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1.
Folia Phoniatr Logop ; : 1-12, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is currently limited knowledge on the useof transcription in the management of children with speech sound disorders (SSD) by speech-language pathologists in Australia. This study explored the use of transcription, the facilitators, and challenges of transcription use, and differences in the use of detailed transcription with various client groups. Method and Participants: Eighty-four participants (speech-language pathologists working in Australia) completed an online exploratory survey which included closed and open-ended questions. RESULTS: 95% of participants reported using transcription. The three most commonly reported strategies/resources were transcription charts (81%), self-practice (68%), and websites (42%). Transcription challenges included the use of two vowel notation systems, reduced proficiency in transcription, service delivery issues, sampling/recording issues, and issues with using transcription to communicate. Finally, results from this survey found that participants use detailed transcription more often when recording the speech of children with childhood apraxia of speech and craniofacial impairment compared to using transcription to document the speech of children who have SSD of unknown origin. Most participants (91%) had not attended transcription professional development. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have implications for the university training of speech-language pathologists and for the establishment of professional development courses for practising speech-language pathologists in Australia.

2.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p = 0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p = 0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p = 0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.

3.
BMJ Open ; 8(12): e024499, 2018 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30559161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Heart Manual (HM) is the UK's leading facilitated home-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme for individuals recovering from myocardial infarction and revascularisation. This audit explored patient-reported outcomes of home-based CR in relation to current Scottish, UK and European guidelines. SETTING: Patients across the UK returned their questionnaire after completing the HM programme to the HM Department (NHS Lothian). PARTICIPANTS: Qualitative data from 457 questionnaires returned between 2011 and 2018 were included for thematic analysis. Seven themes were identified from the guidelines. This guided initial deductive coding and provided the basis for inductive subthemes to emerge. RESULTS: Themes included: (1) health behaviour change and modifiable risk reduction, (2) psychosocial support, (3) education, (4) social support, (5) medical risk management, (6) vocational rehabilitation and (7) long-term strategies and maintenance. Both (1) and (2) were reported as having the greatest impact on patients' daily lives. Subthemes for (1) included: guidance, engagement, awareness, consequences, attitude, no change and motivation. Psychosocial support comprised: stress management, pacing, relaxation, increased self-efficacy, validation, mental health and self-perception. This was followed by (3) and (4). Patients less frequently referred to (5), (6) and (7). Additional themes highlighted the impact of the HM programme and that patients attributed the greatest impact to a combination of all the above themes. CONCLUSIONS: This audit highlighted the HM as comprehensive and inclusive of key elements proposed by Scottish, UK and EU guidelines. Patients reported this had a profound impact on their daily lives and proved advantageous for CR.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca/normas , Serviços Hospitalares de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Infarto do Miocárdio/reabilitação , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Auditoria Clínica , Europa (Continente) , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Serviços Hospitalares de Assistência Domiciliar/economia , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Gestão de Riscos , Escócia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido
4.
J Clin Nurs ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30431190

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To review and analyse current preceptorship programmes within NHS trusts in the North West of England. To evaluate the pedagogic rigour of the programme and suggest recommendations to inform the future design of preceptorship programmes. BACKGROUND: Enhancing the retention of newly qualified staff is of particular importance given that the journey from a new registrant to a competent healthcare professional poses a number of challenges, for both the individual staff member and organisations. DESIGN: A mixed methods evaluative approach was employed, using online questionnaires and content analysis of preceptorship documentation. METHODS: Forty-one NHS trusts across the North West region employing newly qualified nurses were invited to participate in the completion of an online questionnaire. In addition, preceptorship programme documentation was requested for inclusion in the content analysis. This study utilised the SQUIRE (Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence) guidelines. RESULTS: The response rate for the questionnaire was 56.1% (n=23). Eighteen trusts (43.9%) forwarded their programme documentation. Findings highlighted the wide variation in preceptorship programmes across the geographical footprint. CONCLUSIONS: There were instances of outstanding preceptorship and preceptorship programmes where there was a clear link between the strategic vision, i.e., trust policy, and its delivery, i.e. preceptorship offering. There was no one framework that would universally meet the needs of all trusts, yet there are key components which should be included in all preceptorship programmes. Therefore, we would encourage innovation and creativity in preceptorship programmes, cognisant of local context. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The significant shortage of nursing staff in England is an ongoing issue. Recruitment and retention are key to ameliorating the shortfall, and formal support mechanisms like preceptorship, can improve the retention of newly qualified staff. Understanding current preceptorship programmes is an important first step in establishing the fundamental building blocks of successful preceptorship programmes and enabling the sharing of exemplary good practice across organisations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Drug Saf ; 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30232740

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Romiplostim is a subcutaneously administered thrombopoietin-receptor agonist approved in the European Union for self-administration (or administration by a caregiver) in selected adult patients with chronic primary immune thrombocytopenia refractory to other treatments. To mitigate the risk of medication errors due to self-administration, the manufacturer has implemented additional risk minimisation measures (RMM) in the form of a Home Administration Training (HAT) pack to support the training of both healthcare professionals (HCPs) (guide and checklist for patient selection and training) and patients (a preparation mat, quick guide booklet, step-by-step guide, self-administration diary and DVD/video). OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to estimate the proportion of patients/caregivers who administered romiplostim correctly after HAT pack training. METHODS: A multicentre observational study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the HAT pack by recording data on a standardised collection form during direct observation of patients/caregivers in the act of administering romiplostim at the first standard-of-care visit 4 weeks after training with the HAT pack. RESULTS: Among the 40 patients/caregivers enrolled across 12 study centres in eight European countries, 35 [87.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 73.9-94.5] administered romiplostim correctly, and five (12.5%; 95% CI 5.5-26.1) did not. CONCLUSION: The correct administration of romiplostim by most patients/caregivers supports the effectiveness of the HAT pack as an additional risk minimisation tool in the population and setting of this study.

6.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0199186, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Philippine government has an extensive network of 513 Animal Bite Treatment Centers (ABTCs) to supply rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP), reaching over 1 million bite victims in 2016. The network was evaluated using a review of existing national and provincial data, key informant interviews and surveys in sample ABTCs to determine the cost-effectiveness of this network in preventing human rabies deaths. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One urban and one rural ABTC in each of three selected provinces were studied in more detail. PEP delivery generally followed national guidance based on best practices, but there was evidence of operational challenges in supplying all ABTCs with adequate biologics and recently trained staff. Funding was contributed by different levels of government and in some clinics, patients paid for a significant fraction of the total cost. From a health provider perspective including both fixed and variable costs, the average PEP course delivered cost USD 32.91 /patient across urban ABTCs (with higher patient throughput) and USD 57.21 /patient across rural ABTCs. These costs suggests that PEP provision in the Philippines cost USD 37.6 million in 2016, with a cost per life saved of USD 8,290. An analysis of the 2,239 suspected rabies deaths from 2008 to 2016 showed no significant decline, and from 2014-16 an average of 8,534 years of life were lost annually. The incidence of rabies deaths from 2014-16 was not clearly related to the provision of ABTCs (per 100,000 population) or human population density, but deaths were more common in higher income provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the context of comprehensive rabies control (including dog vaccination and public awareness) ways to reduce this high expenditure on PEP should be explored, to most cost-effectively reach the elimination of human rabies deaths. This paper is accompanied by another containing data on the operation of ABTCs network from a patient perspective.

7.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200873, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Philippines has built an extensive decentralised network of Animal Bite Treatment Centers (ABTCs) to help bite victims receive timely rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) at little cost. This study surveyed patients in the community and at ABTCs of three provinces to assess animal bite/scratch incidence, health-seeking behaviour and PEP-related out-of pocket expenses (OOPE). METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During community surveys in 90 barangays (neighbourhoods), 53% of households reported at least one animal bite /scratch injury over the past 3 years, similar across urban and rural barangays. Overall bite/scratch incidences in 2016-17 were 67.3, 41.9 and 48.8 per 1,000 population per year for Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan and Tarlac respectively. Incidences were around 50% higher amongst those under 15 years of age, compared to -those older than 15. Household awareness of the nearest ABTCs was generally over 80%, but only 44.9% sought proper medical treatment and traditional remedies were still frequently used. The proportion of patients seeking PEP was not related to the distance or travel time to the nearest ABTC. For those that did not seek medical treatment, most cited a lack of awareness or insufficient funds and almost a third visited a traditional healer. No deaths from bite/scratch injuries were reported. A cohort of 1,105 patients were interviewed at six ABTCs in early 2017. OOPE varied across the ABTCs, from 5.53 USD to 37.83 USD per patient, primarily dependent on the need to pay for immunization if government supplies had run out. Overall, 78% of patients completed the recommended course, and the main reason for non-completion was a lack of time, followed by insufficient funds. Dog observation data revealed that 85% of patients were not truly exposed to rabies, and education in bite prevention might reduce provoked bites and demand for PEP. An accompanying paper details the ABTC network from the health provider's perspective.

9.
Br J Cancer ; 118(2): 266-276, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. METHODS: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. RESULTS: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml-l, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.

10.
Chaos ; 27(9): 093929, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28964156

RESUMO

The transmembrane potential is recorded from small isopotential clusters of 2-4 embryonic chick ventricular cells spontaneously generating action potentials. We analyze the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations in the time between successive action potentials (the interbeat interval or IBI). We also convert an existing model of electrical activity in the cluster, which is formulated as a Hodgkin-Huxley-like deterministic system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing five individual ionic currents, into a stochastic model consisting of a population of ∼20 000 independently and randomly gating ionic channels, with the randomness being set by a real physical stochastic process (radio static). This stochastic model, implemented using the Clay-DeFelice algorithm, reproduces the fluctuations seen experimentally: e.g., the coefficient of variation (standard deviation/mean) of IBI is 4.3% in the model vs. the 3.9% average value of the 17 clusters studied. The model also replicates all but one of several other quantitative measures of the experimental results, including the power spectrum and correlation integral of the voltage, as well as the histogram, Poincaré plot, serial correlation coefficients, power spectrum, detrended fluctuation analysis, approximate entropy, and sample entropy of IBI. The channel noise from one particular ionic current (IKs), which has channel kinetics that are relatively slow compared to that of the other currents, makes the major contribution to the fluctuations in IBI. Reproduction of the experimental coefficient of variation of IBI by adding a Gaussian white noise-current into the deterministic model necessitates using an unrealistically high noise-current amplitude. Indeed, a major implication of the modelling results is that, given the wide range of time-scales over which the various species of channels open and close, only a cell-specific stochastic model that is formulated taking into consideration the widely different ranges in the frequency content of the channel-noise produced by the opening and closing of several different types of channels will be able to reproduce precisely the various effects due to membrane noise seen in a particular electrophysiological preparation.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/citologia , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Potenciais de Ação , Algoritmos , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Entropia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Processos Estocásticos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Front Vet Sci ; 4: 109, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740850

RESUMO

Free-roaming dogs and rabies transmission are integrally linked across many low-income countries, and large unmanaged dog populations can be daunting to rabies control program planners. Dog population management (DPM) is a multifaceted concept that aims to improve the health and well-being of free-roaming dogs, reduce problems they may cause, and may also aim to reduce dog population size. In theory, DPM can facilitate more effective rabies control. Community engagement focused on promoting responsible dog ownership and better veterinary care could improve the health of individual animals and dog vaccination coverage, thus reducing rabies transmission. Humane DPM tools, such as sterilization, could theoretically reduce dog population turnover and size, allowing rabies vaccination coverage to be maintained more easily. However, it is important to understand local dog populations and community attitudes toward them in order to determine whether and how DPM might contribute to rabies control and which DPM tools would be most successful. In practice, there is very limited evidence of DPM tools achieving reductions in the size or turnover of dog populations in canine rabies-endemic areas. Different DPM tools are frequently used together and combined with rabies vaccinations, but full impact assessments of DPM programs are not usually available, and therefore, evaluation of tools is difficult. Surgical sterilization is the most frequently documented tool and has successfully reduced dog population size and turnover in a few low-income settings. However, DPM programs are mostly conducted in urban settings and are usually not government funded, raising concerns about their applicability in rural settings and sustainability over time. Technical demands, costs, and the time necessary to achieve population-level impacts are major barriers. Given their potential value, we urgently need more evidence of the effectiveness of DPM tools in the context of canine rabies control. Cheaper, less labor-intensive tools for dog sterilization will be extremely valuable in realizing the potential benefits of reduced population turnover and size. No one DPM tool will fit all situations, but if DPM objectives are achieved dog populations may be stabilized or even reduced, facilitating higher dog vaccination coverages that will benefit rabies elimination efforts.

13.
Front Public Health ; 5: 103, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28555183

RESUMO

Rabies, a vaccine preventable neglected tropical disease, still claims an estimated 35,000-60,000 human lives annually. The international community, with more than 100 endemic countries, has set a global target of 0 human deaths from dog-transmitted rabies by 2030. While it has been proven in several countries and regions that elimination of rabies as a public health problem is feasible and tools are available, rabies deaths globally have not yet been prevented effectively. While there has been extensive rabies research, specific areas of implementation for control and elimination have not been sufficiently addressed. This article highlights some of the commonest perceived barriers for countries to implementing rabies control and elimination programs and discusses possible solutions for sociopolitical, organizational, technical, and resource-linked requirements, following the pillars of the global framework for the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies adopted at the global rabies meeting in December 2015.

14.
Front Vet Sci ; 4: 54, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28484703

RESUMO

As canine rabies control in Africa and Asia transitions from research-led proof-of-concept studies to government-led programs for elimination, experience and evidence of their impact and costs must be shared for the benefit of future programs. The Ilocos Norte Communities against Rabies Exposure project was implemented in April 2012 by the provincial veterinary and health offices and supported by many other partners. It delivered a comprehensive dog vaccination program and increased awareness of the need for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), aiming to eliminate human and animal rabies cases from Ilocos Norte by 2015. Prior to the intervention, confirmed rabies cases in dogs were between 19 and 50 per year (2008-2011). The primary outcome of the project was a reduction in rabies cases in both dogs and humans to 0 in 2014 and 2015, which has subsequently been maintained. Animal bite consultations increased significantly during the project. Economic data for the dog vaccination and PEP components of the project were collated for two sites: Laoag City (an urban setting) and Dingras Municipality (a rural setting) between 2012 and 2014. The average programmatic cost of vaccinating each dog was $4.54 in Laoag City and $8.65 in Dingras, and costs fell as the project reached more dogs. The average costs of providing PEP were $69.72 per patient and $49.02 per patient for the two sites, respectively, again falling as the project reached more people. External donor contributions contributed less than 20% of dog vaccination costs and less than 1% of PEP costs. The project demonstrated that rabies elimination can be achieved in a short period of time, with concerted effort across multiple sectors. A lack of clear dog population estimates hampered interpretation of some aspects of the programme. From 2016, the provincial government has assumed complete responsibility for the programme and must now continue the vaccination and surveillance efforts. Although safeguards are in place, reintroduction from surrounding areas remains a threat, and vigilance must be maintained.

15.
J Pediatr ; 184: 165-171.e1, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28279431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the psychosocial implications of diagnostic uncertainty that result from inconclusive results generated by newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF). STUDY DESIGN: Using a mixed methods prospective cohort study of children who received NBS for CF, we compared psychosocial outcomes of parents whose children who received persistently inconclusive results with those whose children received true positive or screen-negative results. RESULTS: Mothers of infants who received inconclusive results (n = 17), diagnoses of CF (n = 15), and screen-negative results (n = 411) were surveyed; 23 parent interviews were completed. Compared with mothers of infants with true positive/screen-negative results, mothers of infants with inconclusive results reported greater perceived uncertainty (P < .006) but no differences in anxiety or vulnerability (P > .05). Qualitatively, parents valued being connected to experts but struggled with the meaning of an uncertain diagnosis, worried about their infant's health-related vulnerability, and had mixed views about surveillance. CONCLUSION: Inconclusive CF NBS results were not associated with anxiety or vulnerability but led to health-related uncertainty and qualitative concerns. Findings should be considered alongside efforts to optimize protocols for CF screening and surveillance. Educational and psychosocial supports are warranted for these families.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Cyst Fibros ; 16(3): 395-400, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28189634

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic eradication therapy (AET) for initial Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infection is standard of care in children with cystic fibrosis (CF), but information is limited on treatment for patients who fail initial AET. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multi-step protocol for AET for new-onset Pa infections in children with CF. METHODS: A three-step AET protocol which includes: (step 1) 28days of tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) for new-onset Pa infection; (step 2) a second course of TIS for patients with positive respiratory tract culture after step 1; (step 3) 14days of intravenous antibiotics followed by 28days of TIS for patients with a subsequent positive culture. We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric CF patients who underwent the eradication protocol between January 2010 and December 2015. The success rate of each step and of the overall protocol was recorded. RESULTS: During the study period, 128 patients had a total of 213 new-onset Pa infections. Of 195 asymptomatic episodes, 150 (76.9%, 95% CI 70.4; 82.6) cleared after step 1 and 12 cleared after step 2 (33.3% (95% CI 18.6; 50.9) stepwise success rate and 87.1% (95% CI 77.1; 88.1) cumulative success rate). Intravenous antibiotics followed by 28days of TIS were administered in 24 episodes; this was successful in 10 episodes (41.7%; 95% CI 22.1; 63.4). The regimen in asymptomatic patients failed in fourteen episodes (7.5%; 95% CI 4.2; 12.3) then considered chronically infected with Pa. Overall, the cumulative success rate of the asymptomatic arm was 88.2% (95% CI 82.8; 92.4). CONCLUSION: The first step of the AET protocol led to the greatest eradication success. Subsequent eradication attempts have a success rate below 50%. Prospective studies of eradication protocols for this population are needed to determine the most effective treatment strategy.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Pseudomonas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/classificação , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Protocolos Clínicos , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Infecções por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Acta Trop ; 165: 274-279, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26519885

RESUMO

There is a need for innovation to improve control of all Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs). The Global Alliance for Rabies Control was formed to prevent human deaths from rabies and relieve the burden of rabies in other animal populations, especially dogs. It aims to identify reasons for the neglect of rabies in developing countries and to develop strategies to improve rabies control. Through initiatives such as World Rabies Day and the Partners for Rabies Prevention, progress has been made towards increased awareness of the burden of rabies transmitted by dogs at scales from local to international. An evidence base of the feasibility of canine rabies elimination has been built up and now easier access to information and tools enables countries to design and implement rabies elimination strategies in a logical way, utilizing the structures of regional networks for rabies control. The body of evidence has built consensus amongst international stakeholders in rabies control and is now being used to encourage international policy change, attract investment and increase delivery of effective rabies control programmes in canine rabies endemic countries.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Raiva/diagnóstico , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Raiva/epidemiologia
18.
Acta Trop ; 165: 133-140, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26721555

RESUMO

Current passive surveillance data for canine rabies, particularly for the regions where the burden is highest, are inadequate for appropriate decision making on control efforts. Poor enforcement of existing legislation and poor implementation of international guidance reduce the effectiveness of surveillance systems, but another set of problems relates to the fact that canine rabies is an untreatable condition which affects very poor sectors of society. This results in an unknown, but potentially large proportion of rabies victims dying outside the health system, deaths that are unlikely to be recorded by surveillance systems based on health center records. This article critically evaluates the potential sources of information on the number of human deaths attributable to canine rabies, and how we might improve the estimates required to move towards the goal of global canine rabies elimination.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Saúde Pública , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Saúde Global , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Áreas de Pobreza , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas
19.
Dementia (London) ; 16(8): 985-1003, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26787748

RESUMO

This research aimed to ascertain the impact of a pragmatic Cognitive Stimulation Therapy course of 10 sessions on the cognitive function of people living with dementia and whether attending a concomitant carers support group was beneficial to carers. A mixed method quasi-experimental approach was adopted; data were collected pre- and post-intervention. The quantitative arm utilised three validated questionnaires rated by the carers. Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews with carers regarding their perceptions of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and the carers support group. Quantitative data analysis found no statistically significant differences within or between groups. The qualitative data demonstrated that carers perceived Cognitive Stimulation Therapy had some benefits for the people living with dementia, especially social benefits. Carers also perceived that attending the carers support group was beneficial for them in terms of gaining a better understanding of dementia, developing coping skills and having peer support. The study was limited in scale and further research with a larger sample, using direct measures of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy with people living with dementia and supplementary research exploring which characteristic of carers support groups are effective would be worthwhile.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Demência/terapia , Grupos de Autoajuda , Adaptação Psicológica , Cognição , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Genet Med ; 19(4): 403-411, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27608173

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) can identify carriers, which is considered a benefit that enables reproductive planning. We examined the reproductive impact of carrier result disclosure of NBS for CF. METHODS: We surveyed mothers of carrier infants after NBS (Time 1) and 1 year later (Time 2) to ascertain intended and reported communication of their infants' carrier results to relatives, carrier testing for themselves/other children, and reproductive decisions. A sub-sample of mothers was also interviewed at Time 1 and Time 2. RESULTS: The response rate was 54%. A little more than half (55%) of mothers underwent carrier testing at Time 1; another 40% of those who intended to undergo testing at Time 1 underwent testing at Time 2. Carrier result communication to relatives was high (92%), but a majority of participants did not expect the results to influence family planning (65%). All interviewed mothers valued learning their infants' carrier results. Some underwent carrier testing and then shared results with family. Others did not use the results or used them in unintended ways. CONCLUSION: Although mothers valued learning carrier results from NBS, they reported moderate uptake of carrier testing and limited influence on family planning. Our study highlights the secondary nature of the benefit of disclosing carrier results of NBS.Genet Med 19 4, 403-411.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/métodos , Mães/psicologia , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Reprodução , Fibrose Cística/genética , Revelação , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos
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