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1.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(1): 119-128, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757295

RESUMO

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-refractory high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer remains a challenging problem. Radical cystectomy is standard of care, but carries significant morbidity. Therefore, there is a need for effective treatments. Previous salvage intravesical therapies have had disappointing results with long-term follow-up; however, a wide array of novel agents is currently under investigation. These include novel combinations of existing intravesical agents, novel modes of delivery such as hyperthermia, viral mediated therapies, and immunotherapy. We review the need for novel treatment with existing agents and their long-term results, and discuss novel intravesical therapies and the data currently available on these therapies.

2.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e030618, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772088

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although colorectal cancer outcomes in England are improving, they remain poorer than many comparable countries. Yorkshire Cancer Research has, therefore, established a Bowel Cancer Improvement Programme (YCR BCIP) to improve colorectal cancer outcomes within Yorkshire and Humber, a region representative of the nation. It aims to do this by quantifying variation in practice, engaging with the colorectal multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) to understand this and developing educational interventions to minimise it and improve outcomes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Initially, routine health datasets will be used to quantify variation in the demographics, management and outcomes of patients across the Yorkshire and Humber region and results presented to MDTs. The YCR BCIP is seeking to supplement these existing data with patient-reported health-related quality of life information (patient-reported outcome measures, PROMs) and tissue sample analysis. Specialty groups (surgery, radiology, pathology, clinical oncology, medical oncology, clinical nurse specialists and anaesthetics) have been established to provide oversight and direction for their clinical area within the programme, to review data and analysis and to develop appropriate educational initiatives. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The YCR BCIP is aiming to address the variation in practice to significantly improve colorectal cancer outcomes across the Yorkshire and Humber region. PROMs and tissue sample collection and analysis will help to capture the information required to fully assess care in the region. Engagement of the region's MDTs with their data will lead to a range of educational initiatives, studies and clinical audits that aim to optimise practice across the region.

3.
Neurobiol Aging ; 85: 58-73, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739167

RESUMO

Electrophysiology provides a real-time readout of neural functions and network capability in different brain states, on temporal (fractions of milliseconds) and spatial (micro, meso, and macro) scales unmet by other methodologies. However, current international guidelines do not endorse the use of electroencephalographic (EEG)/magnetoencephalographic (MEG) biomarkers in clinical trials performed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), despite a surge in recent validated evidence. This position paper of the ISTAART Electrophysiology Professional Interest Area endorses consolidated and translational electrophysiological techniques applied to both experimental animal models of AD and patients, to probe the effects of AD neuropathology (i.e., brain amyloidosis, tauopathy, and neurodegeneration) on neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning neural excitation/inhibition and neurotransmission as well as brain network dynamics, synchronization, and functional connectivity, reflecting thalamocortical and corticocortical residual capacity. Converging evidence shows relationships between abnormalities in EEG/MEG markers and cognitive deficits in groups of AD patients at different disease stages. The supporting evidence for the application of electrophysiology in AD clinical research as well as drug discovery pathways warrants an international initiative to include the use of EEG/MEG biomarkers in the main multicentric projects planned in AD patients, to produce conclusive findings challenging the present regulatory requirements and guidelines for AD studies.

4.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; : 4867419885165, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated the structural changes associated with Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia by means of cortical thickness analysis. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-five participants: 76 Alzheimer's disease, 65 dementia with Lewy bodies, 29 Parkinson disease dementia and 76 cognitively normal controls underwent 3-T T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and clinical and cognitive assessments. We implemented FreeSurfer to obtain cortical thickness estimates to contrast patterns of cortical thinning across groups and their clinical correlates. RESULTS: In Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, a largely similar pattern of regional cortical thinning was observed relative to controls apart from a more severe loss within the entorhinal and parahippocampal structures in Alzheimer's disease. In Parkinson disease dementia, regional cortical thickness was indistinguishable from controls and dementia with Lewy bodies, suggesting an 'intermediate' pattern of regional cortical change. In terms of global cortical thickness, group profiles were controls > Parkinson disease dementia > dementia with Lewy bodies > Alzheimer's disease (F3, 241 ⩽ 123.2, p < 0.001), where percentage wise, the average difference compared to controls were -1.8%, -5.5% and -6.4%, respectively. In these samples, cortical thinning was also associated with cognitive decline in dementia with Lewy bodies but not in Parkinson disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSION: In a large and well-characterised cohort of people with dementia, regional cortical thinning in dementia with Lewy bodies was broadly similar to Alzheimer's disease. There was preservation of the medial temporal lobe structures in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer's disease, supporting its inclusion as a supportive biomarker in the revised clinical criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies. However, there was less global cortical thinning in Parkinson disease dementia, with no significant regional difference between Parkinson disease dementia and controls. These findings highlight the overlap across the Alzheimer's disease/Parkinson disease dementia spectrum and the potential for differing mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and cognition in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia.

5.
BMJ ; 367: l6090, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To quantify post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC) rates in England by using recent World Endoscopy Organisation guidelines, compare incidence among colonoscopy providers, and explore associated factors that could benefit from quality improvement initiatives. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: National Health Service in England between 2005 and 2013. POPULATION: All people undergoing colonoscopy and subsequently diagnosed as having colorectal cancer up to three years after their investigation (PCCRC-3yr). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: National trends in incidence of PCCRC (within 6-36 months of colonoscopy), univariable and multivariable analyses to explore factors associated with occurrence, and funnel plots to measure variation among providers. RESULTS: The overall unadjusted PCCRC-3yr rate was 7.4% (9317/126 152), which decreased from 9.0% in 2005 to 6.5% in 2013 (P<0.01). Rates were lower for colonoscopies performed under the NHS bowel cancer screening programme (593/16 640, 3.6%), while they were higher for those conducted by non-NHS providers (187/2009, 9.3%). Rates were higher in women, in older age groups, and in people with inflammatory bowel disease or diverticular disease, in those with higher comorbidity scores, and in people with previous cancers. Substantial variation in rates among colonoscopy providers remained after adjustment for case mix. CONCLUSIONS: Wide variation exists in PCCRC-3yr rates across NHS colonoscopy providers in England. The lowest incidence was seen in colonoscopies performed under the NHS bowel cancer screening programme. Quality improvement initiatives are needed to address this variation in rates and prevent colorectal cancer by enabling earlier diagnosis, removing premalignant polyps, and therefore improving outcomes.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Estatal/normas
8.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 109: 104483, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580887

RESUMO

JD5037 is a novel peripherally restricted CB1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonist being developed for the treatment of visceral obesity and its metabolic complications, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia. JD5037 was administered by oral gavage at 10, 40, and 150 mg/kg/day dose levels for up to 34 days to Sprague Dawley rats, and at 5, 20, and 75 mg/kg/day dose levels for 28 consecutive days to Beagle dogs. In rats, higher incidences of stereotypic behaviors were observed in 10 mg/kg females and 40 mg/kg males, and slower responses for reflex and sensory tests were observed only in males at 10 and 40 mg/kg during neurobehavioral testing. Sporadic minimal incidences of decreased activity (males) and seizures (both sexes) were observed in rats during daily clinical observations, without any clear dose-relationship. Male dogs at 75 mg/kg during treatment period, but not recovery period, had an increased incidence of gut associated lymphoid tissue hyperplasia and inflammation in the intestine. In both species, highest dose resulted in lower AUCs indicative of non-linear kinetics. Free access to food increased the plasma AUC∞ by ~4.5-fold at 20 mg/kg in dogs, suggesting presence of food may help in systemic absorption of JD5037 in dogs. Based on the study results, 150 mg/kg/day in rats, and 20 and 75 mg/kg/day doses in male and female dogs, respectively, were determined to be the no-observed-adverse-effect-levels (NOAELs).

9.
Ann Surg ; 270(5): 892-898, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate variation in the frequency of resections for colorectal cancer liver metastases across the English NHS. BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown significant variation in access to liver resection surgery across the English NHS. This study uses more recent data to identify whether inequalities in access to liver resection still persist. METHODS: All adults who underwent a major resection for colorectal cancer in an NHS hospital between 2005 and 2012 were identified in the COloRECTal cancer data Repository (CORECT-R). All episodes of care, occurring within 3 years of the initial bowel operation, corresponding to liver resection were identified. RESULT: During the study period 157,383 patients were identified as undergoing major resection for a colorectal tumor, of whom 7423 (4.7%) underwent ≥1 liver resections. The resection rate increased from 4.1% in 2005, reaching a plateau around 5% by 2012. There was significant variation in the rate of liver resection across hospitals (2.1%-12.2%). Patients with synchronous metastases who have their primary colorectal resection in a hospital with an onsite specialist hepatobiliary team were more likely to receive a liver resection (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.35) than those treated in one without. This effect was absent in resection for metachronous metastases. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents the largest reported population-based analysis of liver resection rates in colorectal cancer patients. Significant variation has been observed in patient and hospital characteristics and the likelihood of patients receiving a liver resection, with the data showing that proximity to a liver resection service is as important a factor as deprivation.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223246, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of radiological damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have used candidate-gene approaches, or evaluated single genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We undertook the first meta-analysis of GWAS of RA radiological damage to: (1) identify novel genetic loci for this trait; and (2) test previously validated variants. METHODS: Seven GWAS (2,775 RA cases, of a range of ancestries) were combined in a meta-analysis. Radiological damage was assessed using modified Larsen scores, Sharp van Der Heijde scores, and erosive status. Single nucleotide polymophsim (SNP) associations with radiological damage were tested at a single time-point using regression models. Primary analyses included age and disease duration as covariates. Secondary analyses also included rheumatoid factor (RF). Meta-analyses were undertaken in trans-ethnic and European-only cases. RESULTS: In the trans-ethnic primary meta-analysis, one SNP (rs112112734) in close proximity to HLA-DRB1, and strong linkage disequilibrium with the shared-epitope, attained genome-wide significance (P = 4.2x10-8). In the secondary analysis (adjusting for RF) the association was less significant (P = 1.7x10-6). In both trans-ethnic primary and secondary meta-analyses 14 regions contained SNPs with associations reaching P<5x10-6; in the European primary and secondary analyses 13 and 10 regions contained SNPs reaching P<5x10-6, respectively. Of the previously validated SNPs for radiological progression, only rs660895 (tagging HLA-DRB1*04:01) attained significance (P = 1.6x10-5) and had a consistent direction of effect across GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis confirms the known association between the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope and RA radiological damage. The lack of replication of previously validated non-HLA markers highlights a requirement for further research to deliver clinically-useful prognostic genetic markers.

11.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530497

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urothelial carcinoma can exhibit a wide range of variant morphologies. Many variants present diagnostic challenges and carry clinical implications that inform prognosis and treatment decisions. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic significance of histological variants of urothelial carcinoma. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A PubMed/MEDLINE-based literature search was conducted using the key terms "urothelial carcinoma", "variant histology", "nested", "micropapillary", "microcystic", "sarcomatoid", "squamous differentiation", "glandular differentiation", "clear cell", "plasmacytoid", "lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma", "squamous cell carcinoma", "small cell carcinoma", "adenocarcinoma", "radiotherapy", "neoadjuvant chemotherapy", and "adjuvant chemotherapy". EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: The incidence of variant histology is increasing due to improved recognition. Nonetheless, diagnosis can pose challenges due to sampling limitations and interobserver variability. Although associated with advanced disease at presentation, survival outcomes for most variants do not differ significantly compared with pure urothelial carcinoma of the same stage. Controversy exists regarding optimal management due to the low quality of available evidence. For most cases, radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (with neoadjuvant chemotherapy when appropriate) represents the standard of care. Small cell carcinoma and lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma appear to be particularly chemosensitive. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate identification of variant histological subtypes is an important part of risk stratification, as these variants exhibit aggressive biological behaviour. Variant histology tumours are associated with advanced disease at presentation, which must be considered when counselling patients regarding survival outcomes. Optimal management remains to be defined but in most cases; neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection remains the mainstay of treatment. PATIENT SUMMARY: It is important to recognise histological variants of urothelial carcinoma as they indicate aggressive disease. When compared with patients with pure urothelial carcinoma of the same disease stage, survival does not appear to be significantly worse. In most cases, patients with invasive variant histology should be treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy. Take Home Messages Accurate identification of variant histology is important as it exhibits aggressive biological behaviour and affects treatment. Although associated with advanced disease at presentation, with appropriate treatment, survival outcomes are not significantly different compared with pure urothelial carcinoma of the same stage.

12.
Drug Discov Today ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499186

RESUMO

Cholinergic dysfunction is involved in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, dementia and Lewy body disease (LBD), leading to widespread use of cholinergic therapies. However, such drugs have focused on increasing the availability of acetylcholine (ACh) generally, with relatively little work done on the muscarinic system and specific muscarinic receptor subtypes. In this review, we provide an overview of the major cholinergic pathways and cholinergic muscarinic receptors in the human brain and evidence for their dysfunction in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. We discuss how the selectivity of cholinergic system dysfunction suggests that targeted cholinergic therapeutics to the muscarinic receptor subtypes will be vital in treating several disorders associated with cognitive dysfunction and behavioural and psychological symptoms.

13.
Lancet Neurol ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519472

RESUMO

Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia, jointly known as Lewy body dementia, are common neurodegenerative conditions. Patients with Lewy body dementia present with a wide range of cognitive, neuropsychiatric, sleep, motor, and autonomic symptoms. Presentation varies between patients and can vary over time within an individual. Treatments can address one symptom but worsen another, which makes disease management difficult. Symptoms are often managed in isolation and by different specialists, which makes high-quality care difficult to accomplish. Clinical trials and meta-analyses now provide an evidence base for the treatment of cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and motor symptoms in patients with Lewy body dementia. Furthermore, consensus opinion from experts supports the application of treatments for related conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, for the management of common symptoms (eg, autonomic dysfunction) in patients with Lewy body dementia. However, evidence gaps remain and future clinical trials need to focus on the treatment of symptoms specific to patients with Lewy body dementia.

14.
Int J Audiol ; 58(11): 685-695, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545660

RESUMO

Objective: To identify any change in quality of life (QoL) caused by chemotherapy-induced toxicities, such as hearing loss and tinnitus, to provide information in order to improve services and aid clinicians in their decision-making. Design: This systematic review followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) checklist. The search terms were cancer, platinum-based chemotherapy, ototoxicity and "quality of life". Titles and abstracts, followed by full texts, were screened by two independent researchers. The relevant data were extracted and quality analysis was performed using the NIH Quality Assessment Tool. Study sample: About 308 titles and abstracts were screened, and 27 full-text articles were screened. Ten articles representing 11 studies were included in the review. Study design included cross-sectional studies, randomised control trials and longitudinal studies. Results: Diagnostic criteria consisted of audiograms, questionnaires and patient complaints. The study quality ranged from 21.43% to 85.71%. Overall results found that those treated with cisplatin had more hearing loss and tinnitus than those treated with other therapies. Furthermore, those with hearing loss and tinnitus were more likely to have a lower QoL. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to standardise diagnostics when investigating ototoxicity and its effect on QoL, particularly for research into risk factors, prevention and management.

15.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(10): 1673-1681, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511353

RESUMO

Cancer cells use alterations of normal metabolic processes to sustain proliferation indefinitely. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) family is one way in which cancer cells alter normal pyruvate metabolism to fuel proliferation. PDKs can phosphorylate and inactivate the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), which blocks oxidative metabolism of pyruvate by the mitochondria. This process is thought to enhance cancer cell growth by promoting anabolic pathways. Inhibition of PDKs induces cell death through increased PDH activity and subsequent increases in ROS production. The use of PDK inhibitors has seen widespread success as a potential therapeutic in laboratory models of multiple cancers; however, gaps still exist in our understanding of the biology of PDK regulation and function, especially in the context of individual PDKs. Efforts are currently underway to generate PDK-specific inhibitors and delineate the roles of individual PDK isozymes in specific cancers. The goal of this review is to understand the regulation of the PDK isozyme family, their role in cancer proliferation, and how to target this pathway therapeutically to specifically and effectively reduce cancer growth.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11034, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363141

RESUMO

Periodontitis is an economically important disease which is highly prevalent worldwide. Current diagnostic approaches are time-consuming and require interpretation of multiple aspects of clinical and radiographic assessment. Chair-side monitoring of inflammatory mediators of periodontitis could provide immediate information about disease activity, which can inform patient management. We aimed to develop a novel prototype biosensor to measure salivary matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) using specific antibodies and surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology. The analytical performance of the prototype biosensor was compared to standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using unstimulated saliva samples obtained from patients with periodontitis before and after non-surgical treatment (N = 58), patients with gingivitis (N = 54) and periodontally healthy volunteers (N = 65). Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis for distinguishing periodontitis from health revealed an almost identical performance between the sensor and ELISA assays (area under curve values (AUC): ELISA 0.93; SAW 0.89). Furthermore, both analytical approaches yielded readouts which distinguished between heath, gingivitis and periodontitis, correlated identically with clinical measures of periodontal disease and recorded similar post-treatment decreases in salivary MMP-8 in periodontitis. The assay time for our prototype device is 20 minutes. The prototype SAW biosensor is a novel and rapid method of monitoring periodontitis which delivers similar analytical performance to conventional laboratory assays.

17.
Brain ; 142(11): 3338-3350, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411317

RESUMO

Fluctuating cognition is a core diagnostic feature of dementia with Lewy bodies and is also a key clinical feature of Parkinson's disease dementia. These dementias share common pathological features and are referred to as Lewy body dementias. Whilst highly prevalent in Lewy body dementia, with up to 90% of patients experiencing the symptom at some point in the disease trajectory, clinical identification of fluctuating cognition is often challenging. Furthermore, its underlying pathophysiological processes remain unclear. However, neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques have recently provided insight into potential drivers of the phenomenon. In this update, we review data pertaining to clinical features and underlying mechanisms of fluctuating cognition in Lewy body dementia. We collate evidence for different proposed aetiologies: fluctuating cognition as an attentional disorder, as a consequence of loss of cholinergic drive, as a manifestation of failure in neuronal efficiency and synchrony, and as a disorder of sleep/arousal. We also review data relating to putative mechanisms that have received less attention to date. Increased understanding of fluctuating cognition may help to illuminate pathophysiological mechanisms in cognitive processing in Lewy body dementia, guide future research, and facilitate the design of targeted therapeutic approaches.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461683

RESUMO

Previously we showed that, for optimum growth, micronutrient levels should be supplemented above current National Research Council (2011) recommendations for Atlantic salmon when they are fed diets formulated with low levels of marine ingredients. In the present study, the impact of graded levels (100, 200, 400%) of a micronutrient package (NP) on vertebral deformities and bone gene expression were determined in diploid and triploid salmon parr fed low marine diets. The prevalence of radiologically detectable spinal deformities decreased with increasing micronutrient supplementation in both ploidy. On average, triploids had a higher incidence of spinal deformity than diploids within a given diet. Micronutrient supplementation particularly reduced prevalence of fusion deformities in diploids and compression and reduced spacing deformities in triploids. Prevalence of affected vertebrae within each spinal region (cranial, caudal, tail and tail fin) varied significantly between diet and ploidy, and there was interaction. Prevalence of deformities was greatest in the caudal region of triploids and the impact of graded micronutrient supplementation in reducing deformities also greatest in triploids. Diet affected vertebral morphology with length:height (L:H) ratio generally increasing with level of micronutrient supplementation in both ploidy with no difference between ploidy. Increased dietary micronutrients level in diploid salmon increased the vertebral expression of several bone biomarker genes including bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp2), osteocalcin (ostcn), alkaline phosphatase (alp), matrix metallopeptidase 13 (mmp13), osteopontin (opn) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (igf1r). In contrast, although some genes showed similar trends in triploids, vertebral gene expression was not significantly affected by dietary micronutrients level. The study confirmed earlier indications that dietary micronutrient levels should be increased in salmon fed diets with low marine ingredients and that there are differences in nutritional requirements between ploidies.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Diploide , Salmo salar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triploidia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micronutrientes , Óleos Vegetais , Proteínas de Plantas , Salmo salar/anormalidades , Vitaminas
19.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 46, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A multi-disciplinary approach to promote engagement, inform decision-making and support clinicians and patients is increasingly advocated to realise the potential of genome-scale sequencing in the clinic for patient benefit. Here we describe the results of establishing a genomic medicine multi-disciplinary team (GM-MDT) for case selection, processing, interpretation and return of results. METHODS: We report a consecutive case series of 132 patients (involving 10 medical specialties with 43.2% cases having a neurological disorder) undergoing exome sequencing over a 10-month period following the establishment of the GM-MDT in a UK NHS tertiary referral hospital. The costs of running the MDT are also reported. RESULTS: In total 76 cases underwent exome sequencing following triage by the GM-MDT with a clinically reportable molecular diagnosis in 24 (31.6%). GM-MDT composition, operation and rationale for whether to proceed to sequencing are described, together with the health economics (cost per case for the GM-MDT was £399.61), the utility and informativeness of exome sequencing for molecular diagnosis in a range of traits, the impact of choice of sequencing strategy on molecular diagnostic rates and challenge of defining pathogenic variants. In 5 cases (6.6%), an alternative clinical diagnosis was indicated by sequencing results. Examples were also found where findings from initial genetic testing were reconsidered in the light of exome sequencing including TP63 and PRKAG2 (detection of a partial exon deletion and a mosaic missense pathogenic variant respectively); together with tissue-specific mosaicism involving a cytogenetic abnormality following a normal prenatal array comparative genomic hybridization. CONCLUSIONS: This consecutive case series describes the results and experience of a multidisciplinary team format that was found to promote engagement across specialties and facilitate return of results to the responsible clinicians.

20.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358947

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The translation of genome sequencing into routine health care has been slow, partly because of concerns about affordability. The aspirational cost of sequencing a genome is $1000, but there is little evidence to support this estimate. We estimate the cost of using genome sequencing in routine clinical care in patients with cancer or rare diseases. METHODS: We performed a microcosting study of Illumina-based genome sequencing in a UK National Health Service laboratory processing 399 samples/year. Cost data were collected for all steps in the sequencing pathway, including bioinformatics analysis and reporting of results. Sensitivity analysis identified key cost drivers. RESULTS: Genome sequencing costs £6841 per cancer case (comprising matched tumor and germline samples) and £7050 per rare disease case (three samples). The consumables used during sequencing are the most expensive component of testing (68-72% of the total cost). Equipment costs are higher for rare disease cases, whereas consumable and staff costs are slightly higher for cancer cases. CONCLUSION: The cost of genome sequencing is underestimated if only sequencing costs are considered, and likely surpasses $1000/genome in a single laboratory. This aspirational sequencing cost will likely only be achieved if consumable costs are considerably reduced and sequencing is performed at scale.

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