CpG sites (Bonferroni corrected P≤ 1.0 × 10-7). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We relied on retrospective recall to ascertain reproductive history and pregnancy complications. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our findings suggest that parity is associated with small increases in epigenetic age and with DNA methylation at multiple sites in the genome. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This research was supported by the Intramural Research program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (Z01-ES049033, Z01-ES049032 and Z01-ES044055). None of the authors have a conflict of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Paridade/genética , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Epigenomics ; 11(13): 1487-1500, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536415

RESUMO

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Fumar Tabaco/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Int ; 132: 105071, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic age, as defined by DNA methylation, may be influenced by air pollution exposure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between NO2, particulate matter (PM), PM components and accelerated epigenetic age. METHODS: In a sample of non-Hispanic white women living in the contiguous U.S. (n = 2747), we estimated residential exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 using a model incorporating land-use regression and kriging. Predictive k-means was used to assign participants to clusters representing different PM2.5 component profiles. We measured DNA methylation (DNAm) in blood using the Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and calculated DNAm age using the Hannum, Horvath and Levine epigenetic clocks. Age acceleration was defined based on residuals after regressing DNAm age on chronological age. We estimated associations between interquartile range (IQR) increases in pollutants and age acceleration using linear regression. For PM2.5, we stratified by cluster membership. We examined epigenome-wide associations using robust linear regression models corrected with false discovery rate q-values. RESULTS: NO2 was inversely associated with age acceleration using the Hannum clock (ß = -0.24, 95% CI: -0.47, -0.02). No associations were observed for PM10. For PM2.5, the association with age acceleration varied by PM2.5 component cluster. For example, with the Levine clock, an IQR increase in PM2.5 was associated with an over 6-year age acceleration in a cluster that has relatively high fractions of crustal elements relative to overall PM2.5 (ß = 6.57, 95% CI: 2.68, 10.47), and an almost 2-year acceleration in a cluster characterized by relatively low sulfur fractions (ß = 1.88, 95% CI: 0.51, 3.25). In a cluster distinguished by lower relative nitrate concentrations, PM2.5 was inversely associated with age acceleration (ß = -1.33, 95% CI: -2.43, -0.23). Across the epigenome, NO2 was associated with methylation at 2 CpG sites. CONCLUSION: Air pollution was associated with epigenetic age, a marker of mortality and disease risk, among certain PM2.5 component profiles.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Metilação de DNA , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 859-870, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent results for coffee consumption and bladder cancer (BC) risk have been shown in epidemiological studies. This research aims to increase the understanding of the association between coffee consumption and BC risk by bringing together worldwide case-control studies on this topic. METHODS: Data were collected from 13 case-control comprising of 5,911 cases and 16,172 controls. Pooled multivariate odds ratios (ORs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were obtained using multilevel logistic regression models. Furthermore, linear dose-response relationships were examined using fractional polynomial models. RESULTS: No association of BC risk was observed with coffee consumption among smokers. However, after adjustment for age, gender, and smoking, the risk was significantly increased for never smokers (ever vs. never coffee consumers: ORmodel2 1.30, 95% CI 1.06-1.59; heavy (> 4 cups/day) coffee consumers vs. never coffee consumers: ORmodel2 1.52, 95% CI 1.18-1.97, p trend = 0.23). In addition, dose-response analyses, in both the overall population and among never smokers, also showed a significant increased BC risk for coffee consumption of more than four cups per day. Among smokers, a significant increased BC risk was shown only after consumption of more than six cups per day. CONCLUSION: This research suggests that positive associations between coffee consumption and BC among never smokers but not smokers.


Assuntos
Café , Fumar/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
17.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 1055-1065, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938765

RESUMO

The biological mechanisms driving associations between alcohol consumption and chronic diseases might include epigenetic modification of DNA methylation. We explored the hypothesis that alcohol consumption is associated with methylation in an epigenome-wide association study of blood and normal breast tissue DNA. Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, California) array data on blood DNA methylation was examined in a discovery set of 2,878 non-Hispanic white women from the Sister Study (United States, 2004-2015) who provided detailed questionnaire information on lifetime alcohol use. Robust linear regression modeling was used to identify significant associations (false discovery rate of Q < 0.05) between the number of alcoholic drinks per week and DNA methylation at 5,458 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites. Associations were replicated (P < 0.05) for 677 CpGs in an independent set of 187 blood DNA samples from the Sister Study and for 628 CpGs in an independent set of 171 normal breast DNA samples; 1,207 CpGs were replicated in either blood or normal breast, with 98 CpGs replicated in both tissues. Individual gene effects were notable for phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGHDH), peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIF), solute carrier 15 (SLC15), solute carrier family 43 member 1 (SLC43A1), and solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11). We also found that high alcohol consumption was associated with significantly lower global methylation as measured by the average of CpGs on the entire array.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ilhas de CpG/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigenoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Irmãos , Estados Unidos
18.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/biossíntese
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(5): 1536-1544, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shift work has been associated with increased risk of age-related morbidity and mortality. Biological age, estimated using DNA methylation (DNAm), may quantify the biological consequences of shift work on the risk of age-related disease. We examined whether prior employment in shift-working occupations was associated with epigenetic age acceleration. METHODS: In a sample of non-Hispanic White women aged 35-74 (n = 2574), we measured DNAm using the Illumina Infinium Human450 BeadChip and calculated DNAm age using three established epigenetic clocks. Age-acceleration metrics were derived by regressing DNAm age on chronological age and predicting the residuals. Using linear regression, we estimated associations between shift work history and age acceleration. We also conducted an epigenome-wide association study using robust linear-regression models corrected with false discovery rate (FDR) q-values. RESULTS: Approximately 7% of women reported any shift work. Higher age acceleration was observed for a 1-year increase in overall [ß = 0.11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02-0.21] and night-specific shift work (ß = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.03-0.21). The association was strongest for ≥10 years of night shift work (ß = 3.16, 95% CI: 1.17-5.15). From the epigenome-wide association study, years of overall and night shift work were associated with DNAm at 66 and 85 CpG sites (FDR < 0.05), respectively. Years of night shift work was associated with lower methylation of a CpG in the gene body of ZFHX3 (cg04994202, q = 0.04), a gene related to circadian rhythm. CONCLUSIONS: Shift work was associated with differential CpG site methylation and with differential DNAm patterns, measured by epigenetic age acceleration, consistent with long-term negative health effects.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 40, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Isolated orofacial clefts are among the most common congenital birth defects. Although the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown, clefts are thought to be complex disorders influenced by genetic, environmental, and potentially epigenetic factors. METHODS: In blood samples from 2- to 3-day-old infants (n = 747) collected in a nationwide population-based study of orofacial clefts in Norway, we measured DNA methylation profiles for more than 450,000 CpGs and then conducted epigenome-wide association analyses (EWAS). We tested methylation profile difference at each CpG between controls (n = 436) and each of the cleft subtypes (92 cleft lip only, CLO; 84 cleft palate only, CPO; 132 cleft lip and palate, CLP). We also compared controls to various combinations of case groups and compared case subtypes to each other. Finally, using the EWAS results, we searched for larger differentially methylated regions (DMRs) associated with orofacial clefts. RESULTS: In EWAS comparing controls to individual cleft subtypes, we found no significant associations at a Bonferroni P value threshold of 10-7. After pooling case groups, we found two significantly differentially methylated CpGs: cg09696939 near gene BICC1 is associated with CLO+CLP (P = 9.58 × 10-8); cg26985354 in gene CLASRP is associated with CPO+CLP (P = 7.38 × 10-8). In DMR analysis, we identified a total of 56 significant regions when comparing controls to individual cleft subtypes (10 for CLO, 6 for CPO, 41 for CLP). Only one DMR is shared among the three cleft groups. In combined case group analysis, we found 26 DMRs for CLP+CLO, 31 for CLP+CPO, and 37 when all subtypes are combined. Finally, in case-case comparisons of subtypes, we identified 10 DMRs when comparing CLP to CPO, 9 in CLP compared to CLO, and 13 in CLP compared to CPO. CONCLUSIONS: We identified two individual CpGs and multiple DMRs that differ between controls and cleft case subtypes. Although we find some evidence for the possible role of DNA methylation in etiology of orofacial clefts, our study does not support previous reports of widespread differences in blood DNA methylation between babies with and without facial clefts.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Metilação de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Fatores de Processamento de Serina-Arginina/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Noruega
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