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1.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 110, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent paradigm shift has highlighted the importance of considering how sleep, physical activity and sedentary behaviour work together to influence health, rather than examining each behaviour individually. We aimed to determine how adherence to 24-h movement behavior guidelines from infancy to the preschool years influences mental health and self-regulation at 5 years of age. METHODS: Twenty-four hour movement behaviors were measured by 7-day actigraphy (physical activity, sleep) or questionnaires (screen time) in 528 children at 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age and compared to mental health (anxiety, depression), adaptive skills (resilience), self-regulation (attentional problems, hyperactivity, emotional self-control, executive functioning), and inhibitory control (Statue, Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task) outcomes at 5 years of age. Adjusted standardised mean differences (95% CI) were determined between those who did and did not achieve guidelines at each age. RESULTS: Children who met physical activity guidelines at 1 year of age (38.7%) had lower depression (mean difference [MD]: -0.28; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.06) and anxiety (MD: -0.23; 95% CI: -0.47, 0.00) scores than those who did not. At the same age, sleeping for 11-14 h or having consistent wake and sleep times was associated with lower anxiety (MD: -0.34; 95% CI: -0.66, -0.02) and higher resilience (MD: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.68) scores respectively. No significant relationships were observed at any other age or for any measure of self-regulation. Children who consistently met screen time guidelines had lower anxiety (MD: -0.43; 95% CI: -0.68, -0.18) and depression (MD: -0.36; 95% CI: -0.62, -0.09) scores at 5. However, few significant relationships were observed for adherence to all three guidelines; anxiety scores were lower (MD: -0.42; 95% CI: -0.72, -0.12) in the 20.2% who adhered at 1 year of age, and depression scores were lower (MD: -0.25; 95% CI: -0.48, -0.02) in the 36.7% who adhered at 5 years of age compared with children who did not meet all three guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Although adherence to some individual movement guidelines at certain ages throughout early childhood was associated with improved mental health and wellbeing at 5 years of age, particularly reduced anxiety and depression scores, there was little consistency in these relationships. Future work should consider a compositional approach to 24-h time use and how it may influence mental wellbeing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00892983.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Saúde Mental , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Tempo de Tela , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Appetite ; 167: 105661, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437924

RESUMO

The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is designed to measure 'usual' eating behaviour, with no time period attached, thus may not be suitable for assessing the effectiveness of short-term experimental studies. The aim of this study was to validate i) the CEBQ adapted to measure 'past week' rather than 'usual' eating behaviour, and ii) a computerized questionnaire assessing desire to eat core and non-core foods, against an objective measure of eating behaviour and food intake (eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) experiment). Children (n = 103) aged 8-12 years completed the desire to eat questionnaire followed by the EAH experiment while primary caregivers completed the adapted CEBQ. Results from the CEBQ showed that children with greater 'satiety responsiveness' (1-point higher) consumed less energy (-342 kJ; 95% CI -574, -110) whereas those with greater 'enjoyment of food' scale consumed more energy (380 kJ; 95% CI 124, 636) during the ad-libitum phase of the EAH experiment. Higher scores for slowness in eating (-705 kJ; 95% CI -1157, -254), emotional undereating (-590 kJ; 95% CI -1074, -106) and food fussiness (-629 kJ; 95% CI -1103, -155) were associated with lower total energy intake. Children who expressed greater desire to eat non-core foods consumed more energy in total (275 kJ; 95% CI 87, 463). Overall, this adapted CEBQ appears valid for measuring several short-term eating behaviours in children. The desire to eat questionnaire may be useful for identifying short-term susceptibility to overeating, however further investigation into how ratings of desire relate to the intake of highly palatable, energy dense foods is warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Fome , Saciação , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1428-1437, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While insufficient sleep duration has emerged as a strong, independent risk factor for obesity, the mechanisms remain unclear. One possibility is greater "eating in the absence of hunger" (EAH) or energy intake beyond the point of satiety, when tired. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether mild sleep loss increases EAH in children. METHODS: A crossover study was undertaken in 105 healthy children (8-12 y) with normal sleep (∼8-11 h/night). After randomization, children went to bed 1 h earlier (sleep extension) or 1 h later (sleep restriction) than their usual bedtime, over 2 intervention weeks separated by a 1-wk washout. At the end of each intervention week, children underwent an EAH feeding experiment involving a preloading meal until satiation, followed by an ad libitum buffet (of highly palatable snacks) to measure EAH, with each food item weighed before and after consumption. RESULTS: Ninety-three children completed the EAH experiment. There was no evidence of a difference in energy intake from EAH between sleep restriction and extension conditions when analyzed as a crossover design. However, a learning effect was found, with children eating significantly less (-239 kJ; 95% CI: -437, -41 kJ; P = 0.018) during the preload phase and significantly more (181 kJ; 95% CI: 38, 322 kJ; P = 0.013) in the ad libitum phase in the second week. No significant differences were seen using an underpowered parallel analysis for energy intake during the ad libitum phase when sleep deprived (106 kJ; 95% CI: -217, 431 kJ; P = 0.514). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that measuring a difference in eating behavior in relation to sleep proved unsuitable using the EAH experiment in a crossover design in children, due to a learning effect. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=367587&isReview=true) as ACTRN12618001671257 .


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Fome , Privação do Sono , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino
5.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 188-197, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment resistant depression (TRD) poses a significant clinical challenge, despite a range of efficacious specialist treatments. Accurately predicting response a priori may help to alleviate the burden of TRD. This study sought to determine whether outcome prediction can be achieved in a specialist inpatient setting. METHODS: Patients at the Affective Disorders Unit of the Bethlam Royal Hospital, with current depression and established TRD were included (N = 174). Patients were treated with an individualised combination of pharmacotherapy and specialist psychological therapies. Predictors included clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, and polygenic risk scores for depression and related traits. Logistic regression models examined associations with outcome, and predictive potential was assessed using elastic net regularised logistic regressions with 10-fold nested cross-validation. RESULTS: 47% of patients responded (50% reduction in HAMD-21 score at discharge). Age at onset and number of depressive episodes were positively associated with response, while degree of resistance was negatively associated. All elastic net models had poor performance (AUC<0.6). Illness history characteristics were commonly retained, and the addition of genetic risk scores did not improve performance. LIMITATIONS: The patient sample was heterogeneous and received a variety of treatments. Some variable associations may be non-linear and therefore not captured. CONCLUSIONS: This treatment may be most effective for recurrent patients and those with a later age of onset, while patients more severely treatment resistant at admission remain amongst the most difficult to treat. Individual level prediction remains elusive for this complex group. The assessment of homogenous subgroups should be one focus of future investigations.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento , Terapia Combinada , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/terapia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Sleep Med Rev ; 59: 101498, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029803

RESUMO

This review investigated whether randomised controlled trials attempting to improve sleep or prevent sleep problems in 0-5 year olds influenced nocturnal sleep duration, day-time naps, or 24-h sleep. Medline (Ovid), EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched from inception until 9 July 2020 and supplemented with hand searching. Search results were screened, eligible data were extracted, and risk of bias was assessed by at least two reviewers. Of 8571 publications considered, 32 trials which used a variety of subjective and objective sleep measurements were included in generic inverse variance random effects meta-analysis of nocturnal (n = 24), day-time (n = 14), and 24-h (n = 13) sleep duration. Overall, sleep interventions increased nocturnal sleep duration by a mean of 9 min (95% CI 4.1 to 13.8, I228%) per night when compared with no sleep intervention. Increases were predominantly seen in sleep-only, rather than multi-component interventions. Total 24-h sleep duration tended to increase by a similar amount (8.6 min (95% CI -2.7 to 19.8, I2 = 59%)), but this was mainly only seen in studies that assessed sleep using diaries. There was no evidence that interventions changed day-time sleep duration. Future studies should involve sleep-only rather than multi-component interventions, and use objective sleep measures (reviewregistry857).


Assuntos
Sono , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
BJPsych Open ; 7(3): e101, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) experience a high burden of illness. Current guidelines recommend a stepped care approach for treating depression, but the extent to which best-practice care pathways are adhered to is unclear. AIMS: To explore the extent and nature of 'treatment gaps' (non-adherence to stepped care pathways) experienced by a sample of patients with established TRD (non-response to two or more adequate treatments in the current depressive episode) across three cities in the UK. METHOD: Five treatment gaps were considered and compared with guidelines, in a cross-sectional retrospective analysis: delay to receiving treatment, lack of access to psychological therapies, delays to medication changes, delays to adjunctive (pharmacological augmentation) treatment and lack of access to secondary care. We additionally explored participant characteristics associated with the extent of treatment gaps experienced. RESULTS: Of 178 patients with TRD, 47% had been in the current depressive episode for >1 year before initiating antidepressants; 53% had received adequate psychological therapy. A total of 47 and 51% had remained on an unsuccessful first and second antidepressant trial respectively for >16 weeks, and 24 and 27% for >1 year before medication switch, respectively. Further, 54% had tried three or more antidepressant medications within their episode, and only 11% had received adjunctive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be a considerable difference between treatment guidelines for depression and the reality of care received by people with TRD. Future research examining representative samples of patients could determine recommendations for optimising care pathways, and ultimately outcomes, for individuals with this illness.

10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(4): e29048, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complementary feeding period is a time of unparalleled dietary change for every human, during which the diet changes from one that is 100% milk to one that resembles the usual diet of the wider family in less than a year. Despite this major dietary shift, we know relatively little about food and nutrient intake in infants worldwide and virtually nothing about the impact of baby food "pouches" and "baby-led weaning" (BLW), which are infant feeding approaches that are becoming increasingly popular. Pouches are squeezable containers with a plastic spout that have great appeal for parents, as evidenced by their extraordinary market share worldwide. BLW is an alternative approach to introducing solids that promotes infant self-feeding of whole foods rather than being fed purées, and is popular and widely advocated on social media. The nutritional and health impacts of these novel methods of infant feeding have not yet been determined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the First Foods New Zealand study is to determine the iron status, growth, food and nutrient intakes, breast milk intake, eating and feeding behaviors, dental health, oral motor skills, and choking risk of New Zealand infants in general and those who are using pouches or BLW compared with those who are not. METHODS: Dietary intake (two 24-hour recalls supplemented with food photographs), iron status (hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor), weight status (BMI), food pouch use and extent of BLW (questionnaire), breast milk intake (deuterium oxide "dose-to-mother" technique), eating and feeding behaviors (questionnaires and video recording of an evening meal), dental health (photographs of upper and lower teeth for counting of caries and developmental defects of enamel), oral motor skills (questionnaires), and choking risk (questionnaire) will be assessed in 625 infants aged 7.0 to 9.9 months. Propensity score matching will be used to address bias caused by differences in demographics between groups so that the results more closely represent a potential causal effect. RESULTS: This observational study has full ethical approval from the Health and Disability Ethics Committees New Zealand (19/STH/151) and was funded in May 2019 by the Health Research Council (HRC) of New Zealand (grant 19/172). Data collection commenced in July 2020, and the first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2022. CONCLUSIONS: This large study will provide much needed data on the implications for nutritional intake and health with the use of baby food pouches and BLW in infancy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12620000459921; http://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=379436. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/29048.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6380, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737627

RESUMO

Several early childhood obesity prediction models have been developed, but none for New Zealand's diverse population. We aimed to develop and validate a model for predicting obesity in 4-5-year-old New Zealand children, using parental and infant data from the Growing Up in New Zealand (GUiNZ) cohort. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) for age and sex ≥ 95th percentile. Data on GUiNZ children were used for derivation (n = 1731) and internal validation (n = 713). External validation was performed using data from the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy Study (POI, n = 383) and Pacific Islands Families Study (PIF, n = 135) cohorts. The final model included: birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, paternal BMI, and infant weight gain. Discrimination accuracy was adequate [AUROC = 0.74 (0.71-0.77)], remained so when validated internally [AUROC = 0.73 (0.68-0.78)] and externally on PIF [AUROC = 0.74 [0.66-0.82)] and POI [AUROC = 0.80 (0.71-0.90)]. Positive predictive values were variable but low across the risk threshold range (GUiNZ derivation 19-54%; GUiNZ validation 19-48%; and POI 8-24%), although more consistent in the PIF cohort (52-61%), all indicating high rates of false positives. Although this early childhood obesity prediction model could inform early obesity prevention, high rates of false positives might create unwarranted anxiety for families.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Pai , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/genética , Sobrepeso/patologia , Ilhas do Pacífico/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/patologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso/genética
12.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670442

RESUMO

There has been an important shift in the New Zealand infant food market over the past decade, with the majority of complementary foods now sold in "pouches". Along with the increasing market share of commercial infant food pouches internationally, there have been growing concerns about their nutritional quality. However, research examining the nutritional quality of these pouches compared to other forms of commercial infant foods in New Zealand has not been undertaken. Nor have any studies reported the free sugars or added sugars content of these foods. To address this knowledge gap, a cross-sectional survey of infant foods sold in New Zealand supermarkets was conducted in 2019-2020. Recipes and nutrient lines were developed for the 266 foods identified (133 food pouches). The energy, iron, vitamin B12, total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars content of infant food pouches and other forms of commercial infant foods per 100 g were compared, both within food groups and by age group. Infant food pouches contained similar median amounts of energy, iron, and vitamin B12 to other forms of commercial infant foods but contained considerably more total sugars (8.4 g/100 g vs. 2.3 g/100 g). However, median free sugars and added sugars content was very low across all food groups except for "dairy" and "sweet snacks". All "dry cereals" were fortified with iron whereas none of the infant food pouches were. Therefore, consuming food pouches to the exclusion of other commercial infant foods may place infants at risk of iron deficiency if they do not receive sufficient iron from other sources.


Assuntos
Comércio/tendências , Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Ferro na Dieta/análise , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Vitamina B 12/análise
13.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 121(2): 305-313, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children consume ultra-processed food (UPF) from a young age, but the proportional contribution of UPF to young children's total energy intakes has not been evaluated in developed countries. OBJECTIVES: To describe UPF intake and associations with demographic factors in young children from 12 to 60 months of age. DESIGN: Cohort study comprising a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. Demographic data were collected by questionnaire. At 12, 24, and 60 months of age validated food frequency questionnaires estimated percentage of energy intake from UPF (%kcal UPF). PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The 669 children were born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between May 2009 and December 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean percentage of energy intake from UPF at 12, 24, and 60 months of age, mean differences in %kcal UPF by demographic variables. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Mixed effects regression models were used to estimate relationships between demographics and %kcal UPF. Multiple imputation methods were used to impute missing UPF data. RESULTS: UPF contributed mean (95% confidence interval) 45% (44%, 47%), 42% (41%, 44%), and 51% (50%, 52%) of energy intake to the diets of children at 12, 24, and 60 months of age, respectively. Energy intake from UPF was moderately correlated between 24 and 60 months (r = 0.36). No demographic factors were associated with mean %kcal UPF across time points, except for maternal obesity predicting higher UPF intake at 12 months. Bread, yoghurt, crackers, whole-wheat breakfast cereal, sausages, and muesli bars were among the 10 foods making the greatest contribution to mean %kcal UPF intakes at all time points. CONCLUSIONS: UPF contribute a substantial proportion of energy to the diets of young children. A range of foods with varying nutritional profiles contribute to these high intakes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Nutr Rev ; 79(10): 1079-1099, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440009

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Although dietary advice has long been a cornerstone of a healthy lifestyle, how sleep quality and quantity may interact with dietary intake or eating behaviors remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To consider a bidirectional relationship between sleep and diet in children aged 6-12 years via a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Relevant trials and observational studies were identified by searching the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and CENTRAL databases up to June 1, 2019, without language or date restrictions and supplemented with hand searching. Recognized procedures and reporting standards were applied. DATA EXTRACTION: Data on participant characteristics, study parameters, diet measures, sleep measures, and findings of study quality assessment criteria were collected. DATA ANALYSIS: Forty-five articles involving 308 332 participants on a diverse range of topics were included. Meta-analyses were planned but were impossible to perform due to high study heterogeneity. Most studies (82%) were cross-sectional, which prevented examining directionality of the observed associations. Risk of bias was assessed for trial, cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies, using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool or Newcastle Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: Of 16 studies in which the effect of sleep on dietary intake was investigated, 81% (n = 13) reported a significant association. All studies (n = 8) of sugar-sweetened or caffeinated beverages reported a negative association with sleep, and in 6 of 7 studies in which eating behaviors were investigated, associations with sleep were reported. The use of objective measures of sleep and diet were scarce, with most trials and studies relying on subjective measures of sleep (68%) or diet (93%). CONCLUSION: Because most studies investigating the relationship between sleep and diet in this age group are cross-sectional, temporality could not be determined. Additional randomized controlled trials and long-term cohort studies in middle childhood, particularly those using objective rather than questionnaire measures of sleep, are required to better understand interactions between diet and sleep. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered with PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42018091647).


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Sono , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sono/fisiologia
15.
Obes Rev ; 22(2): e13110, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776705

RESUMO

Improving dietary intake early in life is a common behavioural target in obesity prevention trials. We undertook a systematic review of randomised controlled trials aiming to improve dietary intake of complementary foods during infancy (0-24 months). PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and PsycInfo were searched for trials focussed on obesity prevention conducted between January 2000 and August 2019 where dietary intake was an outcome. Two reviewers screened studies and extracted data from selected articles. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias 2 tools. The protocol was registered on Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/6srg7/). Seventeen articles from 12 trials were selected for data extraction. Statistically significant group differences in outcomes were observed in 36 of 165 (21.8%) of dietary variables examined. Measurement and analysis of outcomes varied between studies. Overall risk of bias was rated as high, primarily due to missing outcome data. Improving dietary intake at this age appears challenging based on a relatively limited number of studies. Future research could consider dietary pattern analyses, which may provide more meaningful outcomes for this age group. Opportunities exist for further exploration of maternal-focussed interventions, responsive feeding interventions, and interventions delivered outside of homes.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Obesidade Pediátrica , Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e24968, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) randomized controlled trial assessed the effect of a more conventional food, physical activity, and breastfeeding intervention, with a more novel sleep intervention on weight outcomes at 2 years of age. The trial had 58% uptake at recruitment, and retention was 86% at age 2 years, 77% at age 3.5 years, and 69% at age 5 years. Children who received the brief sleep intervention in infancy had just half the risk of obesity at 2 years of age compared to those who did not receive the sleep intervention. Importantly, this substantially reduced risk was still apparent at our follow-up at 5 years of age. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this follow-up at age 11 years is to determine whether differences in BMI z-score and obesity risk remain apparent now that it is at least 9 years since cessation of the sleep intervention. Several secondary outcomes of interest will also be examined including 24-hour movement patterns, mental health and wellbeing, and use of electronic media, particularly prior to sleep. METHODS: We will seek renewed consent from all 734 of the original 802 POI families who expressed interest in further involvement. Children and parent(s) will attend 2 clinics and 1 home appointment to obtain measures of anthropometry and body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan), 24-hour movement patterns (sleep, sedentary time, and physical activity measured using an AX3 accelerometer), mental health and wellbeing (validated questionnaires), family functioning (validated questionnaires), use of electronic media (wearable and stationary cameras, questionnaires), and diet and eating behaviors (24-hour recall, questionnaires). RESULTS: This follow-up study has full ethical approval from the University of Otago Human Ethics Committee (H19/109) and was funded in May 2019 by the Health Research Council of New Zealand (grant 19/346). Data collection commenced in June 2020, and first results are expected to be submitted for publication in 2022. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term outcomes of early obesity intervention are rare. Despite the growing body of evidence linking insufficient sleep with an increased risk of obesity in children, interventions targeting improvements in sleep have been insufficiently explored. Our initial follow-up at 5 years of age suggested that an early sleep intervention may have long-term benefits for effective weight management in children. Further analysis in our now preteen population will provide much-needed evidence regarding the long-term effectiveness of sleep interventions in infancy as an obesity prevention approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00892983; https://tinyurl.com/y3xepvxf. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24968.

17.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(11): 2201-2208, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine, from a health funder perspective, whether a sleep intervention, delivered in infancy, either alone or in combination with food, activity, and breastfeeding advice was cost-effective compared with usual care. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted alongside the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) randomized controlled trial for outcomes at 5 years and cost-effectiveness was modeled to age 15 years using the Early Prevention of Obesity in Childhood microsimulation model. Intervention costs for the Sleep (n = 192), Combination (n = 196), and control (n = 209) groups were determined in 2018 Australian dollars. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were determined for BMI outcomes at 5 and 15 years, with the primary outcome being quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) modeled over 15 years. RESULTS: The average costs of the Sleep and Combination interventions were $184 and $601 per child, respectively. The ICER for the Sleep intervention was $18,125 per QALY gained, with a 74% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per QALY. The ICER for the Combination intervention was $94,667 per QALY gained with a 23% probability of being cost-effective. CONCLUSIONS: The POI Sleep intervention, without additional advice, was a low-cost and cost-effective approach to reducing childhood obesity. Sleep modification programs offer a very promising approach to obesity prevention in children.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/economia
18.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 32(5-6): 477-490, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498577

RESUMO

Most interventions for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) are added as augmenters. We aimed to determine the relative effectiveness of augmentation treatments for TRD. This systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) sought all randomized trials of pharmacological and psychological augmentation interventions for adults meeting the most common clinical criteria for TRD. The NMA compared the intervention effectiveness of depressive symptoms for TRD augmentation. Of 36 included trials, 27 were suitable for inclusion in NMA, and no psychological trials could be included in the absence of a common comparator. Antipsychotics (13 trials), mood stabilizers (three trials), NMDA-targeting medications (five trials), and other mechanisms (3 trials) were compared against placebo. NMDA treatments were markedly superior to placebo (ES = 0.91, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.16) and head-to-head NMA suggested that NMDA therapies had the highest chance of being an effective treatment option compared to other pharmacological classes. This study provides the most comprehensive evidence of augmenters' effectiveness for TRD, and our GRADE recommendations can be used to guide guidelines to optimize treatment choices. Although conclusions are limited by paucity of, and heterogeneity between, trials as well as inconsistent reports of treatment safety. This work supports the use of NMDA-targeting medications such as ketamine.

19.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(11): e12679, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a global problem. Early obesity prevention interventions are complex and differ in effectiveness. Novel frameworks, taxonomies and experience from the Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH) trials were applied to unpack interventions. OBJECTIVES: Deconstruct interventions into their components (target behaviours, delivery features and behaviour change techniques [BCTs]). Identify lessons learned and future recommendations for intervention planning, delivery, evaluation and implementation. METHODS: This multi-methods study deconstructed the four EPOCH interventions into target behaviours, delivery features and BCTs from unpublished and published materials using systematic frameworks. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with intervention facilitators and principal investigators. RESULTS: Each trial targeted between 10 and 14 obesity-related behaviours. Key variations in delivery features related to intensity, delivery mode and tailoring. BCTs consistently used across trials included goal-setting, social support, shaping knowledge, role-modelling and credible source. Recommendations from interview analyses include the importance of stakeholder collaboration and consideration of implementation throughout the study process. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of frameworks, methodologies and interviews used in this study is a major step towards understanding complex early obesity prevention interventions. Future work will link systematic intervention deconstruction with quantitative models to identify which intervention components are most effective and for whom.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Austrália , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Gravidez , Apoio Social
20.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(9): e12650, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity in young children, less is known about other aspects of sleep health, including bedtime, on obesity risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether bedtime is associated with body mass index (BMI) z-score or obesity risk in children ages 2 to 5 years, and to determine if associations are independent of sleep duration. METHODS: Cohort analyses were undertaken using three early life obesity prevention trials (POI, INSIGHT, Healthy Beginnings) and a longitudinal cohort study (HOME). Bedtime was assessed by questionnaire and BMI through clinical measurement between 2 and 5 years in 1642 children. Adjusted regression models examined whether BMI z-score and obesity (BMI z-score ≥ 2) were associated with bedtime, nocturnal sleep time and 24-hour sleep time. A discrete mixture model categorized children into bedtime trajectory groups across time points. RESULTS: Bedtime was inconsistently associated with BMI z-score. Although each hour later of bedtime was associated with greater odds of obesity at ages 3 (OR; 95% CI: 1.05; 1.003, 1.10) and 5 (1.35; 1.08, 1.69) years, odds were attenuated after adjustment for nocturnal or 24-hour sleep time. Longer nocturnal sleep duration at 2 years was associated with lower odds of obesity (OR 0.90; 0.86, 0.94), as was longer 24-hour sleep duration at 3 years in girls (0.70; 0.62, 0.78). BMI z-score and odds of obesity were not significantly different between 'early to bed' and 'late to bed' trajectory groups. CONCLUSIONS: Timing of bedtime appears inconsistently related to obesity in young children, possibly via influencing overall sleep duration.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Sono , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
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