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1.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 66: 101474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706382

RESUMO

Justice involved youth who present with diagnosable mental health issues are commonly prosecuted in criminal courts. Limited research has examined how jurors perceive and respond to transferred juveniles with mental health issues. For the current study, 252 mock jurors were randomly assigned to read one of six profiles (i.e., White male, White female, Black male, Black female, Latino, and Latina) and report culpability, deserved punishment, behavior regulation, and dangerousness for juveniles diagnosed with conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and described with antisocial traits/behaviors. A schizophrenia diagnosis was associated with less blame, punishment, and capacity for behavior regulation. A description of antisocial traits/behaviors was associated with more blame, punishment, capacity for behavior regulation, and dangerousness. White juveniles described with antisocial traits were considered more blameworthy and deserving of punishment than Latinos. Considering the temporary nature of adolescent antisocial personality characteristics, jurors should have greater awareness of the maturation process.

2.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(8): 548-562P, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384073

RESUMO

Objective: To generate estimates of the global prevalence and incidence of urogenital infection with chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and syphilis in women and men, aged 15-49 years, in 2016. Methods: For chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis, we systematically searched for studies conducted between 2009 and 2016 reporting prevalence. We also consulted regional experts. To generate estimates, we used Bayesian meta-analysis. For syphilis, we aggregated the national estimates generated by using Spectrum-STI. Findings: For chlamydia, gonorrhoea and/or trichomoniasis, 130 studies were eligible. For syphilis, the Spectrum-STI database contained 978 data points for the same period. The 2016 global prevalence estimates in women were: chlamydia 3.8% (95% uncertainty interval, UI: 3.3-4.5); gonorrhoea 0.9% (95% UI: 0.7-1.1); trichomoniasis 5.3% (95% UI:4.0-7.2); and syphilis 0.5% (95% UI: 0.4-0.6). In men prevalence estimates were: chlamydia 2.7% (95% UI: 1.9-3.7); gonorrhoea 0.7% (95% UI: 0.5-1.1); trichomoniasis 0.6% (95% UI: 0.4-0.9); and syphilis 0.5% (95% UI: 0.4-0.6). Total estimated incident cases were 376.4 million: 127.2 million (95% UI: 95.1-165.9 million) chlamydia cases; 86.9 million (95% UI: 58.6-123.4 million) gonorrhoea cases; 156.0 million (95% UI: 103.4-231.2 million) trichomoniasis cases; and 6.3 million (95% UI: 5.5-7.1 million) syphilis cases. Conclusion: Global estimates of prevalence and incidence of these four curable sexually transmitted infections remain high. The study highlights the need to expand data collection efforts at country level and provides an initial baseline for monitoring progress of the World Health Organization global health sector strategy on sexually transmitted infections 2016-2021.

3.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22 Suppl 6: e25343, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468679

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain prevalent and are increasing in several populations. Appropriate STI diagnosis is crucial to prevent the transmission and sequelae of untreated infection. We reviewed the diagnostic accuracy of syndromic case management and existing point-of-care tests (POCTs), including those in the pipeline, to diagnose STIs in resource-constrained settings. METHODS: We prioritized updating the systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of vaginal discharge from 2001 to 2015 to include studies until 2018. We calculated the absolute effects of different vaginal flowcharts and the diagnostic performance of POCTs on important outcomes. We searched the peer-reviewed literature for previously conducted systematic reviews and articles from 1990 to 2018 on the diagnostic accuracy of syndromic management of vaginal and urethral discharge, genital ulcer and anorectal infections. We conducted literature reviews from 2000 to 2018 on the existing POCTs and those in the pipeline. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: The diagnostic accuracy of urethral discharge and genital ulcer disease syndromes is relatively adequate. Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections limit the use of vaginal discharge and anorectal syndromes. The pooled diagnostic accuracy of vaginal syndromic case management for CT/NG is low, resulting in high numbers of overtreatment and missed treatment. The absolute effect of POCTs was reduced overtreatment and missed treatment. Findings of the reviews on syndromic case management underscored the need for low-cost and accurate POCTs for the identification, first, of CT/NG, and, second, of Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and NG and MG resistance/susceptibility testing. Near-patient POCT molecular assays for CT/NG/TV are commercially available. The prices of these POCTs remain the barrier for uptake in resource-constrained settings. This is driving the development of lower cost solutions. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO syndromic case management guidelines should be updated to raise the quality of STI management through the integration of laboratory tests. STI screening strategies are needed to address asymptomatic STIs. POCTs that are accurate, rapid, simple and affordable are urgently needed in resource-constrained settings to support the uptake of aetiological diagnosis and treatment.

7.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(4): 395-400, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Public preparedness for natural hazard events is low. With worsening severe weather events due to climate change, public health policy and practices must evolve to more effectively engage communities. This study's findings identify and suggest new strategic public health policies to shift the practice of all-hazards preparedness into routine, everyday life. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews, focus groups and Thematic Analysis were used to investigate the interactions between participant groups: emergency responders and animal owners. RESULTS: Three policies designed to improve human safety and well-being are proposed and discussed. These are (i) a new system of workplace leave, (ii) an innovative regime of financial incentives for fire-ready properties, and (iii) review of the use of firebreaks on farms and rural blocks. CONCLUSION: Policies proposed in this research aim to proactively narrow the awareness-preparedness gap and build adaptive capacity to minimise risk to human health in all-hazards contexts. Further research could evaluate the efficacy of trialled public policy. Implications for public health: These new policies seek to contribute to establishing and maintaining a culture of preparedness as a routine aspect of everyday life, and thus promote and protect public health in the short, medium and long terms.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Incêndios Florestais , Animais , Austrália , Desastres , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto
8.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211720, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2007 the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the global initiative to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of syphilis (congenital syphilis, or CS). To assess progress towards the goal of <50 CS cases per 100,000 live births, we generated regional and global estimates of maternal and congenital syphilis for 2016 and updated the 2012 estimates. METHODS: Maternal syphilis estimates were generated using the Spectrum-STI model, fitted to sentinel surveys and routine testing of pregnant women during antenatal care (ANC) and other representative population data. Global and regional estimates of CS used the same approach as previous WHO estimates. RESULTS: The estimated global maternal syphilis prevalence in 2016 was 0.69% (95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.81%) resulting in a global CS rate of 473 (385-561) per 100,000 live births and 661,000 (538,000-784,000) total CS cases, including 355,000 (290,000-419,000) adverse birth outcomes (ABO) and 306,000 (249,000-363,000) non-clinical CS cases (infants without clinical signs born to un-treated mothers). The ABOs included 143,000 early fetal deaths and stillbirths, 61,000 neonatal deaths, 41,000 preterm or low-birth weight births, and 109,000 infants with clinical CS. Of these ABOs- 203,000 (57%) occurred in pregnant women attending ANC but not screened for syphilis; 74,000 (21%) in mothers not enrolled in ANC, 55,000 (16%) in mothers screened but not treated, and 23,000 (6%) in mothers enrolled, screened and treated. The revised 2012 estimates were 0.70% (95% CI: 0.63-0.77%) maternal prevalence, and 748,000 CS cases (539 per 100,000 live births) including 397,000 (361,000-432,000) ABOs. The estimated decrease in CS case rates between 2012 and 2016 reflected increased access to ANC and to syphilis screening and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Congenital syphilis decreased worldwide between 2012 and 2016, although maternal prevalence was stable. Achieving global CS elimination, however, will require improving access to early syphilis screening and treatment in ANC, clinically monitoring all women diagnosed with syphilis and their infants, improving partner management, and reducing syphilis prevalence in the general population by expanding testing, treatment and partner referral beyond ANC.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Sífilis/complicações , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/prevenção & controle , Sífilis Congênita/prevenção & controle
9.
Int J STD AIDS ; : 956462418800872, 2018 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472926

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study of 3212 pregnant women assessed the field performance, acceptability, and feasibility of two dual HIV/syphilis rapid diagnostic tests, the Chembio DPP HIV-syphilis Assay and the SD Bioline HIV/syphilis Duo in antenatal clinics. Sensitivity and specificity for HIV and syphilis were calculated compared to the rapid Determine HIV-1/2 with Uni-Gold to confirm positive results for HIV and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay for syphilis. RPR titers ≥1:4 were used to define active syphilis detection. Acceptability and feasibility were assessed using self-reported questionnaires. For Chembio, the HIV sensitivity was 90.6% (95%CI = 87.4, 93.0) and specificity was 97.2% (95%CI = 96.2, 97.8); syphilis sensitivity was 68.6% (95%CI = 61.9, 74.6) and specificity was 98.5% (95%CI = 97.8, 98.9). For SD Bioline, HIV sensitivity was 89.4% (95%CI = 86.1, 92.0) and specificity was 96.3% (95%CI = 95.3, 97.1); syphilis sensitivity was 66.2% (95%CI = 59.4, 72.4) and specificity was 97.2% (95%CI = 96.4, 97.9). Using the reference for active syphilis, syphilis sensitivity was 84.7% (95%CI = 76.1, 90.6) for Chembio and 81.6% (95%CI = 72.7, 88.1) for SD Bioline. Both rapid diagnostic tests were assessed as highly acceptable and feasible. In a field setting, the performance of both rapid diagnostic tests was comparable to other published field evaluations and each was rated highly acceptable and feasible. These findings can be used to guide further research and proposed scale up in antenatal clinic settings.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205863, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate trends in prevalence and incidence of syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia in adult men and women in South Africa. METHODS: The Spectrum-STI tool estimated trends in prevalence and incidence of active syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia, fitting South African prevalence data. Results were used, alongside programmatic surveillance data, to estimate trends in incident gonorrhea cases resistant to first-line treatment, and the reporting gap of symptomatic male gonorrhea and chlamydia cases treated but not reported as cases of urethritis syndrome. RESULTS: In 2017 adult (15-49 years) the estimated female and male prevalences for syphilis were 0.50% (95% CI: 0.32-0.80%) and 0.97% (0.19-2.28%), for gonorrhea 6.6% (3.8-10.8%) and 3.5% (1.7-6.1%), and for chlamydia 14.7% (9.9-21%) and 6.0% (3.8-10.4%), respectively. Between 1990 and 2017 the estimated prevalence of syphilis declined steadily in women and men, probably in part reflecting improved treatment coverage. For gonorrhea and chlamydia, estimated prevalence and incidence showed no consistent time trend in either women or men. Despite growing annual numbers of gonorrhea cases - reflecting population growth - the estimated number of first line treatment-resistant gonorrhea cases did not increase between 2008 and 2017, owing to changes in first-line antimicrobial treatment regimens for gonorrhea in 2008 and 2014/5. Case reporting completeness among treated male urethritis syndrome episodes was estimated at 10-28% in 2017. CONCLUSION: South Africa continues to suffer a high STI burden. Improvements in access and quality of maternal, STI and HIV health care services likely contributed to the decline in syphilis prevalence. The lack of any decline in gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalence highlights the need to enhance STI services beyond clinic-based syndromic case management, to reinvigorate primary STI and HIV prevention and, especially for women, to screen for asymptomatic infections.

11.
Sex Transm Dis ; 45(10): 690-695, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204746

RESUMO

This article summarizes a multistate outbreak of heterosexual syphilis, including 134 cases of syphilis in adults and adolescents and at least 2 cases of congenital syphilis, which occurred on an American Indian reservation in the United States during 2013-2015. In addition to providing salient details about the outbreak, the article seeks to document the case-finding and treatment activities undertaken, their relative success or failure, and the lessons learned from a coordinated, multiagency response. Of 134 adult cases of syphilis, 40% were identified by enhanced, interagency contact tracing and partner services, 26% through symptomatic testing, and 16% through screening of asymptomatic individuals as the result of an electronic medical record screening prompt. A smaller proportion of cases were identified by community screening events in high-morbidity communities; high-risk venue-based screening events; other screening, including screening upon request; and prenatal screening at first trimester, third trimester, and day of delivery. Future heterosexual syphilis outbreak responders should act quickly to coordinate a package of high-yield case-finding and treatment activities-potentially including activities that seek to do the following: (1) increase prenatal screening, (2) improve community awareness and symptomatic test seeking, (3) educate providers and improve general screening for syphilis, (4) implement electronic medical record reminders for providers, (5) screen high-morbidity communities and at high-risk venues, and (6) form novel partnerships to accomplish partner services work when the context does not allow for traditional, disease intervention specialist-only partner services.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49457

RESUMO

[ABSTRACT]. Objectives. To estimate adult (15–49 years old) prevalence and incidence of active syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, and incidence of congenital syphilis (CS) and adverse birth outcomes (ABOs) in Colombia, over 1995–2016. Methods. The Spectrum-STI epidemiological model tool estimated gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalences as moving averages across prevalences observed in representative general population surveys. For adult syphilis, Spectrum-STI applied segmented polynomial regression through prevalence data from antenatal care (ANC) surveys, routine ANC-based screening, and general population surveys. CS cases and ABOs were estimated from Spectrum’s maternal syphilis estimates and proportions of women screened and treated for syphilis, applying World Health Organization case definitions and risk probabilities. Results. The Spectrum model estimated prevalences in 2016 of 0.70% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15%-1.9%) in women and 0.60% (0.1%-1.9%) in men for gonorrhea and of 9.2% (4.4%-15.4%) in women and 7.4% (3.5%-14.7%) in men for chlamydia, without evidence for trends over 1995–2016. The prevalence of active syphilis in 2016 was 1.25% (1.22–1.29%) in women and 1.25% (1.1%-1.4%) in men, decreasing from 2.6% (2.1%-3.2%) in women in 1995. Corresponding CS cases in 2016 (including cases without clinical symptoms) totaled 3 851, of which 2 245 were ABOs. Annual CS and ABO estimates decreased over 2008–2016, reflecting decreasing maternal prevalence and increasing cases averted through ANC-based screening and treatment. Conclusions. The available surveillance and monitoring data synthesized in Spectrum-STI—and the resulting first-ever national STI estimates for Colombia—highlighted Colombia’s persistently high STI burden. Adult syphilis and congenital syphilis are estimated to be falling, reflecting improving screening efforts. Strengthened surveillance, including with periodic screening in low-risk populations and future refined Spectrum estimations, should support planning and implementation of STI prevention and control, including CS elimination.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivos. Estimar la prevalencia e incidencia en los adultos (de 15 a 49 años de edad) de sífilis activa, gonorrea y clamidiasis, así como la incidencia de sífilis congénita y resultados adversos del embarazo en Colombia durante el período de 1995 al 2016. Métodos. Usando las herramientas del modelo epidemiológico Spectrum-STI se estimó la prevalencia de gonorrea y clamidiasis como promedios móviles entre las distintas prevalencias observadas en encuestas representativas de la población general. En cuanto a la sífilis en los adultos, Spectrum-STI aplicó la regresión polinomial segmentada a los datos sobre prevalencia recopilados en encuestas de atención prenatal, el tamizaje sistemático en la atención prenatal y encuestas a la población general. Los casos de sífilis congénita y de resultados adversos del embarazo se estimaron a partir de las cifras de Spectrum sobre sífilis materna y proporciones de mujeres examinadas y tratadas por sífilis, aplicando las definiciones de casos y probabilidades de riesgo de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados. El modelo Spectrum estimó que en el 2016 la prevalencia de la gonorrea fue de 0,70% (intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC]: 0,15%-1,9%) en las mujeres y de 0,60% (0,1%-1,9%) en los hombres, y que la prevalencia de la clamidiasis fue de 9,2% (4,4%-15,4%) en las mujeres y de 7,4% (3,5%-14,7%) en los hombres, sin datos científicos acerca de las tendencias durante el período 1995-2016. La prevalencia de la sífilis activa en el 2016 fue de 1,25% (1,22-1,29%) en las mujeres y de 1,25% (1,1%-1,4%) en los hombres, con una reducción de 2,6% (2,1%-3,2%) en las mujeres con respecto a 1995. Los casos correspondientes de sífilis congénita en el 2016 (incluidos los asintomáticos) sumaron en total 3 851, de los cuales 2 245 fueron resultados adversos del embarazo. Las cifras anuales estimadas de sífilis congénita y resultados adversos del embarazo disminuyeron entre el 2008 y el 2016, lo que reflejó un descenso en la prevalencia materna y un aumento de casos evitados mediante el tamizaje y el tratamiento durante la atención prenatal. Conclusiones. Los datos disponibles sobre vigilancia y seguimiento sintetizados en Spectrum‑STI, así como los consiguientes estimados nacionales de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) hechos por primera vez en Colombia, pusieron de relieve la carga de morbilidad por ITS persistentemente alta en ese país. Se estima que la sífilis en los adultos y la sífilis congénita van en descenso, lo que refleja mejoras en las actividades de tamizaje. Un fortalecimiento de la vigilancia, incluso con tamizaje periódico en las poblaciones de bajo riesgo, y estimaciones más refinadas con Spectrum en el futuro deberían brindar apoyo a la planificación y la ejecución de medidas para la prevención y el control de las infecciones de transmisión sexual, incluida la eliminación de la sífilis congénita.


[RESUMO]. Objetivos. Estimar a incidência e a prevalência na população adulta (com idade de 15–49 anos) de sífilis ativa, gonorreia e clamídia e a incidência de sífilis congênita (SC) e desfechos adversos congênitos na Colômbia no período de 1995 a 2016. Métodos. O modelo epidemiológico Spectrum-STI foi o instrumento usado para estimar a prevalência de gonorreia e clamídia como médias móveis nas prevalências observadas em pesquisas representativas da população geral. A sífilis em adultos foi estimada com a regressão polinomial segmentada aplicada ao modelo Spectrum-STI com dados de prevalência obtidos de pesquisas da atenção pré-natal, exames pré-natais de rotina de detecção precoce e pesquisas da população geral. Casos de SC e desfechos adversos congênitos foram estimados a partir das estimativas de sífilis materna do modelo Spectrum e percentuais de mulheres que fizeram testes de detecção e foram tratadas para sífilis, segundo as definições de casos da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e probabilidades de risco. Resultados. O modelo Spectrum estimou, para 2016, uma prevalência de gonorreia de 0,70% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%] 0,15%–1,9%) no sexo feminino e 0,60% (0,1%–1,9%) no sexo masculino e uma prevalência de clamídia de 9,2% (4,4%–15,4%) no sexo feminino e 7,4% (3,5%–14.7%) no sexo masculino, sem evidência de tendências no período 1995–2016. A prevalência de sífilis ativa em 2016 foi de 1,25% (1,22–1,29%) no sexo feminino e 1,25% (1,1%–1,4%) no sexo masculino, demonstrando um declínio da prevalência de 2,6% (2,1%–3,2%) observada em 1995 para o sexo feminino. Houve, ao todo, 3.851 casos correspondentes de SC em 2016 (incluindo casos assintomáticos), dos quais 2.245 foram desfechos adversos congênitos. Observou-se uma redução nas estimativas anuais de SC e desfechos adversos congênitos em 2008–2016, refletindo a diminuição da prevalência materna e o número crescente de casos evitados com exames pré-natais de detecção e tratamento. Conclusões. Os dados disponíveis de vigilância e monitoramento condensados no modelo Spectrum-STI, e as resultantes estimativas nacionais de infeções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) obtidas pela primeira vez na Colômbia, evidenciam a alta carga persistente de IST no país. Estima-se que a ocorrência de sífilis do adulto e sífilis congénita esteja diminuindo em decorrência da melhoria nos esforços de detecção precoce. A vigilância reforçada, consistindo também de exames periódicos de detecção precoce nas populações de baixo risco e estimavas futuras aprimoradas do instrumento Spectrum, deve sustentar o planejamento e a implementação de controle e prevenção de IST e a eliminação da SC.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Gonorreia , Chlamydia , Vigilância , Colômbia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Gonorreia , Vigilância , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Gonorreia , Vigilância , Colômbia
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11503, 2018 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065272

RESUMO

We estimated national-level trends in the prevalence of probable active syphilis in adult women using the Spectrum Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) model to inform program planning, target-setting, and progress evaluation in STI control. The model fitted smoothed-splines polynomial regressions to data from antenatal clinic surveys and screening and representative household surveys, adjusted for diagnostic test performance and weighted by national coverage. Eligible countries had ≥1 data point from 2010 or later and ≥3 from 2000 or later from adult populations considered representative of the general female population (pregnant women or community-based studies). Between 2012 and 2016, the prevalence of probable active syphilis in women decreased in 54 (41%) of 132 eligible countries; this decrease was substantive (≥10% proportionally, ≥0.10% percentage-point absolute difference and non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals in 2012 and 2016) in 5 countries. Restricting eligible data to prevalence measurements of dual treponemal and non-treponemal testing limited estimates to 85 countries; of these, 45 countries (53%) showed a decrease. These standardized trend estimates highlight the need for increased investment in national syphilis surveillance and control efforts if the World Health Organization target of a 90% reduction in the incidence of syphilis between 2018 and 2030 is to be met.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0198698, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29990336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening pregnant women for HIV and syphilis is recommended by WHO in order to reduce mother-to-child transmission. We evaluated the field performance, feasibility, and acceptability of a dual rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for HIV and syphilis test in antenatal clinic settings in Nigeria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants were recruited at 12 antenatal clinic sites in three states of Nigeria. All consenting individuals were tested according to the national HIV testing algorithm, as well as a dual RDT, the SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo Test (Alere, USA), in the clinic. To determine sensitivity, specificity and concordance, whole blood samples were obtained for repeat RDT performance in the laboratory, as well as reference tests for HIV and syphilis. Dual test acceptability and operational characteristics were assessed among participants and clinic staff. The prevalence of HIV among the 4,551 enrollees was 3.0% (138/4551) using the national clinic-based HIV testing algorithm. Positive and negative percent agreement of the HIV component of the dual RDT were 100.0% (95% CI 99.7-100.0) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.7-100.0) respectively, when compared with the national rapid testing algorithm. The prevalence of syphilis, using TPHA as the reference test, was low at 0.09% (4/4550). The sensitivity of the syphilis component of the dual RDT could not be calculated as no positive results were observed for patients that were positive for syphilis by TPHA. Each of the only four TPHA-positive specimens had RPR titers of 1:1 (neat), indicative of non-active syphilis. The specificity of the syphilis component of the dual RDT was 99.9% (95% CI 99.8-100.0). The dual RDT received favorable feasibility ratings among antenatal care clinic staff. Acceptability among study participants was high with most women reporting preference for rapid dual HIV/syphilis testing. CONCLUSIONS: The SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo Test showed a high overall diagnostic accuracy for HIV and a high specificity for syphilis diagnosis in antenatal clinic settings. This study adds to a growing body of evidence that supports the clinic-based use of dual tests for HIV and syphilis among pregnant women.

15.
Sex Transm Dis ; 2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29465639

RESUMO

This article summarizes a multi-state outbreak of heterosexual syphilis, including 134 cases of syphilis in adults and adolescents and at least two cases of congenital syphilis, which occurred on an American Indian reservation in the United States during 2013-2015. In addition to providing salient details about the outbreak, the article seeks to document the case-finding and treatment activities undertaken, their relative success or failure, and the lessons learned from a coordinated, multiagency response. Of 134 adult cases of syphilis, 40% were identified by enhanced, interagency contact tracing and partner services; 26% through symptomatic testing; and 16% through screening of asymptomatic individuals as the result of an electronic medical record (EMR) screening prompt. A smaller proportion of cases were identified by community screening events in high-morbidity communities; high risk venue-based screening events; other screening, including screening upon request; and prenatal screening at first trimester, third trimester, and day-of-delivery. Future heterosexual syphilis outbreak responders should act quickly to coordinate a package of high-yield case-finding and treatment activities-potentially including activities that seek to do the following: 1) increase prenatal screening, 2) improve community awareness and symptomatic test-seeking, 3) educate providers and improve general screening for syphilis; 4) implement EMR reminders for providers; 5) screen high-morbidity communities and at high-risk venues; and 6) form novel partnerships to accomplish partner services work when the context does not allow for traditional, DIS-only partner services.

17.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 62(2): 427-449, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301467

RESUMO

Much speculation has been made in the media as to the causes of mass murder in the United States, yet little empirical research exists to verify factors leading to violence. Prior research primarily relies on case study methodologies or small data sets, but none have focused on the underlying issues observed in a comprehensive national sample. Data for the current study include 152 mass murders reported through the FBI's Supplementary Homicide Reports and USA Today from 2007 to 2011, which were then matched with media reports for each event. The current study shows that mass murders typically occur following a triggering event, are committed by non-strangers, and are rarely committed by persons with mental illnesses. A more realistic image of these incidents is critical, as misperceptions of offenders and case characteristics can improperly shape public policies.


Assuntos
Criminosos/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Motivação , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Criminosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos
19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e118, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-961812

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives To estimate adult (15-49 years old) prevalence and incidence of active syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, and incidence of congenital syphilis (CS) and adverse birth outcomes (ABOs) in Colombia, over 1995-2016. Methods The Spectrum-STI epidemiological model tool estimated gonorrhea and chlamydia prevalences as moving averages across prevalences observed in representative general population surveys. For adult syphilis, Spectrum-STI applied segmented polynomial regression through prevalence data from antenatal care (ANC) surveys, routine ANC-based screening, and general population surveys. CS cases and ABOs were estimated from Spectrum's maternal syphilis estimates and proportions of women screened and treated for syphilis, applying World Health Organization case definitions and risk probabilities. Results The Spectrum model estimated prevalences in 2016 of 0.70% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15%-1.9%) in women and 0.60% (0.1%-1.9%) in men for gonorrhea and of 9.2% (4.4%-15.4%) in women and 7.4% (3.5%-14.7%) in men for chlamydia, without evidence for trends over 1995-2016. The prevalence of active syphilis in 2016 was 1.25% (1.22-1.29%) in women and 1.25% (1.1%-1.4%) in men, decreasing from 2.6% (2.1%-3.2%) in women in 1995. Corresponding CS cases in 2016 (including cases without clinical symptoms) totaled 3 851, of which 2 245 were ABOs. Annual CS and ABO estimates decreased over 2008-2016, reflecting decreasing maternal prevalence and increasing cases averted through ANC-based screening and treatment. Conclusions The available surveillance and monitoring data synthesized in Spectrum-STI— and the resulting first-ever national STI estimates for Colombia—highlighted Colombia's persistently high STI burden. Adult syphilis and congenital syphilis are estimated to be falling, reflecting improving screening efforts. Strengthened surveillance, including with periodic screening in low-risk populations and future refined Spectrum estimations, should support planning and implementation of STI prevention and control, including CS elimination.


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RESUMO Objetivos Estimar a incidência e a prevalência na população adulta (com idade de 15-49 anos) de sífilis ativa, gonorreia e clamídia e a incidência de sífilis congênita (SC) e desfechos adversos congênitos na Colômbia no período de 1995 a 2016. Métodos O modelo epidemiológico Spectrum-STI foi o instrumento usado para estimar a prevalência de gonorreia e clamídia como médias móveis nas prevalências observadas em pesquisas representativas da população geral. A sífilis em adultos foi estimada com a regressão polinomial segmentada aplicada ao modelo Spectrum-STI com dados de prevalência obtidos de pesquisas da atenção pré-natal, exames pré-natais de rotina de detecção precoce e pesquisas da população geral. Casos de SC e desfechos adversos congênitos foram estimados a partir das estimativas de sífilis materna do modelo Spectrum e percentuais de mulheres que fizeram testes de detecção e foram tratadas para sífilis, segundo as definições de casos da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e probabilidades de risco. Resultados O modelo Spectrum estimou, para 2016, uma prevalência de gonorreia de 0,70% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC 95%] 0,15%-1,9%) no sexo feminino e 0,60% (0,1%-1,9%) no sexo masculino e uma prevalência de clamídia de 9,2% (4,4%-15,4%) no sexo feminino e 7,4% (3,5%-14.7%) no sexo masculino, sem evidência de tendências no período 1995-2016. A prevalência de sífilis ativa em 2016 foi de 1,25% (1,22-1,29%) no sexo feminino e 1,25% (1,1%-1,4%) no sexo masculino, demonstrando um declínio da prevalência de 2,6% (2,1%-3,2%) observada em 1995 para o sexo feminino. Houve, ao todo, 3.851 casos correspondentes de SC em 2016 (incluindo casos assintomáticos), dos quais 2.245 foram desfechos adversos congênitos. Observou-se uma redução nas estimativas anuais de SC e desfechos adversos congênitos em 2008-2016, refletindo a diminuição da prevalência materna e o número crescente de casos evitados com exames pré-natais de detecção e tratamento. Conclusões Os dados disponíveis de vigilância e monitoramento condensados no modelo Spectrum-STI, e as resultantes estimativas nacionais de infeções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) obtidas pela primeira vez na Colômbia, evidenciam a alta carga persistente de IST no país. Estima-se que a ocorrência de sífilis do adulto e sífilis congênita esteja diminuindo em decorrência da melhoria nos esforços de detecção precoce. A vigilância reforçada, consistindo também de exames periódicos de detecção precoce nas populações de baixo risco e estimavas futuras aprimoradas do instrumento Spectrum, deve sustentar o planejamento e a implementação de controle e prevenção de IST e a eliminação da SC.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Gonorreia , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Vigilância
20.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209798, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hendra virus (HeV) infection is endemic in Australian flying-fox populations. Habitat loss has increased the peri-urban presence of flying-foxes, increasing the risk of contact and therefore viral 'spillovers' into horse and human populations. An equine vaccine is available and horse-husbandry practices that minimize HeV exposure are encouraged, but their adoption is suboptimal. Ecological approaches-such as habitat creation and conservation-could complement vaccination and behavioural strategies by reducing spillover risks, but these are controversial. METHODS: We convened three community juries (two regional; one metropolitan) to elicit the views of well-informed citizens on the acceptability of adding ecological approaches to current interventions for HeV risk. Thirty-one participants of diverse backgrounds, mixed genders and ages were recruited using random-digit-dialling. Each jury was presented with balanced factual evidence, given time to ask questions of expert presenters and, after deliberation, come to well-reasoned conclusions. RESULTS: All juries voted unanimously that ecological strategies should be included in HeV risk management strategies but concluded that current interventions-including vaccination and changing horse-husbandry practices-must remain the priority. The key reasons given for adopting ecological approaches were: (i) they address underlying drivers of disease emergence, (ii) the potential to prevent spillover of other bat-borne pathogens, and (iii) there would be broader community benefits. Juries differed regarding the best mechanism to create/conserve flying-fox habitat: participants in regional centres favoured direct government action, whereas the metropolitan jury preferred to place the burden on landholders. CONCLUSIONS: Informed citizens acknowledge the value of addressing the drivers of bat-borne infectious risks but differ substantially as to the best implementation strategies. Ecological approaches to securing bat habitat could find broad social support in Australia, but disagreement about how best to achieve them indicates the need for negotiation with affected communities to co-develop fair, effective and locally appropriate policies.


Assuntos
Ecologia/métodos , Vírus Hendra/patogenicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Cavalos/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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