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1.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 9(12): 1170-1174, 2018 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613321

RESUMO

BMS-823778 (2), a 1,2,4-triazolopyridinyl-methanol derived analog, was identified as a potent and selective inhibitor of human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD-1) enzyme (IC50 = 2.3 nM) with >10,000-fold selectivity over 11ß-HSD-2. Compound 2 exhibits robust acute pharmacodynamic effects in cynomolgus monkeys (ED50 = 0.6 mg/kg) and in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice (ED50 = 34 mg/kg). Compound 2 also showed excellent inhibition in an ex vivo adipose DIO mouse model (ED50 = 5.2 mg/kg). Oral bioavailability ranges from 44% to 100% in preclinical species. Its favorable development properties, pharmacokinetics, high adipose-to-plasma concentration ratio, and preclinical pharmacology profile have prompted the evaluation of 2 for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in phase 2 clinical trials.

2.
J Med Chem ; 60(12): 4932-4948, 2017 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28537398

RESUMO

BMS-816336 (6n-2), a hydroxy-substituted adamantyl acetamide, has been identified as a novel, potent inhibitor against human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) enzyme (IC50 3.0 nM) with >10000-fold selectivity over human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11ß-HSD2). 6n-2 exhibits a robust acute pharmacodynamic effect in cynomolgus monkeys (ED50 0.12 mg/kg) and in DIO mice. It is orally bioavailable (%F ranges from 20 to 72% in preclinical species) and has a predicted pharmacokinetic profile of a high peak to trough ratio and short half-life in humans. This ADME profile met our selection criteria for once daily administration, targeting robust inhibition of 11ß-HSD1 enzyme for the first 12 h period after dosing followed by an "inhibition holiday" so that the potential for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation might be mitigated. 6n-2 was found to be well-tolerated in phase 1 clinical studies and represents a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and other human diseases modulated by glucocorticoid control.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/química , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Actinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Adamantano/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/química , Adamantano/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos Obesos , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 5(7): 803-8, 2014 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25050169

RESUMO

Small alkyl groups and spirocyclic-aromatic rings directly attached to the left side and right side of the 1,2,4-triazolopyridines (TZP), respectively, were found to be potent and selective inhibitors of human 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 1 (11ß-HSD-1) enzyme. 3-(1-(4-Chlorophenyl)cyclopropyl)-8-cyclopropyl-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridine (9f) was identified as a potent inhibitor of the 11ß-HSD-1 enzyme with reduced Pregnane-X receptor (PXR) transactivation activity. The binding orientation of this TZP series was revealed by X-ray crystallography structure studies.

4.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e53192, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23383297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic glucocorticoid excess has been linked to increased atherosclerosis and general cardiovascular risk in humans. The enzyme 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ßHSD1) increases active glucocorticoid levels within tissues by catalyzing the conversion of cortisone to cortisol. Pharmacological inhibition of 11ßHSD1 has been shown to reduce atherosclerosis in murine models. However, the cellular and molecular details for this effect have not been elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine the role of 11ßHSD1 in atherogenesis, 11ßHSD1 knockout mice were created on the pro-atherogenic apoE⁻/⁻ background. Following 14 weeks of Western diet, aortic cholesterol levels were reduced 50% in 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice vs. 11ßHSD1⁺/⁺/apoE⁻/⁻ mice without changes in plasma cholesterol. Aortic 7-ketocholesterol content was reduced 40% in 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice vs. control. In the aortic root, plaque size, necrotic core area and macrophage content were reduced ∼30% in 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻mice. Bone marrow transplantation from 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice into apoE⁻/⁻ recipients reduced plaque area 39-46% in the thoracic aorta. In vivo foam cell formation was evaluated in thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from 11ßHSD1⁺/⁺/apoE⁻/⁻ and 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice fed a Western diet for ∼5 weeks. Foam cell cholesterol levels were reduced 48% in 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice vs. control. Microarray profiling of peritoneal macrophages revealed differential expression of genes involved in inflammation, stress response and energy metabolism. Several toll-like receptors (TLRs) were downregulated in 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻ mice including TLR 1, 3 and 4. Cytokine release from 11ßHSD1⁻/⁻/apoE⁻/⁻-derived peritoneal foam cells was attenuated following challenge with oxidized LDL. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that 11ßHSD1 inhibition may have the potential to limit plaque development at the vessel wall and regulate foam cell formation independent of changes in plasma lipids. The diminished cytokine response to oxidized LDL stimulation is consistent with the reduction in TLR expression and suggests involvement of 11ßHSD1 in modulating binding of pro-atherogenic TLR ligands.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/genética , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Análise de Variância , Animais , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Pressão Sanguínea , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Aterogênica , Cetocolesteróis/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 21(22): 6693-8, 2011 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21983444

RESUMO

Derived from the HTS hit 1, a series of hydroxyisoquinolines was discovered as potent and selective 11ß-HSD1 inhibitors with good cross species activity. Optimization of substituents at the 1 and 4 positions of the isoquinoline group in addition to the core modifications, with a special focus on enhancing metabolic stability and aqueous solubility, resulted in the identification of several compounds as potent advanced leads.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , 11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Isoquinolinas/química , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/farmacocinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
J Med Chem ; 52(23): 7788-99, 2009 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19702274

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a 30 or 31 amino acid peptide hormone that contributes to the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis and food intake. Herein, we report the discovery of a novel class of 11 amino acid GLP-1 receptor agonists. These peptides consist of a structurally optimized 9-mer, which is closely related to the N-terminal 9 amino acids of GLP-1, linked to a substituted C-terminal biphenylalanine (BIP) dipeptide. SAR studies resulted in 11-mer GLP-1R agonists with similar in vitro potency to the native 30-mer. Peptides 21 and 22 acutely reduced plasma glucose excursions and increased plasma insulin concentrations in a mouse model of diabetes. These peptides also showed sustained exposures over several hours in mouse and dog models. The described 11-mer GLP-1 receptor agonists represent a new tool in further understanding GLP-1 receptor pharmacology that may lead to novel antidiabetic agents.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Glucagon/agonistas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oligopeptídeos/síntese química , Oligopeptídeos/farmacocinética , Conformação Proteica
7.
Diabetes ; 57(6): 1723-9, 2008 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18356408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The inhibition of gut and renal sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of diabetes. We have identified dapagliflozin as a potent and selective inhibitor of the renal sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 in vitro and characterized its in vitro and in vivo pharmacology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cell-based assays measuring glucose analog uptake were used to assess dapagliflozin's ability to inhibit sodium-dependent and facilitative glucose transport activity. Acute and multi-dose studies in normal and diabetic rats were performed to assess the ability of dapagliflozin to improve fed and fasting plasma glucose levels. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study was performed to assess the ability of dapagliflozin to improve glucose utilization after multi-dose treatment. RESULTS: Dapagliflozin potently and selectively inhibited human SGLT2 versus human SGLT1, the major cotransporter of glucose in the gut, and did not significantly inhibit facilitative glucose transport in human adipocytes. In vivo, dapagliflozin acutely induced renal glucose excretion in normal and diabetic rats, improved glucose tolerance in normal rats, and reduced hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats after single oral doses ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/kg. Once-daily dapagliflozin treatment over 2 weeks significantly lowered fasting and fed glucose levels at doses ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/kg and resulted in a significant increase in glucose utilization rate accompanied by a significant reduction in glucose production. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that dapagliflozin has the potential to be an efficacious treatment for type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Zucker , Valores de Referência , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/antagonistas & inibidores , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/genética , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/genética
8.
J Med Chem ; 51(5): 1145-9, 2008 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18260618

RESUMO

The C-aryl glucoside 6 (dapagliflozin) was identified as a potent and selective hSGLT2 inhibitor which reduced blood glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner by as much as 55% in hyperglycemic streptozotocin (STZ) rats. These findings, combined with a favorable ADME profile, have prompted clinical evaluation of dapagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Rim/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Administração Oral , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Ratos , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio , Estereoisomerismo
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