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1.
mBio ; 10(5)2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641086

RESUMO

The 1918 influenza virus, subtype H1N1, was the causative agent of the most devastating pandemic in the history of infectious diseases. In vitro studies have confirmed that extreme virulence is an inherent property of this virus. Here, we utilized the macaque model for evaluating the efficacy of oseltamivir phosphate against the fully reconstructed 1918 influenza virus in a highly susceptible and relevant disease model. Our findings demonstrate that oseltamivir phosphate is effective in preventing severe disease in macaques but vulnerable to virus escape through emergence of resistant mutants, especially if given in a treatment regimen. Nevertheless, we conclude that oseltamivir would be highly beneficial to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates caused by a highly pathogenic influenza virus although it would be predicted that resistance would likely emerge with sustained use of the drug.IMPORTANCE Oseltamivir phosphate is used as a first line of defense in the event of an influenza pandemic prior to vaccine administration. Treatment failure through selection and replication of drug-resistant viruses is a known complication in the field and was also demonstrated in our study with spread of resistant 1918 influenza virus in multiple respiratory tissues. This emphasizes the importance of early treatment and the possibility that noncompliance may exacerbate treatment effectiveness. It also demonstrates the importance of implementing combination therapy and vaccination strategies as soon as possible in a pandemic situation.

2.
Can J Exp Psychol ; 73(4): 254-264, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393154

RESUMO

The production effect is defined as better memory for items that were read aloud compared with items that were read silently. Quinlan and Taylor (2013) expanded the findings of the production effect by demonstrating that singing items produces even better recognition performance than reading aloud, and argued that this was due to enhanced relative distinctiveness. The current study tested three alternative accounts. In Experiment 1, we explored whether singing results in a larger production effect because it is deemed more bizarre than reading aloud. To address this, we tested a sample for whom singing does not seem bizarre: experienced singers. They also showed better recognition of items that were sung compared with those that were read aloud. In Experiment 2, we determined that singing appears to take longer than either reading aloud or reading silently; however, the possible effect of production time was further explored in Experiment 3. We did this by instructing participants to sing quickly, read aloud slowly, or read silently. Altering relative production times resulted in no discernible changes in subsequent recognition performance. Finally, in Experiment 4, we explored whether singing might strengthen the memory trace relative to reading aloud. We tested this by manipulating the production instruction between subjects. This eliminated the recognition advantage for both reading items aloud as well as for singing them aloud. Having ruled out these alternatives, we argue that singing improves subsequent recognition because it offers more distinctive elements than either reading aloud or reading silently. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8970, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222149

RESUMO

Conventional HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) genotyping utilizes Sanger sequencing (SS) methods, which are limited by low data throughput and the inability of detecting low abundant drug resistant variants (LADRVs). Here we present a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based HIVDR typing platform that leverages the advantages of Illumina MiSeq and HyDRA Web. The platform consists of a fully validated sample processing protocol and HyDRA web, an open web portal that allows automated customizable NGS-based HIVDR data processing. This platform was characterized and validated using a panel of HIV-spiked plasma representing all major HIV-1 subtypes, pedigreed plasmids, HIVDR proficiency specimens and clinical specimens. All examined major HIV-1 subtypes were consistently amplified at viral loads of ≥1,000 copies/ml. The gross error rate of this platform was determined at 0.21%, and minor variations were reliably detected down to 0.50% in plasmid mixtures. All HIVDR mutations identifiable by SS were detected by the MiSeq-HyDRA protocol, while LADRVs at frequencies of 1~15% were detected by MiSeq-HyDRA only. As compared to SS approaches, the MiSeq-HyDRA platform has several notable advantages including reduced cost and labour, and increased sensitivity for LADRVs, making it suitable for routine HIVDR monitoring for both patient care and surveillance purposes.

4.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 10(3): 383-388, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30891145

RESUMO

In sharp contrast to a previously reported series of 6-anilino imidazopyridazine based Tyk2 JH2 ligands, 6-((2-oxo-N1-substituted-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)amino)imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazine analogs were found to display dramatically improved metabolic stability. The N1-substituent on 2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine ring can be a variety of alkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl groups, but among them, 2-pyridyl provided much enhanced Caco-2 permeability, attributed to its ability to form intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Further structure-activity relationship studies at the C3 position led to the identification of highly potent and selective Tyk2 JH2 inhibitor 6, which proved to be highly effective in inhibiting IFNγ production in a rat pharmacodynamics model and fully efficacious in a rat adjuvant arthritis model.

5.
J Med Chem ; 62(7): 3228-3250, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893553

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases and is essential for B cell receptor (BCR) mediated signaling. BTK also plays a critical role in the downstream signaling pathways for the Fcγ receptor in monocytes, the Fcε receptor in granulocytes, and the RANK receptor in osteoclasts. As a result, pharmacological inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. This article will outline the evolution of our strategy to identify a covalent, irreversible inhibitor of BTK that has the intrinsic potency, selectivity, and pharmacokinetic properties necessary to provide a rapid rate of inactivation systemically following a very low dose. With excellent in vivo efficacy and a very desirable tolerability profile, 5a (branebrutinib, BMS-986195) has advanced into clinical studies.

6.
J Med Chem ; 62(5): 2265-2285, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785748

RESUMO

Recently, our research group reported the identification of BMS-986104 (2) as a differentiated S1P1 receptor modulator. In comparison to fingolimod (1), a full agonist of S1P1 currently marketed for the treatment of relapse remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), 2 offers several potential advantages having demonstrated improved safety multiples in preclinical evaluations against undesired pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. In clinical trials, 2 was found to exhibit a pharmacokinetic half-life ( T1/2) longer than that of 1, as well as a reduced formation of the phosphate metabolite that is required for activity against S1P1. Herein, we describe our efforts to discover highly potent, partial agonists of S1P1 with a shorter T1/2 and increased in vivo phosphate metabolite formation. These efforts culminated in the discovery of BMS-986166 (14a), which was advanced to human clinical evaluation. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship as well as pulmonary and cardiovascular safety assessments are discussed. Furthermore, efficacy of 14a in multiple preclinical models of autoimmune diseases are presented.

7.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(1): 237-252, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194621

RESUMO

In an item-method directed forgetting task, attentional resources are withdrawn from forget item processing (e.g., Taylor & Fawcett in Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73, 1790-1814, 2011). Taylor and Hamm (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 78, 168-186, 2016) demonstrated that there is no corresponding increase in the proclivity for exogenous attention to be captured following a forget instruction. This means either that the attentional resources withdrawn from the forget item are reallocated immediately (and therefore not especially vulnerable to capture) or that it is not exogenous attention that is withdrawn. Given that endogenous attention is distinct from exogenous attention, we therefore extended the Taylor and Hamm study by using endogenous orienting rather than exogenous orienting. Words appeared individually in a peripheral location (Exp. 1) or in a central location (Exp. 2), followed by an instruction to either remember or forget. After a short (50-ms) or long (250-ms) interstimulus interval (ISI), a central cue (80% accurate) directed participants to allocate their attention to the left or right. This was followed by a discrimination target that appeared at a 1,000-ms cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony. A subsequent yes-no recognition test assessed memory for all study items. In both experiments, we observed better recognition of remember words than forget words-a directed forgetting effect. We also found a cueing effect, revealed as faster reaction times to discriminate cued targets than to discriminate uncued targets. There was not, however, an effect of memory instruction (and/or instruction-cue ISI) on the magnitude of this cueing effect. Thus, neither exogenous attention nor endogenous attention remains in an unengaged state following an instruction to forget.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Psicofísica , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 188: 39-54, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857288

RESUMO

Using an item-method directed forgetting task, we presented homographic homophonic nouns embedded in sentences. At study, each sentence was followed by an instruction to remember or forget the embedded word. On a subsequent yes-no recognition test, each word was again embedded within a sentence. In Experiments 1, 2, and 4 we varied the embedding sentence at test so that it was identical to that at study, changed but retained the meaning of the studied word, or changed to alter the meaning of the studied word. Repeated context - whether the sentence and/or the word meaning - proved to be as useful a retrieval cue for TBF items as for TBR items. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that physical repetition was insufficient to produce context effects for either TBR or TBF items. And, in Experiment 4, we determined that participants were equally accurate in reporting context repetition/change following the correct recognition of TBR and TBF items. When considered in light of the existing literature, our results suggest that when context can be dissociated from the study item, it is encoded in "one shot" and not vulnerable to subsequent efforts to limit unwanted encoding.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
9.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 80(6): 1489-1503, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691764

RESUMO

This study used rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) to determine whether, in an item-method directed forgetting task, study word processing ends earlier for forget words than for remember words. The critical manipulation required participants to monitor an RSVP stream of black nonsense strings in which a single blue word was embedded. The next item to follow the word was a string of red fs that instructed the participant to forget the word or green rs that instructed the participant to remember the word. After the memory instruction, a probe string of black xs or os appeared at postinstruction positions 1-8. Accuracy in reporting the identity of the probe string revealed an attenuated attentional blink following instructions to forget. A yes-no recognition task that followed the study trials confirmed a directed forgetting effect, with better recognition of remember words than forget words. Considered in the context of control conditions that required participants to commit either all or none of the study words to memory, the pattern of probe identification accuracy following the directed forgetting task argues that an intention to forget releases limited-capacity attentional resources sooner than an instruction to remember-despite participants needing to maintain an ongoing rehearsal set in both cases.


Assuntos
Intermitência na Atenção Visual/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Humanos , Intenção , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Memória , Adulto Jovem
11.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 183: 116-123, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29275948

RESUMO

In an item-method directed forgetting paradigm, words are presented one at a time, each followed by an instruction to Remember or Forget; a directed forgetting effect is measured as better subsequent memory for Remember words than Forget words. The dominant view is that the directed forgetting effect arises during encoding due to selective rehearsal of Remember over Forget items. In three experiments we attempted to falsify a strong view that directed forgetting effects in recognition are due only to encoding mechanisms when an item method is used. Across 3 experiments we tested for retrieval-based processes by colour-coding the recognition test items. Black colour provided no information; green colour cued a potential Remember item; and, red colour cued a potential Forget item. Recognition cues were mixed within-blocks in Experiment 1 and between-blocks in Experiments 2 and 3; Experiment 3 added explicit feedback on the accuracy of the recognition decision. Although overall recognition improved with cuing when explicit test performance feedback was added in Experiment 3, in no case was the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect influenced by recognition cueing. Our results argue against a role for retrieval-based strategies that limit recognition of Forget items at test and posit a role for encoding intentions only.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Mem Cognit ; 46(1): 132-147, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214552

RESUMO

Using an item-method directed forgetting task, we presented negative, neutral, and positive photographic pictures, one at a time, each followed by an instruction to remember or forget. We determined that the directed forgetting effect, defined as better subsequent recognition of to-be-remembered (TBR) items than to-be-forgotten (TBF) items, was equivalent across negative, neutral, and positive pictures. To disentangle the underlying costs (i.e., decrease in memory for TBF items) and benefits (i.e., increase in memory for TBR items), we compared recognition memory performance in the directed forgetting task to that of a novel within-subjects remember-all control condition (Experiment 1) and to a between-subjects remember-all control group (Experiment 2). We observed costs without benefits across all three emotions-negative, neutral, and positive-in both experiments. These results demonstrate that equivalent directed forgetting effects for emotional stimuli are not attributable to different underlying component processes. Instead, our results suggest that selection for encoding is accomplished in similar ways, regardless of emotional content.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Intenção , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0181782, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742141

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) regulates critical signal transduction pathways involved in the pathobiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune disorders. BMS-986142 is a potent and highly selective reversible small molecule inhibitor of BTK currently being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of both RA and primary Sjögren's syndrome. In the present report, we detail the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of BMS-986142 and show this agent provides potent and selective inhibition of BTK (IC50 = 0.5 nM), blocks antigen receptor-dependent signaling and functional endpoints (cytokine production, co-stimulatory molecule expression, and proliferation) in human B cells (IC50 ≤ 5 nM), inhibits Fcγ receptor-dependent cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and blocks RANK-L-induced osteoclastogenesis. Through the benefits of impacting these important drivers of autoimmunity, BMS-986142 demonstrated robust efficacy in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA). In both models, robust efficacy was observed without continuous, complete inhibition of BTK. When a suboptimal dose of BMS-986142 was combined with other agents representing the current standard of care for RA (e.g., methotrexate, the TNFα antagonist etanercept, or the murine form of CTLA4-Ig) in the CIA model, improved efficacy compared to either agent alone was observed. The results suggest BMS-986142 represents a potential therapeutic for clinical investigation in RA, as monotherapy or co-administered with agents with complementary mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos/efeitos dos fármacos , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/imunologia , Osteoclastos/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/imunologia , Ligante RANK/imunologia
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 4979252, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28473986

RESUMO

The prevalence of drug resistance (DR) mutations in people with HIV-1 infection, particularly those with low-level viremia (LLV), supports the need to improve the sensitivity of amplification methods for HIV DR genotyping in order to optimize antiretroviral regimen and facilitate HIV-1 DR surveillance and relevant research. Here we report on a fully validated PCR-based protocol that achieves consistent amplification of the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions of HIV-1 pol gene across many HIV-1 subtypes from LLV plasma samples. HIV-spiked plasma samples from the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL), covering various HIV-1 subtypes, as well as clinical specimens were used to optimize and validate the protocol. Our results demonstrate that this protocol has a broad HIV-1 subtype coverage and viral load span with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Moreover, the protocol is robust even when plasma sample volumes are limited, the HIV viral load is unknown, and/or the HIV subtype is undetermined. Thus, the protocol is applicable for the initial amplification of the HIV-1 PR and RT genes required for subsequent genotypic DR assays.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Viremia/genética , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Carga Viral/genética , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/virologia , Produtos do Gene pol do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/isolamento & purificação
15.
Medchemcomm ; 8(4): 725-729, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108791

RESUMO

Recently, our research group reported the identification of prodrug amino-alcohol 2 as a potent and efficacious S1P1 receptor modulator. This molecule is differentiated preclinically over the marketed drug fingolimod (Gilenya 1), whose active phosphate metabolite is an S1P1 full agonist, in terms of pulmonary and cardiovascular safety. S1P1 partial agonist 2, however, has a long half-life in rodents and was projected to have a long half-life in humans. The purpose of this communication is to disclose highly potent partial agonists of S1P1 with shorter half-lives relative to the clinical compound 2. PK/PD relationships as well as their preclinical pulmonary and cardiovascular safety assessment are discussed.

16.
J Med Chem ; 59(24): 11138-11147, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002964

RESUMO

We describe a highly efficient route for the synthesis of 4a (BMS-986104). A key step in the synthesis is the asymmetric hydroboration of trisubstituted alkene 6. Particularly given the known difficulties involved in this type of transformation (6 → 7), the current methodology provides an efficient approach to prepare this class of compounds. In addition, we disclose the efficacy of 4a in a mouse EAE model, which is comparable to 4c (FTY720). Mechanistically, 4a exhibited excellent remyelinating effects on lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induced demyelination in a three-dimensional brain cell culture assay.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Naftalenos/síntese química , Naftalenos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
J Med Chem ; 59(21): 9837-9854, 2016 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27726358

RESUMO

Fingolimod (1) is the first approved oral therapy for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. While the phosphorylated metabolite of fingolimod was found to be a nonselective S1P receptor agonist, agonism specifically of S1P1 is responsible for the peripheral blood lymphopenia believed to be key to its efficacy. Identification of modulators that maintain activity on S1P1 while sparing activity on other S1P receptors could offer equivalent efficacy with reduced liabilities. We disclose in this paper a ligand-based drug design approach that led to the discovery of a series of potent tricyclic agonists of S1P1 with selectivity over S1P3 and were efficacious in a pharmacodynamic model of suppression of circulating lymphocytes. Compound 10 had the desired pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile and demonstrated maximal efficacy when administered orally in a rat adjuvant arthritis model.


Assuntos
Desenho de Drogas , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/química , Adjuvante de Freund/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/administração & dosagem , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/química , Ligantes , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
J Med Chem ; 59(19): 9173-9200, 2016 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27583770

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the Tec family of kinases. BTK plays an essential role in B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling as well as Fcγ receptor signaling in monocytes and Fcε receptor signaling in mast cells and basophils, all of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease. As a result, inhibition of BTK is anticipated to provide an effective strategy for the clinical treatment of autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. This article details the structure-activity relationships (SAR) leading to a novel series of highly potent and selective carbazole and tetrahydrocarbazole based, reversible inhibitors of BTK. Of particular interest is that two atropisomeric centers were rotationally locked to provide a single, stable atropisomer, resulting in enhanced potency and selectivity as well as a reduction in safety liabilities. With significantly enhanced potency and selectivity, excellent in vivo properties and efficacy, and a very desirable tolerability and safety profile, 14f (BMS-986142) was advanced into clinical studies.


Assuntos
Carbazóis/química , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Animais , Carbazóis/farmacocinética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Isomerismo , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Quinazolinas/química , Quinazolinas/farmacocinética , Quinazolinas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
J Med Chem ; 59(17): 7915-35, 2016 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27531604

RESUMO

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) belongs to the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases and plays a critical role in multiple cell types responsible for numerous autoimmune diseases. This article will detail the structure-activity relationships (SARs) leading to a novel second generation series of potent and selective reversible carbazole inhibitors of BTK. With an excellent pharmacokinetic profile as well as demonstrated in vivo activity and an acceptable safety profile, 7-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-4-[2-methyl-3-(4-oxo-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-3-yl)phenyl]-9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide 6 (BMS-935177) was selected to advance into clinical development.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/química , Carbazóis/química , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinazolinonas/química , Administração Oral , Tirosina Quinase da Agamaglobulinemia , Animais , Antirreumáticos/síntese química , Antirreumáticos/farmacocinética , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carbazóis/síntese química , Carbazóis/farmacocinética , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cães , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/química , Quinazolinonas/síntese química , Quinazolinonas/farmacocinética , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Can J Exp Psychol ; 70(2): 139-46, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27244355

RESUMO

Items that are produced (e.g., read aloud) during encoding typically are better remembered than items that are not produced (e.g., read silently). This "production effect" has been explained by distinctiveness: Produced items have more distinct features than nonproduced items, leading to enhanced retrieval. The goal of the current study was to use electroencephalography (EEG) to examine the neural basis of the production effect. During study, participants were presented with words that they were required to read silently, read aloud, or sing while EEG data were recorded. Subsequent memory performance was tested using a yes/no recognition test. Analysis focused on the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) evoked by the encoding instruction cue for each instruction condition. Our data revealed enhanced memory performance for produced items and a greater P300 ERP amplitude for instructions to sing or read aloud compared with instructions to read silently. Our results demonstrate that the amplitude of the P300 is modulated by at least 1 aspect of production, vocalization (singing/reading aloud relative to reading silently), and are consistent with the distinctiveness account of the production effect. The ERP methodology is a viable tool for investigating the production effect. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Leitura , Canto/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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