Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 84
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Sci Immunol ; 5(45)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144185

RESUMO

CD4+ memory T cells play an important role in protective immunity and are a key target in vaccine development. Many studies have focused on T central memory (Tcm) cells, whereas the existence and functional significance of long-lived T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are controversial. Here, we show that Tfh cells are highly susceptible to NAD-induced cell death (NICD) during isolation from tissues, leading to their underrepresentation in prior studies. NICD blockade reveals the persistence of abundant Tfh cells with high expression of hallmark Tfh markers to at least 400 days after infection, by which time Tcm cells are no longer found. Using single-cell RNA-seq, we demonstrate that long-lived Tfh cells are transcriptionally distinct from Tcm cells, maintain stemness and self-renewal gene expression, and, in contrast to Tcm cells, are multipotent after recall. At the protein level, we show that folate receptor 4 (FR4) robustly discriminates long-lived Tfh cells from Tcm cells. Unexpectedly, long-lived Tfh cells concurrently express a distinct glycolytic signature similar to trained immune cells, including elevated expression of mTOR-, HIF-1-, and cAMP-regulated genes. Late disruption of glycolysis/ICOS signaling leads to Tfh cell depletion concomitant with decreased splenic plasma cells and circulating antibody titers, demonstrating both unique homeostatic regulation of Tfh and their sustained function during the memory phase of the immune response. These results highlight the metabolic heterogeneity underlying distinct long-lived T cell subsets and establish Tfh cells as an attractive target for the induction of durable adaptive immunity.

2.
Blood ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961934

RESUMO

Genes encoding the RNA splicing factors SF3B1, SRSF2, and U2AF1 are subject to frequent missense mutations in clonal hematopoiesis and diverse neoplastic diseases. Most "spliceosomal" mutations affect specific hotspot residues, resulting in splicing changes that promote disease pathophysiology. However, a subset of patients carry spliceosomal mutations that affect non-hotspot residues, whose potential functional contributions to disease are unstudied. Here, we undertook a systematic characterization of diverse rare and private spliceosomal mutations to infer their likely disease relevance. We utilized isogenic cell lines and primary patient materials to discover that 11 of 14 studied rare and private mutations in SRSF2 and U2AF1 induced distinct splicing alterations, including partially or completely phenocopying the alterations in exon and splice site recognition induced by hotspot mutations or driving "dual" phenocopies that mimicked two co-occurring hotspot mutations. Our data suggest that many rare and private spliceosomal mutations contribute to disease pathogenesis and illustrate the utility of molecular assays to inform precision medicine by inferring the potential disease relevance of newly discovered mutations.

3.
J Immunol ; 204(3): 498-509, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882518

RESUMO

Upon Ag exposure, naive B cells expressing BCR able to bind Ag can undergo robust proliferation and differentiation that can result in the production of Ab-secreting and memory B cells. The factors determining whether an individual naive B cell will proliferate following Ag encounter remains unclear. In this study, we found that polyclonal naive murine B cell populations specific for a variety of foreign Ags express high levels of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77, which is known to be upregulated downstream of BCR signaling as a result of cross-reactivity with self-antigens in vivo. Similarly, a fraction of naive human B cells specific for clinically-relevant Ags derived from respiratory syncytial virus and HIV-1 also exhibited an IgMLOW IgD+ phenotype, which is associated with self-antigen cross-reactivity. Functionally, naive B cells expressing moderate levels of Nur77 are most likely to proliferate in vivo following Ag injection. Together, our data indicate that BCR cross-reactivity with self-antigen is a common feature of populations of naive B cells specific for foreign Ags and a moderate level of cross-reactivity primes individual cells for optimal proliferative responses following Ag exposure.

4.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(11): 1306-1308, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685989
5.
Blood ; 134(Supplement_1): 18, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724021

RESUMO

DISCLOSURES: Cai: Imago Biosciences, Inc.: Consultancy. Viny:Hematology News: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Mission Bio: Other: Sponsored travel. Goldberg:American Society of Clinical Oncology: Research Funding; Abbvie: Research Funding; ADC Therapeutics: Research Funding; American Society of Hematology: Research Funding; DAVA Oncology: Honoraria; Pfizer: Research Funding; Arog Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; Abbvie: Consultancy; Daiichi-Sankyo: Consultancy, Research Funding; Celgene: Consultancy. Tallman:BioLineRx: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Biosight: Research Funding; Abbvie: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Rigel: Consultancy; Cellerant: Research Funding; ADC Therapeutics: Research Funding; Orsenix: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; KAHR: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Daiichi-Sankyo: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Stein:Astellas Pharma US, Inc: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene Corporation: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Agios: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; PTC Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Syros: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Daiichi Sankyo, Inc.: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Bioline: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Genentech: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.

6.
Nature ; 574(7778): 432-436, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597964

RESUMO

SF3B1 is the most commonly mutated RNA splicing factor in cancer1-4, but the mechanisms by which SF3B1 mutations promote malignancy are poorly understood. Here we integrated pan-cancer splicing analyses with a positive-enrichment CRISPR screen to prioritize splicing alterations that promote tumorigenesis. We report that diverse SF3B1 mutations converge on repression of BRD9, which is a core component of the recently described non-canonical BAF chromatin-remodelling complex that also contains GLTSCR1 and GLTSCR1L5-7. Mutant SF3B1 recognizes an aberrant, deep intronic branchpoint within BRD9 and thereby induces the inclusion of a poison exon that is derived from an endogenous retroviral element and subsequent degradation of BRD9 mRNA. Depletion of BRD9 causes the loss of non-canonical BAF at CTCF-associated loci and promotes melanomagenesis. BRD9 is a potent tumour suppressor in uveal melanoma, such that correcting mis-splicing of BRD9 in SF3B1-mutant cells using antisense oligonucleotides or CRISPR-directed mutagenesis suppresses tumour growth. Our results implicate the disruption of non-canonical BAF in the diverse cancer types that carry SF3B1 mutations and suggest a mechanism-based therapeutic approach for treating these malignancies.

8.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(511)2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554738

RESUMO

Adult stem and progenitor cells are uniquely capable of self-renewal, and targeting this process represents a potential therapeutic opportunity. The early erythroid progenitor, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), has substantial self-renewal potential and serves as a key cell type for the treatment of anemias. However, our understanding of mechanisms underlying BFU-E self-renewal is extremely limited. Here, we found that the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4 (CHRM4), pathway regulates BFU-E self-renewal and that pharmacological inhibition of CHRM4 corrects anemias of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), aging, and hemolysis. Genetic down-regulation of CHRM4 or pharmacologic inhibition of CHRM4 using the selective antagonist PD102807 promoted BFU-E self-renewal, whereas deletion of Chrm4 increased erythroid cell production under stress conditions in vivo. Moreover, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists corrected anemias in mouse models of MDS, aging, and hemolysis in vivo, extending the survival of mice with MDS relative to that of controls. The effects of muscarinic receptor antagonism on promoting expansion of BFU-Es were mediated by cyclic AMP induction of the transcription factor CREB, whose targets up-regulated key regulators of BFU-E self-renewal. On the basis of these data, we propose a model of hematopoietic progenitor self-renewal through a cholinergic-mediated "hematopoietic reflex" and identify muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonists as potential therapies for anemias associated with MDS, aging, and hemolysis.

9.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1694, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396218

RESUMO

Antibodies against foreign antigens are a critical component of the overall immune response and can facilitate pathogen clearance during a primary infection and also protect against subsequent infections. Dysregulation of the antibody response can lead to an autoimmune disease, malignancy, or enhanced infection. Since the experimental delineation of a distinct B cell lineage in 1965, various methods have been developed to understand antigen-specific B cell responses in the context of autoimmune diseases, primary immunodeficiencies, infection, and vaccination. In this review, we summarize the established techniques and discuss new and emerging technologies for probing the B cell response in vitro and in vivo by taking advantage of the specificity of B cell receptor (BCR)-associated and secreted antibodies. These include ELISPOT, flow cytometry, mass cytometry, and fluorescence microscopy to identify and/or isolate primary antigen-specific B cells. We also present our approach to identify rare antigen-specific B cells using magnetic enrichment followed by flow cytometry. Once these cells are isolated, in vitro proliferation assays and adoptive transfer experiments in mice can be used to further characterize antigen-specific B cell activation, function, and fate. Transgenic mouse models of B cells targeting model antigens and of B cell signaling have also significantly advanced our understanding of antigen-specific B cell responses in vivo.

10.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 85, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439003

RESUMO

We tested whether a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that affects splicing of CD33 predicted response to treatment in adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received the novel CD33 antibody-drug conjugate SGN-CD33A. This genotype, for the CD33 splice site SNP rs12459419, was not associated with clinical response (30% CR/CRi in both groups), event-free survival, or overall survival.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12541, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467298

RESUMO

The heterogeneity of biological processes driving the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as reflected in the transcriptome and the relationship between the pathways involved are not well established. Well-defined associations between gene expression profiles and disease progression would benefit efforts to develop novel therapies and to understand disease heterogeneity. We analyzed hepatic gene expression in controls and a cohort with the full histological spectrum of NAFLD. Protein-protein interaction and gene set variation analysis revealed distinct sets of coordinately regulated genes and pathways whose expression progressively change over the course of the disease. The progressive nature of these changes enabled us to develop a framework for calculating a disease progression score for individual genes. We show that, in aggregate, these scores correlate strongly with histological measures of disease progression and can thus themselves serve as a proxy for severity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the expression levels of a small number of genes (~20) can be used to infer disease severity. Finally, we show that patient subgroups can be distinguished by the relative distribution of gene-level scores in specific gene sets. While future work is required to identify the specific disease characteristics that correspond to patient clusters identified on this basis, this work provides a general framework for the use of high-content molecular profiling to identify NAFLD patient subgroups.

12.
Cancer Discov ; 9(10): 1452-1467, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285298

RESUMO

Altered expression of XPO1, the main nuclear export receptor in eukaryotic cells, has been observed in cancer, and XPO1 has been a focus of anticancer drug development. However, mechanistic evidence for cancer-specific alterations in XPO1 function is lacking. Here, genomic analysis of 42,793 cancers identified recurrent and previously unrecognized mutational hotspots in XPO1. XPO1 mutations exhibited striking lineage specificity, with enrichment in a variety of B-cell malignancies, and introduction of single amino acid substitutions in XPO1 initiated clonal, B-cell malignancy in vivo. Proteomic characterization identified that mutant XPO1 altered the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of hundreds of proteins in a sequence-specific manner that promoted oncogenesis. XPO1 mutations preferentially sensitized cells to inhibitors of nuclear export, providing a biomarker of response to this family of drugs. These data reveal a new class of oncogenic alteration based on change-of-function mutations in nuclear export signal recognition and identify therapeutic targets based on altered nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. SIGNIFICANCE: Here, we identify that heterozygous mutations in the main nuclear exporter in eukaryotic cells, XPO1, are positively selected in cancer and promote the initiation of clonal B-cell malignancies. XPO1 mutations alter nuclear export signal recognition in a sequence-specific manner and sensitize cells to compounds in clinical development inhibiting XPO1 function.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1325.

13.
Nature ; 571(7765): 355-360, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270458

RESUMO

Defining the transcriptomic identity of malignant cells is challenging in the absence of surface markers that distinguish cancer clones from one another, or from admixed non-neoplastic cells. To address this challenge, here we developed Genotyping of Transcriptomes (GoT), a method to integrate genotyping with high-throughput droplet-based single-cell RNA sequencing. We apply GoT to profile 38,290 CD34+ cells from patients with CALR-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms to study how somatic mutations corrupt the complex process of human haematopoiesis. High-resolution mapping of malignant versus normal haematopoietic progenitors revealed an increasing fitness advantage with myeloid differentiation of cells with mutated CALR. We identified the unfolded protein response as a predominant outcome of CALR mutations, with a considerable dependency on cell identity, as well as upregulation of the NF-κB pathway specifically in uncommitted stem cells. We further extended the GoT toolkit to genotype multiple targets and loci that are distant from transcript ends. Together, these findings reveal that the transcriptional output of somatic mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms is dependent on the native cell identity.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Mutação , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/patologia , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Calreticulina/genética , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Clonais/classificação , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Células Clonais/patologia , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Hematopoese/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/classificação , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/classificação , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias/classificação , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Mielofibrose Primária/genética , Mielofibrose Primária/patologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/genética
14.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 58(12): 889-902, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334570

RESUMO

Since the discovery of RNA splicing more than 40 years ago, our comprehension of the molecular events orchestrating constitutive and alternative splicing has greatly improved. Dysregulation of pre-mRNA splicing has been observed in many human diseases including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The recent identification of frequent somatic mutations in core components of the spliceosome in myeloid malignancies and functional analysis using model systems has advanced our knowledge of how splicing alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize our current understanding on the mechanisms of how mutant splicing factors impact splicing and the resulting functional and pathophysiological consequences. We also review recent advances to develop novel therapeutic approaches targeting splicing catalysis and splicing regulatory proteins, and discuss emerging technologies using oligonucleotide-based therapies to modulate pathogenically spliced isoforms.

15.
J Exp Med ; 216(10): 2331-2347, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345930

RESUMO

Many tested vaccines fail to provide protection against disease despite the induction of antibodies that bind the pathogen of interest. In light of this, there is much interest in rationally designed subunit vaccines that direct the antibody response to protective epitopes. Here, we produced a panel of anti-idiotype antibodies able to specifically recognize the inferred germline version of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) broadly neutralizing antibody b12 (iglb12). We determined the crystal structure of two anti-idiotypes in complex with iglb12 and used these anti-idiotypes to identify rare naive human B cells expressing B cell receptors with similarity to iglb12. Immunization with a multimerized version of this anti-idiotype induced the proliferation of transgenic murine B cells expressing the iglb12 heavy chain in vivo, despite the presence of deletion and anergy within this population. Together, our data indicate that anti-idiotypes are a valuable tool for the study and induction of potentially protective antibodies.

16.
J Exp Med ; 216(10): 2316-2330, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345931

RESUMO

Human anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) protect against infection in animal models. However, bNAbs have not been elicited by vaccination in diverse wild-type animals or humans, in part because B cells expressing the precursors of these antibodies do not recognize most HIV-1 envelopes (Envs). Immunogens have been designed that activate these B cell precursors in vivo, but they also activate competing off-target responses. Here we report on a complementary approach to expand specific B cells using an anti-idiotypic antibody, iv8, that selects for naive human B cells expressing immunoglobulin light chains with 5-amino acid complementarity determining region 3s, a key feature of anti-CD4 binding site (CD4bs)-specific VRC01-class antibodies. In mice, iv8 induced target cells to expand and mature in the context of a polyclonal immune system and produced serologic responses targeting the CD4bs on Env. In summary, the results demonstrate that an anti-idiotypic antibody can specifically recognize and expand rare B cells that express VRC01-class antibodies against HIV-1.

17.
Blood ; 134(8): 678-687, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243042

RESUMO

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an uncommon hematologic malignancy with poor outcomes. Existing data on the clinical behavior of BPDCN are limited because reported outcomes are from small retrospective series, and standardized treatment guidelines are lacking. The interleukin-3 cytotoxin conjugate tagraxofusp was recently tested in phase 1/2 trials that led to US Food and Drug Administration approval, the first ever for BPDCN. However, because there was no matched internal comparator in this or any clinical study to date, results of BPDCN trials testing new drugs are difficult to compare with alternative therapies. We therefore sought to define the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a group of patients with BPDCN treated at 3 US cancer centers in the modern era but before tagraxofusp was available. In 59 studied patients with BPDCN, the median overall survival from diagnosis was 24 months, and outcomes were similar in patients with "skin only" or with systemic disease at presentation. Intensive first-line therapy and "lymphoid-type" chemotherapy regimens were associated with better outcomes. Only 55% of patients received intensive chemotherapy, and 42% of patients underwent stem cell transplantation. Clinical characteristics at diagnosis associated with poorer outcomes included age >60 years, abnormal karyotype, and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TdT) negativity in the BPDCN cells. We also identified disease responses to pralatrexate and enasidenib in some patients. This study highlights poor outcomes for patients with BPDCN in the modern era and the need for new treatments. Outcomes from ongoing clinical trials for BPDCN can be evaluated relative to this contemporary cohort.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Benchmarking , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Immunol ; 4(35)2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101673

RESUMO

Effective vaccines inducing lifelong protection against many important infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), HIV, influenza virus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are not yet available despite decades of research. As an alternative to a protective vaccine, we developed a genetic engineering strategy in which CRISPR-Cas9 was used to replace endogenously encoded antibodies with antibodies targeting RSV, HIV, influenza virus, or EBV in primary human B cells. The engineered antibodies were expressed efficiently in primary B cells under the control of endogenous regulatory elements, which maintained normal antibody expression and secretion. Using engineered mouse B cells, we demonstrated that a single transfer of B cells engineered to express an antibody against RSV resulted in potent and durable protection against RSV infection in RAG1-deficient mice. This approach offers the opportunity to achieve sterilizing immunity against pathogens for which traditional vaccination has failed to induce or maintain protective antibody responses.

20.
J Exp Med ; 216(6): 1301-1310, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975893

RESUMO

A small number of HIV-1-infected individuals develop broadly neutralizing antibodies to the virus (bNAbs). These antibodies are protective against infection in animal models. However, they only emerge 1-3 yr after infection, and show a number of highly unusual features including exceedingly high levels of somatic mutations. It is therefore not surprising that elicitation of protective immunity to HIV-1 has not yet been possible. Here we show that mature, primary mouse and human B cells can be edited in vitro using CRISPR/Cas9 to express mature bNAbs from the endogenous Igh locus. Moreover, edited B cells retain the ability to participate in humoral immune responses. Immunization with cognate antigen in wild-type mouse recipients of edited B cells elicits bNAb titers that neutralize HIV-1 at levels associated with protection against infection. This approach enables humoral immune responses that may be difficult to elicit by traditional immunization.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA