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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(10): 1504-1516, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611364

RESUMO

Fine-mapping to plausible causal variation may be more effective in multi-ancestry cohorts, particularly in the MHC, which has population-specific structure. To enable such studies, we constructed a large (n = 21,546) HLA reference panel spanning five global populations based on whole-genome sequences. Despite population-specific long-range haplotypes, we demonstrated accurate imputation at G-group resolution (94.2%, 93.7%, 97.8% and 93.7% in admixed African (AA), East Asian (EAS), European (EUR) and Latino (LAT) populations). Applying HLA imputation to genome-wide association study data for HIV-1 viral load in three populations (EUR, AA and LAT), we obviated effects of previously reported associations from population-specific HIV studies and discovered a novel association at position 156 in HLA-B. We pinpointed the MHC association to three amino acid positions (97, 67 and 156) marking three consecutive pockets (C, B and D) within the HLA-B peptide-binding groove, explaining 12.9% of trait variance.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19365, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588469

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic variants associated with spirometric measures of pulmonary function, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity, and their ratio. However, variants with lower minor allele frequencies are less explored. We conducted a large-scale gene-smoking interaction meta-analysis on exonic rare and low-frequency variants involving 44,429 individuals of European ancestry in the discovery stage and sought replication in the UK BiLEVE study with 45,133 European ancestry samples and UK Biobank study with 59,478 samples. We leveraged data on cigarette smoking, the major environmental risk factor for reduced lung function, by testing gene-by-smoking interaction effects only and simultaneously testing the genetic main effects and interaction effects. The most statistically significant signal that replicated was a previously reported low-frequency signal in GPR126, distinct from common variant associations in this gene. Although only nominal replication was obtained for a top rare variant signal rs142935352 in one of the two studies, interaction and joint tests for current smoking and PDE3B were significantly associated with FEV1. This study investigates the utility of assessing gene-by-smoking interactions and underscores their effects on potential pulmonary function.

3.
Circulation ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587750

RESUMO

Background: The most prominent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF) is chronological age, however underlying mechanisms are unexplained. Algorithms using epigenetic modifications to the human genome effectively predict chronological age. Chronological and epigenetic predicted ages may diverge, a phenomenon termed epigenetic age acceleration (EAA), which may reflect accelerated biological aging. We sought to evaluate for associations between epigenetic age measures and incident AF. Methods: Measures for 4 epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum, DNAm PhenoAge, and DNAm GrimAge) and an epigenetic predictor of PAI-1 levels (DNAm PAI-1) were determined for study participants from 3 population-based cohort studies. Cox models evaluated for associations with incident AF and results were combined via random-effects meta-analysis. Two-sample summary-level Mendelian randomization analyses evaluated for associations between genetic instruments of the EAA measures and AF. Results: Among 5,600 individuals (mean age: 65.5 years; 60.1% female; 50.7% black), there were 905 incident AF cases during a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed all 4 epigenetic clocks and the DNAm PAI-1 predictor were associated with statistically significant higher hazards of incident AF, though the magnitudes of their point estimates were smaller relative to the associations observed for chronological age. The pooled EAA estimates for each epigenetic measure, with the exception of Horvath EAA, were associated with incident AF in models adjusted for chronological age, race, sex, and smoking variables. Following multivariable adjustment for additional known AF risk factors that could also potentially function as mediators, pooled EAA measures for 2 clocks remained statistically significant. Five year increases in EAA measures for DNAm GrimAge and DNAm PhenoAge were associated with 19% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.09-1.31; p<0.01) and 15% (adjusted HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.05-1.25; p<0.01) higher hazards of incident AF, respectively. Mendelian randomization analyses for the 5 EAA measures did not reveal statistically significant associations with AF. Conclusions: Our study identified adjusted associations between EAA measures and incident AF, suggesting biological aging plays an important role independent of chronological age, though a potential underlying causal relationship remains unclear. These aging processes may be modifiable and not constrained by the immutable factor of time.

4.
Mol Metab ; 54: 101342, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563731

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Identify and characterize circulating metabolite profiles associated with adiposity to inform precision medicine. METHODS: Untargeted plasma metabolomic profiles in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS) Mexican American cohort (n = 1108) were analyzed for association with anthropometric (body mass index, BMI; waist circumference, WC; waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and computed tomography measures (visceral adipose tissue, VAT; subcutaneous adipose tissue, SAT; visceral-to-subcutaneous ratio, VSR) of adiposity. Genetic data, inclusive of genome-wide array-based genotyping, whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), were evaluated to identify the genetic contributors. Phenotypic and genetic association signals were replicated across ancestries. Transcriptomic data were analyzed to explore the relationship between genetic and metabolomic data. RESULTS: A partially characterized metabolite, tentatively named metabolonic lactone sulfate (X-12063), was consistently associated with BMI, WC, WHR, VAT, and SAT in IRASFS Mexican Americans (PMA <2.02 × 10-27). Trait associations were replicated in IRASFS African Americans (PAA < 1.12 × 10-07). Expanded analyses revealed associations with multiple phenotypic measures of cardiometabolic health, e.g. insulin sensitivity (SI), triglycerides (TG), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in both ancestries. Metabolonic lactone sulfate levels were heritable (h2 > 0.47), and a significant genetic signal at the ZSCAN25/CYP3A5 locus (PMA = 9.00 × 10-41, PAA = 2.31 × 10-10) was observed, highlighting a putative functional variant (rs776746, CYP3A5∗3). Transcriptomic analysis in the African American Genetics of Metabolism and Expression (AAGMEx) cohort supported the association of CYP3A5 with metabolonic lactone sulfate levels (PFDR = 6.64 × 10-07). CONCLUSIONS: Variant rs776746 is associated with a decrease in the transcript levels of CYP3A5, which in turn is associated with increased metabolonic lactone sulfate levels and poor cardiometabolic health.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415308

RESUMO

We conducted cohort- and race-specific epigenome-wide association analyses of mtDNA copy number (mtDNA CN) measured in whole blood from participants of African and European origins in five cohorts (n = 6182, mean age 57-67 years, 65% women). In the meta-analysis of all the participants, we discovered 21 mtDNA CN-associated CpG sites (p < 1 x 10-7), with a 0.7 to 3.0 standard deviation increase (3 CpGs) or decrease (18 CpGs) in mtDNA CN corresponding to a 1% increase in DNA methylation. Several significant CpGs have been reported to be associated with at least two risk factors (e.g. chronological age or smoking) for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Five genes (PRDM16, NR1H3, XRCC3, POLK, and PDSS2), which harbor nine significant CpGs, are known to be involved in mitochondrial biosynthesis and functions. For example, NR1H3 encodes a transcription factor that is differentially expressed during an adipose tissue transition. The methylation level of cg09548275 in NR1H3 was negatively associated with mtDNA CN (effect size = -1.71, p = 4 x 10-8) and positively associated with the NR1H3 expression level (effect size = 0.43, p = 0.0003), which indicates that the methylation level in NR1H3 may underlie the relationship between mtDNA CN, the NR1H3 transcription factor, and energy expenditure. In summary, the study results suggest that mtDNA CN variation in whole blood is associated with DNA methylation levels in genes that are involved in a wide range of mitochondrial activities. These findings will help reveal molecular mechanisms between mtDNA CN and CVD.

6.
Science ; 373(6558): 1030-1035, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385354

RESUMO

Biological mechanisms underlying human germline mutations remain largely unknown. We statistically decompose variation in the rate and spectra of mutations along the genome using volume-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization. The analysis of a sequencing dataset (TOPMed) reveals nine processes that explain the variation in mutation properties between loci. We provide a biological interpretation for seven of these processes. We associate one process with bulky DNA lesions that are resolved asymmetrically with respect to transcription and replication. Two processes track direction of replication fork and replication timing, respectively. We identify a mutagenic effect of active demethylation primarily acting in regulatory regions and a mutagenic effect of long interspersed nuclear elements. We localize a mutagenic process specific to oocytes from population sequencing data. This process appears transcriptionally asymmetric.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Algoritmos , Ilhas de CpG , Dano ao DNA , Desmetilação do DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Replicação do DNA , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos , Mutagênese , Oócitos/fisiologia , Transcrição Genética
7.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003288, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ChREBP (carbohydrate responsive element binding protein) is a transcription factor that responds to sugar consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and genetic variants in the CHREBP locus have separately been linked to HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that SSB consumption would modify the association between genetic variants in the CHREBP locus and dyslipidemia. METHODS: Data from 11 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium (N=63 599) and the UK Biobank (N=59 220) were used to quantify associations of SSB consumption, genetic variants, and their interaction on HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations using linear regression models. A total of 1606 single nucleotide polymorphisms within or near CHREBP were considered. SSB consumption was estimated from validated questionnaires, and participants were grouped by their estimated intake. RESULTS: In a meta-analysis, rs71556729 was significantly associated with higher HDL-C concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (ß, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.16-3.07] mg/dL per allele; P<0.0001), but not significantly among the lowest SSB consumers (P=0.81; PDiff <0.0001). Similar results were observed for 2 additional variants (rs35709627 and rs71556736). For triglyceride, rs55673514 was positively associated with triglyceride concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (ß, 0.06 [95% CI, 0.02-0.09] ln-mg/dL per allele, P=0.001) but not the lowest SSB consumers (P=0.84; PDiff=0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Our results identified genetic variants in the CHREBP locus that may protect against SSB-associated reductions in HDL-C and other variants that may exacerbate SSB-associated increases in triglyceride concentrations. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00005133, NCT00005121, NCT00005487, and NCT00000479.

8.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003258, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals and strong risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an independent cardiovascular disease risk factor that accelerates atherosclerosis. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies in up to 2500 T2D individuals of European ancestry (EA) and 1590 T2D individuals of African ancestry with or without exclusion of prevalent cardiovascular disease, for CAC measured by cardiac computed tomography, and 3608 individuals of EA and 838 individuals of African ancestry with T2D for cIMT measured by ultrasonography within the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. RESULTS: We replicated 2 loci (rs9369640 and rs9349379 near PHACTR1 and rs10757278 near CDKN2B) for CAC and one locus for cIMT (rs7412 and rs445925 near APOE-APOC1) that were previously reported in the general EA populations. We identified one novel CAC locus (rs8000449 near CSNK1A1L/LINC00547/POSTN at 13q13.3) at P=2.0×10-8 in EA. No additional loci were identified with the meta-analyses of EA and African ancestry. The expression quantitative trait loci analysis with nearby expressed genes derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project pinpoints POSTN, encoding a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, as the potential candidate gene at this locus. In addition, we found significant associations (P<3.1×10-4) for 3 previously reported coronary artery disease loci for these subclinical atherosclerotic phenotypes (rs2891168 near CDKN2B-AS1 and rs11170820 near FLJ12825 for CAC, and rs7412 near APOE for cIMT). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide potential biological mechanisms that could link CAC and cIMT to increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with T2D.

9.
Epigenetics ; : 1-23, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227900

RESUMO

Epigenetic clocks have been widely used to predict disease risk in multiple tissues or cells. Their success as a measure of biological ageing has prompted research on the connection between epigenetic pathways of ageing and the socioeconomic gradient in health and mortality. However, studies examining social correlates of epigenetic ageing have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a comprehensive, comparative analysis of associations between various dimensions of socioeconomic status (SES) (education, income, wealth, occupation, neighbourhood environment, and childhood SES) and eight epigenetic clocks in two well-powered US ageing studies: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (n = 1,211) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,018). In both studies, we found robust associations between SES measures in adulthood and the GrimAge and DunedinPoAm clocks (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.01). In the HRS, significant associations with the Levine and Yang clocks were also evident. These associations were only partially mediated by smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity, which suggests that differences in health behaviours alone cannot explain the SES gradient in epigenetic ageing in older adults. Further analyses revealed concurrent associations between polygenic risk for accelerated intrinsic epigenetic ageing, SES, and the Levine clock, indicating that genetic risk and social disadvantage may contribute additively to faster biological aging.

10.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165540

RESUMO

Central obesity is a leading health concern with a great burden carried by ethnic minority populations, especially Hispanics/Latinos. Genetic factors contribute to the obesity burden overall and to inter-population differences. We aimed to identify loci associated with central adiposity measured as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HIP) adjusted for body mass index (adjBMI), using the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL); determine if differences in associations differ by background group within HCHS/SOL; and determine whether previously reported associations generalize to HCHS/SOL. Our analyses included 7472 women and 5200 men of mainland (Mexican, Central and South American) and Caribbean (Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Dominican) background residing in the US. We performed genome-wide association analyses stratified and combined across sexes using linear mixed-model regression. We identified 16 variants for WHRadjBMI, 22 for WCadjBMI, and 28 for HIPadjBMI that reached suggestive significance (P < 1x10-6). Many loci exhibited differences in strength of associations by ethnic background and sex. We brought a total of 66 variants forward for validation in cohorts (N = 34 161) with participants of Hispanic/Latino, African and European descent. We confirmed 4 novel loci (P < 0.05 and consistent direction of effect, and P < 5x10-8 after meta-analysis), including 2 for WHRadjBMI (rs13301996, rs79478137); 1 for WCadjBMI (rs3168072); and 1 for HIPadjBMI (rs28692724). Also, we generalized previously reported associations to HCHS/SOL, (8 for WHRadjBMI; 10 for WCadjBMI; 12 for HIPadjBMI). Our study highlights the importance of large-scale genomic studies in ancestrally diverse Hispanic/Latino populations for identifying and characterizing central obesity-susceptibility that may be ancestry-specific.

11.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166655

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify functionally related genes associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk using gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) applied to genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses. METHODS: We analyzed DR GWAS meta-analyses performed on 3,246 Europeans and 2,611 African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Gene sets relevant to five key DR pathophysiology processes were investigated: tissue injury, vascular events, metabolic events and glial dysregulation, neuronal dysfunction, and inflammation. Keywords relevant to these processes were queried in four pathway and ontology databases. Two GSEA methods, Meta-Analysis Gene set Enrichment of variaNT Associations (MAGENTA) and Multi-marker Analysis of GenoMic Annotation (MAGMA) were used. Gene sets were defined to be enriched for gene associations with DR if the P value corrected for multiple testing (Pcorr) was <.05. RESULTS: Five gene sets were significantly enriched for multiple modest genetic associations with DR in one method (MAGENTA or MAGMA) and also at least nominally significant (uncorrected P <.05) in the other method. These pathways were regulation of the lipid catabolic process (2-fold enrichment, Pcorr=.014); nitric oxide biosynthesis (1.92-fold enrichment, Pcorr=.022); lipid digestion, mobilization and transport (1.6-fold enrichment, P=.032); apoptosis (1.53-fold enrichment, P=.041); and retinal ganglion cell degeneration (2-fold enrichment, Pcorr=.049). The interferon gamma (IFNG) gene, previously implicated in DR by protein-protein interactions in our GWAS, was among the top ranked genes in the nitric oxide pathway (best variant P=.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These GSEA indicate that variants in genes involved in oxidative stress, lipid transport and catabolism and cell degeneration are enriched for genes associated with DR risk.

12.
Aging Cell ; 20(6): e13366, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050697

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a common precursor state for blood cancers that most frequently occurs due to mutations in the DNA-methylation modifying enzymes DNMT3A or TET2. We used DNA-methylation array and whole-genome sequencing data from four cohorts together comprising 5522 persons to study the association between CHIP, epigenetic clocks, and health outcomes. CHIP was strongly associated with epigenetic age acceleration, defined as the residual after regressing epigenetic clock age on chronological age, in several clocks, ranging from 1.31 years (GrimAge, p < 8.6 × 10-7 ) to 3.08 years (EEAA, p < 3.7 × 10-18 ). Mutations in most CHIP genes except DNA-damage response genes were associated with increases in several measures of age acceleration. CHIP carriers with mutations in multiple genes had the largest increases in age acceleration and decrease in estimated telomere length. Finally, we found that ~40% of CHIP carriers had acceleration >0 in both Hannum and GrimAge (referred to as AgeAccelHG+). This group was at high risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.90, p < 4.1 × 10-8 ) and coronary heart disease (CHD) (hazard ratio 3.24, p < 9.3 × 10-6 ) compared to those who were CHIP-/AgeAccelHG-. In contrast, the other ~60% of CHIP carriers who were AgeAccelHG- were not at increased risk of these outcomes. In summary, CHIP is strongly linked to age acceleration in multiple clocks, and the combination of CHIP and epigenetic aging may be used to identify a population at high risk for adverse outcomes and who may be a target for clinical interventions.

13.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015820

RESUMO

Large datasets of hundreds to thousands of individuals measuring RNA-seq in observational studies are becoming available. Many popular software packages for analysis of RNA-seq data were constructed to study differences in expression signatures in an experimental design with well-defined conditions (exposures). In contrast, observational studies may have varying levels of confounding transcript-exposure associations; further, exposure measures may vary from discrete (exposed, yes/no) to continuous (levels of exposure), with non-normal distributions of exposure. We compare popular software for gene expression-DESeq2, edgeR and limma-as well as linear regression-based analyses for studying the association of continuous exposures with RNA-seq. We developed a computation pipeline that includes transformation, filtering and generation of empirical null distribution of association P-values, and we apply the pipeline to compute empirical P-values with multiple testing correction. We employ a resampling approach that allows for assessment of false positive detection across methods, power comparison and the computation of quantile empirical P-values. The results suggest that linear regression methods are substantially faster with better control of false detections than other methods, even with the resampling method to compute empirical P-values. We provide the proposed pipeline with fast algorithms in an R package Olivia, and implemented it to study the associations of measures of sleep disordered breathing with RNA-seq in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

14.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(8): 2019-2028, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of targeted exome-arrays with common, rare variants and functionally enriched variation has led to discovery of new genes contributing to population variation in risk factors. Plasminogen activator-inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and the plasma product D-dimer are important components of the fibrinolytic system. There have been few large-scale genome-wide or exome-wide studies of PAI-1, tPA, and D-dimer. OBJECTIVES: We sought to discover new genetic loci contributing to variation in these traits using an exome-array approach. METHODS: Cohort-level analyses and fixed effects meta-analyses of PAI-1 (n = 15 603), tPA (n = 6876,) and D-dimer (n = 19 306) from 12 cohorts of European ancestry with diverse study design were conducted, including single-variant analyses and gene-based burden testing. RESULTS: Five variants located in NME7, FGL1, and the fibrinogen locus, all associated with D-dimer levels, achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8 ). Replication was sought for these 5 variants, as well as 45 well-imputed variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in the discovery using an independent cohort. Replication was observed for three out of the five significant associations, including a novel and uncommon (0.013 allele frequency) coding variant p.Trp256Leu in FGL1 (fibrinogen-like-1) with increased plasma D-dimer levels. Additionally, a candidate-gene approach revealed a suggestive association for a coding variant (rs143202684-C) in SERPINB2, and suggestive associations with consistent effect in the replication analysis include an intronic variant (rs11057830-A) in SCARB1 associated with increased D-dimer levels. CONCLUSION: This work provides new evidence for a role of FGL1 in hemostasis.


Assuntos
Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual , Exoma , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio , Fibrinogênio/genética , Fibrinólise , Humanos , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/genética
15.
Hum Mol Genet ; 30(15): 1443-1456, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856023

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is highly correlated with metabolic disease. NAFLD results from environmental exposures acting on a susceptible polygenic background. This study performed the largest multiethnic investigation of exonic variation associated with NAFLD and correlated metabolic traits and diseases. An exome array meta-analysis was carried out among eight multiethnic population-based cohorts (n = 16 492) with computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic steatosis. A fixed effects meta-analysis identified five exome-wide significant loci (P < 5.30 × 10-7); including a novel signal near TOMM40/APOE. Joint analysis of TOMM40/APOE variants revealed the TOMM40 signal was attributed to APOE rs429358-T; APOE rs7412 was not associated with liver attenuation. Moreover, rs429358-T was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase, liver steatosis, cirrhosis, triglycerides and obesity; as well as, lower cholesterol and decreased risk of myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in phenome-wide association analyses in the Michigan Genomics Initiative, United Kingdom Biobank and/or public datasets. These results implicate APOE in imaging-based identification of NAFLD. This association may or may not translate to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, these results indicate a significant association with advanced liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis. These findings highlight allelic heterogeneity at the APOE locus and demonstrate an inverse link between NAFLD and AD at the exome level in the largest analysis to date.

16.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 266, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649486

RESUMO

Keratoconus is characterised by reduced rigidity of the cornea with distortion and focal thinning that causes blurred vision, however, the pathogenetic mechanisms are unknown. It can lead to severe visual morbidity in children and young adults and is a common indication for corneal transplantation worldwide. Here we report the first large scale genome-wide association study of keratoconus including 4,669 cases and 116,547 controls. We have identified significant association with 36 genomic loci that, for the first time, implicate both dysregulation of corneal collagen matrix integrity and cell differentiation pathways as primary disease-causing mechanisms. The results also suggest pleiotropy, with some disease mechanisms shared with other corneal diseases, such as Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. The common variants associated with keratoconus explain 12.5% of the genetic variance, which shows potential for the future development of a diagnostic test to detect susceptibility to disease.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Colágeno/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Loci Gênicos , Ceratocone/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Ceratocone/etnologia , Ceratocone/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4966, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654115

RESUMO

Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vasoproliferative retinal disease affecting premature infants. In addition to prematurity itself and oxygen treatment, genetic factors have been suggested to predispose to ROP. We aimed to identify potentially pathogenic genes and biological pathways associated with ROP by analyzing variants from whole exome sequencing (WES) data of premature infants. As part of a multicenter ROP cohort study, 100 non-Hispanic Caucasian preterm infants enriched in phenotypic extremes were subjected to WES. Gene-based testing was done on coding nonsynonymous variants. Genes showing enrichment of qualifying variants in severe ROP compared to mild or no ROP from gene-based tests with adjustment for gestational age and birth weight were selected for gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). Mean BW of included infants with pre-plus, type-1 or type 2 ROP including aggressive posterior ROP (n = 58) and mild or no ROP (n = 42) were 744 g and 995 g, respectively. No single genes reached genome-wide significance that could account for a severe phenotype. GSEA identified two significantly associated pathways (smooth endoplasmic reticulum and vitamin C metabolism) after correction for multiple tests. WES of premature infants revealed potential pathways that may be important in the pathogenesis of ROP and in further genetic studies.

19.
EBioMedicine ; 63: 103157, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors that influence kidney traits have been understudied for low frequency and ancestry-specific variants. METHODS: We combined whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 23,732 participants from 10 NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program multi-ethnic studies to identify novel loci for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Participants included European, African, East Asian, and Hispanic ancestries. We applied linear mixed models using a genetic relationship matrix estimated from the WGS data and adjusted for age, sex, study, and ethnicity. FINDINGS: When testing single variants, we identified three novel loci driven by low frequency variants more commonly observed in non-European ancestry (PRKAA2, rs180996919, minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.04%, P = 6.1 × 10-11; METTL8, rs116951054, MAF 0.09%, P = 4.5 × 10-9; and MATK, rs539182790, MAF 0.05%, P = 3.4 × 10-9). We also replicated two known loci for common variants (rs2461702, MAF=0.49, P = 1.2 × 10-9, nearest gene GATM, and rs71147340, MAF=0.34, P = 3.3 × 10-9, CDK12). Testing aggregated variants within a gene identified the MAF gene. A statistical approach based on local ancestry helped to identify replication samples for ancestry-specific variants. INTERPRETATION: This study highlights challenges in studying variants influencing kidney traits that are low frequency in populations and more common in non-European ancestry.


Assuntos
Genômica , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Medicina de Precisão , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Alelos , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Pediatr Obes ; 16(7): e12765, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic underpinnings of glycemic traits have been understudied in adolescent and Hispanic/Latino (H/L) populations in comparison to adults and populations of European ancestry. OBJECTIVE: To identify genetic factors underlying glycemic traits in an adolescent H/L population. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) in H/L adolescents from the Santiago Longitudinal Study. RESULTS: We identified one novel variant positioned in the CSMD1 gene on chromosome 8 (rs77465890, effect allele frequency = 0.10) that was associated with FI (ß = -0.299, SE = 0.054, p = 2.72×10-8 ) and was only slightly attenuated after adjusting for body mass index z-scores (ß = -0.252, SE = 0.047, p = 1.03×10-7 ). We demonstrated directionally consistent, but not statistically significant results in African and Hispanic adults of the Population Architecture Using Genomics and Epidemiology Consortium. We also identified secondary signals for two FG loci after conditioning on known variants, which demonstrate allelic heterogeneity in well-known glucose loci. CONCLUSION: Our results exemplify the importance of including populations with diverse ancestral origin and adolescent participants in GWAS of glycemic traits to uncover novel risk loci and expand our understanding of disease aetiology.

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