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1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1178: 338809, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482865

RESUMO

We present a new analytical approach for the analysis of triacylglycerol fatty acyls distribution by normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) coupled with APPI+-HRMS. The NPLC method used allows the separation of more than 30 classes of lipids. The energy of the APPI+ source enables the formation of low-intensity ions B fragments ([RC = O+74]+ <3%), characteristic of lipids with a glycerol esterified by one or more fatty acyls. We found the relative intensities of ions B were close to the fatty acyl distribution. To establish the proof of concept, we decided to focus on the triacylglycerols (TGs) class, the major component of plant oils. By either NPLC or FIA, the TGs class appeared as a single peak. In our experimental conditions, ions B are always present in the mass spectra of TGs and each ion B is specific to a fatty acyl group. The Orbitrap mass spectrometer featured high enough resolution and accuracy to identify ions B and distinguish them from other TG fragment ions. A further adjustment of the fatty acyls relative quantities calculation from ions B intensities was computed using weighting coefficients of ions B response. The methodology was developed and validated using plant oils characterized by a GC-FID reference method. NPLC-APPI+-HRMS method offers the advantage of analyzing the fatty acyl composition of complex lipid extracts without the need for sample preparation.


Assuntos
Pressão Atmosférica , Monoglicerídeos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Lipídeos , Espectrometria de Massas , Triglicerídeos
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1512: 9-21, 2017 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28728931

RESUMO

New polar embedded aromatic stationary phases of different functionalities (mono- and trifunctional) and on different silica supports (Fully Porous Particle (FPP) and Superficially Porous Particle (SPP)) were synthesized to determine the impact of the functionality on the retention process and the selectivity towards aromatic compounds. A full experimental characterization was performed using a combination of techniques (elemental analysis, thermogravimetric measurements, infrared spectroscopy and solid-state NMR) to differentiate unambiguously the mono- and trifunctional Stationary Phases (SP). Commercially available columns with either an aromatic group or a polar embedded group were compared to the new stationary phases. The latter presented enhanced affinity for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) structures compared to alkylbenzenes, especially when using methanol instead of acetonitrile as the organic modifier.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Acetonitrilas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/isolamento & purificação , Porosidade
3.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1041-1042: 151-157, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28039812

RESUMO

The distribution of fatty acid species at the sn-1/3 position or the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in natural fats and oils affects their physical and nutritional properties. In fats and oils, determining the presence of one or two regioisomers and the identification of structure, where they do have one, as well as their separation, became a problem of fundamental importance to solve. A variety of instrumental technics has been proposed, such as MS, chromatography-MS or pure chromatography. A number of studies deal with the optimization of the separation, but very often, they are expensive in time. In the present study, in order to decrease the analysis time while maintaining good chromatographic separation, we tested different monomeric and polymeric stationary phases and different chromatographic conditions (mobile phase composition and analysis temperature) using Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (NARP-LC). It was demonstrated that mixed polymeric stationary bonded silica with accessible terminal hydroxyl groups leads to very good separation for the pairs of TAGs regioisomers constituted by two saturated and one unsaturated fatty acid (with double bond number: from 1 to 6). A Nucleodur C18 ISIS percolated by isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrile/2-propanol) at 18°C leads to their separations in less than 15min. The difference of retention times between two regioisomers XYX and XXY are large enough to confirm, as application, the presence of POP, SOP, SOS and PLP and no PPO, SPO, SSO and PPL in Theobroma cacao butter. In the same way, this study respectively shows the presence of SOS, SOP and no SSO, PSO in Butyrospermum parkii butter, POP, SOP, SOS and no PPO, PSO and SSO in Carapa oil and finally POP and no PPO in Pistacia Lentiscus oil.


Assuntos
Gorduras/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Estereoisomerismo , Triglicerídeos/química
4.
J Chromatogr A ; 1419: 45-57, 2015 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26455284

RESUMO

This study reports the impact of thermal pretreatment between 400 and 1100°C on superficially porous silica particles (e.g. core-shell, fused-core; here abbreviated as SPP silica). The different thermally pretreated SPP silica (400°C, 900°C and 1100°C) were chemically bonded with an octadecyl chain under microwave irradiation. The bare SPP silica, thermally untreated and pretreated, as well as the chemically bonded phases (CBPs) were fully characterized by elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), and solid state cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) (29)Si NMR. The chromatographic properties of the overall set of C18-thermally pretreated SPP silica stationary phases were determined using the Tanaka test. Complementary, the simplified Veuthey test was used to deeply study the silanol activity, considering a set of 7 basic solutes with various physicochemical properties. Both tests were also performed on different commercial SPP silica columns and different types of bonding chemistry (C18, Phenyl-hexyl, RP-amide, C30, aQ). Multivariate data analyses (hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were carried out to define groups of stationary phases with similar chromatographic properties and situate them in relation to those commercially available. These different C18-thermally pretreated SPP silicas represented a wide range of stationary phases as they were spread out along the score plot. Moreover, this study highlighted that the thermal pretreatment improved the chemical stability of the SPP silica compare to untreated SPP silica and untreated porous silica. Consequently, higher thermal pretreatment can be applied (up to 900°C) before functionalization without destruction of the silica matrix. Indeed, a significantly lower dissolution of the thermally pretreated SPP silica under aggressive conditions could allow the use of the corresponding functionalized stationary phases at high temperature (60°C) with good lifetime of the columns.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Dióxido de Silício/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Temperatura Alta , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Porosidade , Análise de Componente Principal , Silanos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1397: 59-72, 2015 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25895730

RESUMO

Nowadays, the determination of the experimental chromatographic conditions to be used in Reversed Phase Liquid Ultra-Performance Flash Purification is still challenging. This is due to four different items. In most cases, flash purification stationary phases are not available with geometry of column used in analytical chromatography. The flash purification columns are single-use only. From the point of view of selectivity and retention, few RPLC phases exist with properties of separation identical for analytical and flash purification supports. Characterization methods and databases used for comparing analytical RPLC columns do not include stationary phases for RP flash purification columns. The goal of this work is to develop a new method development strategy which permits the determination of the experimental chromatographic conditions on RP ultra-performance flash purification columns. It relies on the knowledge of any isocratic conditions obtained on any given initial reversed stationary phase. The final conditions to implement on the RP ultra-performance flash purification phase enable either to keep the retention range of a selected solute constant, or to set it around a previously chosen value. The rules of transfer in linear gradient mode are also described. The methodology was valid, whatever the initial RP stationary and mobile phases, for different chemical classes, whatever the bonding, particle diameter, porous or core shell particle, towards different RP alkyl and analogues stationary and mobile phases.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Porosidade
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25855317

RESUMO

Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are a large class of neutral lipids that naturally occur in both plant and animal oils and fats. Their analyses in Non-Aqueous Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (NARP) require a mixture of weak solvent (mostly acetonitrile) and strong solvent. In the present work, we have established eluotropic solvent strength scale of several binary mobile phases on C18 bonded silica at different temperatures (acetonitrile/methylene chloride, acetonitrile/acetone, acetonitrile/ethyl acetate, acetonitrile/propan-2-ol, and acetonitrile/butan-1-ol at 25°C, 43°C, 63°C and 85°C); it is based on the methylene selectivity and the use of homologous series. We show that this scale is well suited to the TAGs analysis. The analysis of nine seed oils (Aleurites fordii, Calophyllum inophyllum, Glycina max, Olea europea, Orbignya olifeira, Pinus koraiensis, Pistacia lentiscus, Punica granatum and Ribes nigrum) in iso-eluotropic conditions leads to propose unambiguously the couple MeCN/BuOH at 25°C as the best system to separate TAGs. The use of butanol, as strong solvent, provides very good TAGs congeners separations and avoids the use of chlorinated solvents which gave to this day the best separations.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Solventes/química , Triglicerídeos/análise , Triglicerídeos/isolamento & purificação , Butanóis/química , Modelos Químicos , Óleos Vegetais/química , Temperatura , Triglicerídeos/química
7.
J Chromatogr A ; 1321: 48-55, 2013 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24238709

RESUMO

Modeling of the interaction is crucial to understanding and predicting chromatography. However, the complexity and variety of the grafted motifs render the creation of an accurate model overwhelmingly challenging, so that most often the classification of column separation properties is described by monitoring the retention times of carefully selected control molecules. We analyzed here the characteristics of the interplay of compounds of basic nature by (1)H HRMAS NMR, which provide relevant descriptors for products with pharmaceutical properties, with chromatographic phases for Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography. Eight grafted silica phases were selected, differing to enhance specific structural properties (monomeric and polymeric grafts, endcapping or not, carbon content, alkyl with polar embedded group or alkyl bonded chain, chemical nature of end capping, native silica). These materials were put in interaction with five basic molecules, previously chosen as probes for the evaluation of efficient base deactivated liquid stationary phases using five theoretical molecular descriptors to cover a large scale of molecular volume, polar surface area, LogP, hydrogen-bond donor capacity and finally hydrogen-bond acceptor capacity. (1)H HRMAS NMR was capable of describing qualitatively a wealth of interaction states, characterized both thermodynamically and kinetically. In one case (penbutolol) up to five interaction states could be differentiated. Variable temperature experiments revealed the complexity of the retention process on grafted silica as in some cases the kinetics of the interaction is shown to slow down on increasing the temperature.


Assuntos
Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Cinética
8.
Anal Chem ; 85(20): 9459-68, 2013 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23998686

RESUMO

In this paper we propose a method for the evaluation of real separation quality in multidimensional separations based on the nearest neighbor distances (NND). This approach allows us to overcome the principal drawback of the orthogonality measurement which does not evaluate how good the real separation obtained with one system is, especially when compared to another one. Separation quality evaluation takes into account the distances (di(s)) between peaks in whole separation space. The distances between nearest neighbors were calculated in resolution scaled analysis space to overcome statistically different peak widths in each dimension. The obtained separation quality is ranked by harmonic mean (H̅(s)) of the distances di(s). The extent of peak spreading, described by arithmetic mean (A̅(s)), gives an appreciation of the effective analysis space of 2D separation. The classifications of systems obtained with the same retention data using separation quality and orthogonality approaches show important differences in ranking orders depending on two different targets of these evaluations: the separation potential of a 2D system and the divergence of selectivity between both separation directions. This study shows separation quality and orthogonality merit to be evaluated in parallel for the same systems. The other new threshold descriptor, minimal limit distance (dilim) derived from resolution dependent peak capacity scale, was used to predict the separation quality as a function of desired resolution. We also introduce here a composed descriptor for 2D systems: the optimality coefficient (Oc), which may be useful in the 2D separation optimization process. It takes into account the maximization of homogeneity of peak spreading (H̅(s)/A̅(s)) and the minimization of effective analysis space (or compactness, dilim/A̅(s)) terms.

9.
Anal Chem ; 85(20): 9449-58, 2013 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24066841

RESUMO

We propose here a new approach to the evaluation of two-dimensional and, more generally, multidimensional separations based on topological methods. We consider the apex plot as a graph, which could further be treated using a topological tool: the measure of distances between the nearest neighbors (NND). Orthogonality can be thus defined as the quality of peak dispersion in normalized separation space, which is characterized by two factors describing the population of distances between nearest neighbors: the lengths (di(o)) of distances and the degree of similarity of all lengths. Orthogonality grows with the increase of both factors. The NND values were used to calculate a number of new descriptors. They inform about the extent of peak distribution, like the arithmetic mean (A̅(o)) of NNDs, as well as about the homogeneity of peak distribution, like the geometric mean (G̅(o)) and the harmonic mean (H̅(o)). Our new, NND-based approach was compared with another recently published method of orthogonality evaluation: the fractal dimensionality (DF). The comparison shows that the geometric mean (G̅(o)) is the descriptor behaving in the most similar way to dimensionality (DF) and the harmonic mean (H̅(o)) displays superior sensitivity to the shortest, critical distances between peaks. The latter descriptor (H̅(o)) can be considered as sufficient to describe the degree of orthogonality based on NND. The method developed is precise, simple, easy to implement, and possible to use for the description of separations in a true or virtual system of any number of dimensions.

10.
Analyst ; 138(19): 5801-10, 2013 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23897114

RESUMO

A comparison of chromatograms obtained in a series of separation conditions for a given complex mixture may be done with a series of chromatographic descriptors. In this study, we used two descriptors: the number of critical pairs and symmetry of peaks, further rescaled and converted to the corresponding critical pairs' coefficient (CPc) and symmetry coefficient (Sc). Considering the difficulty of appreciating global separation quality using CPc and Sc criteria separately, as their respective values are usually uncorrelated, a double-criteria cross-evaluation system was required. For that purpose we tested the commonly used multi-criteria decision-making method - Derringer's desirability function (D) - as well as the recently introduced sum of ranking differences (SRD). To facilitate the graphical comparison of both approaches, the desirability function (D) was used in the inverse form (Dinv). The advantages and drawbacks of both evaluation methods, especially the respective under- or over-evaluation of outliers, caused us to introduce a new ranking approach, separation system suitability (3S). The obtained suitability rankings for the three tested approaches (Dinv, SRD and 3S) are different; nevertheless, 3S appears to be the most balanced and the easiest to interpret as well. The approach developed for selection of suitable systems was applied to the problem of separation of complex mixtures through the analysis of a series of standards of anthraquinone derivatives. To judge the pertinence of this evaluation, a sample containing a number of natural anthraquinones extracted from the bark of Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia) was analysed. In conclusion, the proposed methodology for the cross-evaluation of the series of chromatograms using single specific descriptors (CPc and Sc) through a global composite descriptor (3S) significantly simplifies the decision that separation systems are the most suitable for the separation of complex target mixtures of compounds.

11.
Anal Chim Acta ; 722: 80-6, 2012 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22444537

RESUMO

The kinetic method was applied to differentiate and quantify mixtures of regioisomeric triacylglycerols (TAGs) by generating and mass selecting alkali ion bound metal dimeric clusters with a TAG chosen as reference (ref) and examining their competitive dissociations in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This methodology readily distinguished pairs of regioisomers (AAB/ABA) such as LLO/LOL, OOP/OPO and SSP/SPS and consequently distinguished sn-1/sn-3, sn-2 substituents on the glycerol backbone. The dimeric complex ions [ref, Li, TAG((AAB and/or ABA))](+) generated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were subjected to collision induced dissociation causing competitive loss of either the neutral TAG reference (ref) leading to [Li(AAB and/or ABA)](+) or the neutral TAG molecule (TAG((AAB and/or ABA))) leading to [ref, Li](+). The ratio of the two competitive dissociation rates, defined by the product ion branching ratio (R(iso)), was related via the kinetic method to the regioisomeric composition of the investigated TAG mixture. In this work, a linear correlation was established between composition of the mixture of each TAG regioisomer and the logarithm of the branching ratio for competitive fragmentation. Depending on the availability of at least one TAG regioisomer as standard, the kinetic method and the standard additions method led to the quantitative analysis of natural TAG mixtures.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Triglicerídeos/análise , Cinética , Óleos Voláteis/química , Padrões de Referência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/normas , Estereoisomerismo , Termodinâmica , Triglicerídeos/normas
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1218(31): 5087-100, 2011 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21696745

RESUMO

A new simple strategy to identify triacylglycerols (TAGs) in oils and fats was performed using on line coupling of non aqueous reversed phase chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (NARP-LC-ESI-MS(2)) with silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) as post-column additive, and chromatographic data (partition number information and both the graphs of log k vs. number of double bond (DBN) and carbon number (CN)). NARP liquid chromatography permitted to separate TAGs composed of Δ5 and Δ9 but not from Δ11 double bond location on alkyl chain of fatty acid residues. Silver cationization improved the sensitivity by a factor one hundred. MS(2) information gave unambiguously the nature of three fatty acid residues bonded to glyceryl backbone of TAGs while log k against DBN and CN curves discriminated between the same molecular mass TAG isomers (whose constitutive fatty acid residues are double bond position and configuration isomers). Combination of structural information given by MS with chromatographic retention laws led to the development of a general methodology for determination of the structure of TAGs in lipids. This methodology was applied to Pinus koraiensis seed oil for which some uncommon TAGs are present. It permitted the identification of 58 TAGs in this oil. The experimental proof of 29 uncommon TAGs as component of this oil is demonstrated. Among them 26 were minor constituents.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Pinus/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Triglicerídeos/análise
13.
J Chromatogr A ; 1218(23): 3636-47, 2011 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21529815

RESUMO

A series of reversed phases bonded with several functional groups was investigated for separation of anthraquinone derivatives, following the previous work, dedicated to the selectivity of octadecyl silica bonded phases. Considering wide diversity of substitutions in hydrophobic anthraquinone skeleton, interactions like dipole-dipole, π-π or H-bond acceptor/donor, as well as inclusion complexes formation can be employed to improve separation. In this study, several phases with grafts like cyano, nitro, aromatic, PEG, diol, calixarene and cyclodextrin were used with water-acetonitrile gradient for separation of thirty anthraquinoids' standards. The evaluation of performances was measured using the symmetry parameter and the number of critical pairs of peaks formed. The results point out the aromatic and calixarene bonded silica as the most interesting in terms of symmetry and critical pairs number. Finally we tested the performance of Caltrex Resorcinaren, Pursuit XRs DP and Luna Phenyl-Hexyl on real samples of anthraquinone natural dye extracted from a red thread taken from a 15th C. tapestry. We observed and compared the retention behaviour of some new anthraquinoids additional to our standards set and showing behaviour particular to substituted anthraquinone carboxylic acids.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/química , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Corantes/análise , Têxteis/análise , Antraquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Arte/história , Corantes/história , História do Século XV , Dióxido de Silício , Têxteis/história
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1218(6): 778-86, 2011 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21227440

RESUMO

Chromatographic study of natural products helps to determine their molecular composition and to identify their sources (biological, geographical, etc.). However, identifying anthraquinoids is still a challenge because this chemical family is composed of more than half a thousand molecules. In the present work, a series of C18 stationary phases were systematically studied to evaluate their separation potential for these compounds in high performance reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). The stationary phases with various physicochemical properties were evaluated with respect to the separation of 30 standards. Selectivity of the studied stationary phases and symmetry of the obtained peaks were chosen as the evaluation criteria. Calculations of symmetry and separation capacity parameters have been proposed. These parameters are not dependent on the dimensions of the columns and were used for the classifications of phases. In conclusion, this study is intended to be a guide as to which stationary phases analysts can use for resolving separation of a complex mixture of anthraquinoids.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Modelos Químicos , Antraquinonas/química , Corantes/química , Corantes/isolamento & purificação , Conformação Molecular
15.
Clin Anat ; 23(3): 258-64, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20169549

RESUMO

It is remarkable that the famous écorchés of Honoré Fragonard have survived the centuries to reach us today. Studies carried out by several teams have established details of the technique used by Fragonard that help to explain their longevity. The injection of the vessels was achieved by means of a mixture of mutton tallow and pine resin diluted in essence of turpentine and essential oils. This gave Fragonard a very high success rate. Above all, he did not add pigments to his mixture while injecting the veins, and this facilitated the procedure. The vessels were painted after preservation to give them the vivid colors that we can still see today. Another detail that explains their exceptional conservation is that the varnish used by Fragonard was composed of Venice turpentine, made from larch resin and known to repel insects.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Cadáver , Manejo de Espécimes/história , Anatomia/métodos , Dessecação , Dissecação , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Pintura , Preservação Biológica , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
16.
J Mass Spectrom ; 45(3): 284-96, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20049691

RESUMO

Triacylglycerols (TAGs) provide a challenge for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis because of their complexity. In particular, for dietary, nutritional and metabolic purposes, the positional placement of fatty acids on the glycerol backbone of TAGs is a crucial aspect. To solve this problem, we have investigated the TAGs' fragmentation patterns using an ion trap mass spectrometer. A series of pure regioisomeric pairs of TAGs (POP/PPO, POO/OPO and OSO/SOO) were cationized by Ag(+) after their separation by non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography (NARP-LC) before MS to improve MS sensitivity. Electrospray ionization-MS (ESI-MS) conditions were optimized in order to produce characteristic [M + Ag + AgNO(3)](+) ions from each TAG, which were then fragmented to produce MS/MS spectra and then fragmented further to produce up to MS(5) spectra. The observation of ions produced by LC-MS(5) of on-line Ag(+)-cationized TAG provided unambiguous information on the fatty acid distribution on the glycerol backbone. These strategies of MS to MS(5) experiments were applied to identify components and to determine the regiospecificity of TAG within a complex mixture of lipids in natural oils.

17.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 23(16): 2499-506, 2009 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19603465

RESUMO

The natural (13)C/(12)C isotope composition (delta(13)C) of plants and organic compounds within plant organs is a powerful tool to understand carbon allocation patterns and the regulation of photosynthetic or respiratory metabolism. However, many enzymatic fractionations are currently unknown, thus impeding our understanding of carbon trafficking pathways within plant cells. One of them is the (12)C/(13)C isotope effect associated with invertases (EC 3.2.1.26) that are cornerstone enzymes for Suc metabolism and translocation in plants. Another conundrum of isotopic plant biology is the need to measure accurately the specific delta(13)C of individual carbohydrates. Here, we examined two complementary methods for measuring the delta(13)C value of sucrose, glucose and fructose, that is, off-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification followed by elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) analysis, and gas chromatography-combustion (GC-C)-IRMS. We also used these methods to determine the in vitro (12)C/(13)C isotope effect associated with the yeast invertase. Our results show that, although providing more variable values than HPLC approximately EA-IRMS, and being sensitive to derivatization conditions, the GC-C-IRMS method gives reliable results. When applied to the invertase reaction, both methods indicate that the (12)C/(13)C isotope effect is rather small and it is not affected by the use of heavy water (D(2)O).


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fabaceae/química , beta-Frutofuranosidase/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Cinética , Leveduras/enzimologia
18.
J Chromatogr A ; 1161(1-2): 152-6, 2007 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17583717

RESUMO

A new method for quantitative analyses using an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) is proposed. It is based on the preliminary determination of the calibration curve of an ELSD which correlates coefficient b and loga, the two coefficients from the equation: A=am(b), that characterize the law of the quantitative response for an ELSD. Dilutions of the mixture to be analyzed allow the determination of coefficient b for each component of the mixture. The knowledge of the b value and the experimental relationship correlating b with loga allows to determine the loga value and consequently to quantify each compound of the mixture. This method is an alternative to the quantitative method which uses an internal normalization without any response coefficient. This internal normalization method used with an ELSD provides inaccurate results and this inaccuracy increases when the analytes are in very different proportions. The relevance of the new method proposed in this work lies in the quantification of all the components present in a complex mixture when some of them are not available as standards.


Assuntos
Espalhamento de Radiação , Calibragem , Luz , Padrões de Referência
19.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 43(1): 89-98, 2007 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16860511

RESUMO

The chromatographic performance of several base-deactivated stationary phases was evaluated with a specific chromatographic test. Seven basic test compounds, possessing different physico-chemical properties were injected on different supports with two mobile phases: one at pH 7.0 (acetonitrile-phosphate buffer, 40:60, v/v), and the other at pH 3.0 (acetonitrile-phosphate buffer, 15:85, v/v). Chromatographic parameters obtained under these conditions were treated by principal component analysis (PCA) to separate base deactivated supports according to their silanol activity (pH 7.0 mobile phase) and hydrophobic properties (pH 3.0 mobile phase). The information given by the specific test column evaluation was improved with complementary chemometric tools such as hierarchical cluster analysis. The same base deactivated supports were also tested following a general test procedure issued from the literature and obtained fundamental properties (in particular silanol activity and hydrophobicity) were compared with column evaluation obtained with the specific test: results were in good agreement, although the use of the specific test offered a better differentiation between numerous base-deactivated supports.


Assuntos
Cromatografia/instrumentação , Fenômenos Químicos , Físico-Química , Cromatografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise por Conglomerados , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Indicadores e Reagentes , Tamanho da Partícula , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Silanos/química , Software
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1116(1-2): 109-26, 2006 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16631181

RESUMO

The separation of solutes that differ only in the extent of isotopic substitution of their hydrogen atoms, using either mixtures of isotopically non-modified or perdeuterated solvents as mobile phases, is described. The occurrence of a secondary isotope effect is demonstrated in reversed-phase liquid chromatography, which is independent of the nature of the stationary phase (different octadecyl-bonded silicas, an embedded alkylamide-bonded silica, as well as one polymeric stationary phase were tested), and the water content and the nature of organic modifier of the mobile phase. The separation of 24 structurally different isotopologue pairs (apolar compounds and polar compounds with exchangeable or non-exchangeable hydrogen atoms) is examined using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. It is found that the greater the number of isotopically substituted hydrogen atoms in a given organic solute, the better is the separation of a particular isotopologue pair. The single secondary isotope effect is shown to be dependent on the number of isotopic substitutions. The greater the number of these substitutions, the smaller is the single isotope effect. The single secondary isotope effect is higher for aromatic hydrocarbons than for aliphatic hydrocarbons. A secondary isotope effect is also observed in chiral chromatography and normal-phase liquid chromatography, as well as on changing the nature of the substituting isotope, i.e.: tritium instead of deuterium. Thus, we have demonstrated that the total secondary isotopic effect for hydrogen/tritium is higher than for hydrogen/deuterium. This isotope effect involves only the consequences of changes in interactions due to nuclear motions. Overall this study confirms the predominance of hydrophobic effects in retention processes in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. In reversed-phase liquid chromatography, a secondary isotope effect related to mobile phase composition is also observed. The behaviour of deuterium oxide and water in mobile phases of the same composition (%, w/w) is compared. Independent of the nature of the organic modifier (methanol, acetonitrile or ethanol), the effect of replacing H2O with 2H2O in the mobile phase, is an increase in the retention factors and an improvement in the chromatographic resolution of isotopologue pairs. This increase in the resolution is not accompanied by a change in the chromatographic selectivity. The measurement of liquid-liquid extraction coefficients proves that the effect is mainly due to the modification of the phase ratio. In general the effect of 2H-labelled solvents (2H2O and C2H3CN) as mobile phase components, compared to their isotopically non-modified isomers, can be rationalized on the basis of their lower polarisabilities. Overall the use of perdeuterated rather than isotopically non-modified solvents as mobile phase components leads to the most efficient separation systems.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Deutério/química , Solventes/química , Trítio/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Isótopos , Luz , Espalhamento de Radiação , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
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