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1.
PLoS Genet ; 16(11): e1008802, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226994

RESUMO

The clinical evaluation of a genetic syndrome relies upon recognition of a characteristic pattern of signs or symptoms to guide targeted genetic testing for confirmation of the diagnosis. However, individuals displaying a single phenotype of a complex syndrome may not meet criteria for clinical diagnosis or genetic testing. Here, we present a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) approach to systematically explore the phenotypic expressivity of common and rare alleles in genes associated with four well-described syndromic diseases (Alagille (AS), Marfan (MS), DiGeorge (DS), and Noonan (NS) syndromes) in the general population. Using human phenotype ontology (HPO) terms, we systematically mapped 60 phenotypes related to AS, MS, DS and NS in 337,198 unrelated white British from the UK Biobank (UKBB) based on their hospital admission records, self-administrated questionnaires, and physiological measurements. We performed logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, and the first 5 genetic principal components, for each phenotype and each variant in the target genes (JAG1, NOTCH2 FBN1, PTPN1 and RAS-opathy genes, and genes in the 22q11.2 locus) and performed a gene burden test. Overall, we observed multiple phenotype-genotype correlations, such as the association between variation in JAG1, FBN1, PTPN11 and SOS2 with diastolic and systolic blood pressure; and pleiotropy among multiple variants in syndromic genes. For example, rs11066309 in PTPN11 was significantly associated with a lower body mass index, an increased risk of hypothyroidism and a smaller size for gestational age, all in concordance with NS-related phenotypes. Similarly, rs589668 in FBN1 was associated with an increase in body height and blood pressure, and a reduced body fat percentage as observed in Marfan syndrome. Our findings suggest that the spectrum of associations of common and rare variants in genes involved in syndromic diseases can be extended to individual phenotypes within the general population.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125279

RESUMO

Background - The aortic valve is an important determinant of cardiovascular physiology and anatomic location of common human diseases. Methods - From a sample of 34,287 white British-ancestry participants, we estimated functional aortic valve area by planimetry from prospectively obtained cardiac MRI sequences of the aortic valve. Aortic valve area measurements were submitted to genome-wide association testing, followed by polygenic risk scoring and phenome-wide screening to identify genetic comorbidities. Results - A genome-wide association study of aortic valve area in these UK Biobank participants showed three significant associations, indexed by rs71190365 (chr13:50764607, DLEU1, p=1.8×10-9), rs35991305 (chr12:94191968, CRADD, p=3.4×10-8) and chr17:45013271:C:T (GOSR2, p=5.6×10-8). Replication on an independent set of 8,145 unrelated European-ancestry participants showed consistent effect sizes in all three loci, although rs35991305 did not meet nominal significance. We constructed a polygenic risk score for aortic valve area, which in a separate cohort of 311,728 individuals without imaging demonstrated that smaller aortic valve area is predictive of increased risk for aortic valve disease (Odds Ratio 1.14, p=2.3×10-6). After excluding subjects with a medical diagnosis of aortic valve stenosis (remaining n=308,683 individuals), phenome-wide association of >10,000 traits showed multiple links between the polygenic score for aortic valve disease and key health-related comorbidities involving the cardiovascular system and autoimmune disease. Genetic correlation analysis supports a shared genetic etiology with between aortic valve area and birthweight along with other cardiovascular conditions. Conclusions - These results illustrate the use of automated phenotyping of cardiac imaging data from the general population to investigate the genetic etiology of aortic valve disease, perform clinical prediction, and uncover new clinical and genetic correlates of cardiac anatomy.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4432, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887874

RESUMO

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-atherosclerotic cause of myocardial infarction (MI), typically in young women. We undertook a genome-wide association study of SCAD (Ncases = 270/Ncontrols = 5,263) and identified and replicated an association of rs12740679 at chromosome 1q21.2 (Pdiscovery+replication = 2.19 × 10-12, OR = 1.8) influencing ADAMTSL4 expression. Meta-analysis of discovery and replication samples identified associations with P < 5 × 10-8 at chromosome 6p24.1 in PHACTR1, chromosome 12q13.3 in LRP1, and in females-only, at chromosome 21q22.11 near LINC00310. A polygenic risk score for SCAD was associated with (1) higher risk of SCAD in individuals with fibromuscular dysplasia (P = 0.021, OR = 1.82 [95% CI: 1.09-3.02]) and (2) lower risk of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and MI in the UK Biobank (P = 1.28 × 10-17, HR = 0.91 [95% CI :0.89-0.93], for MI) and Million Veteran Program (P = 9.33 × 10-36, OR = 0.95 [95% CI: 0.94-0.96], for CAD; P = 3.35 × 10-6, OR = 0.96 [95% CI: 0.95-0.98] for MI). Here we report that SCAD-related MI and atherosclerotic MI exist at opposite ends of a genetic risk spectrum, inciting MI with disparate underlying vascular biology.


Assuntos
Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/genética , Genes Neoplásicos , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Feminino , Displasia Fibromuscular/complicações , Displasia Fibromuscular/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Vasculares/genética
5.
Circulation ; 142(17): 1633-1646, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality; however, its genetic determinants remain incompletely defined. In total, 10 previously identified risk loci explain a small fraction of AAA heritability. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ≈18 million DNA sequence variants with AAA (7642 cases and 172 172 controls) in veterans of European ancestry with independent replication in up to 4972 cases and 99 858 controls. We then used mendelian randomization to examine the causal effects of blood pressure on AAA. We examined the association of AAA risk variants with aneurysms in the lower extremity, cerebral, and iliac arterial beds, and derived a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) to identify a subset of the population at greater risk for disease. RESULTS: Through a genome-wide association study, we identified 14 novel loci, bringing the total number of known significant AAA loci to 24. In our mendelian randomization analysis, we demonstrate that a genetic increase of 10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.24-1.66]; P=1.6×10-6), as opposed to systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.97-1.15]; P=0.2), likely has a causal relationship with AAA development. We observed that 19 of 24 AAA risk variants associate with aneurysms in at least 1 other vascular territory. A 29-variant PRS was strongly associated with AAA (odds ratioPRS, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.18-1.36]; PPRS=2.7×10-11 per SD increase in PRS), independent of family history and smoking risk factors (odds ratioPRS+family history+smoking, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.14-1.35]; PPRS=1.27×10-6). Using this PRS, we identified a subset of the population with AAA prevalence greater than that observed in screening trials informing current guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: We identify novel AAA genetic associations with therapeutic implications and identify a subset of the population at significantly increased genetic risk of AAA independent of family history. Our data suggest that extending current screening guidelines to include testing to identify those with high polygenic AAA risk, once the cost of genotyping becomes comparable with that of screening ultrasound, would significantly increase the yield of current screening at reasonable cost.

6.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 680-691, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541925

RESUMO

We investigated type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic susceptibility via multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), DIAMANTE, Biobank Japan and other studies. We report 568 associations, including 286 autosomal, 7 X-chromosomal and 25 identified in ancestry-specific analyses that were previously unreported. Transcriptome-wide association analysis detected 3,568 T2D associations with genetically predicted gene expression in 687 novel genes; of these, 54 are known to interact with FDA-approved drugs. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was strongly associated with increased risk of T2D-related retinopathy and modestly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and neuropathy. We investigated the genetic etiology of T2D-related vascular outcomes in the MVP and observed statistical SNP-T2D interactions at 13 variants, including coronary heart disease (CHD), CKD, PAD and neuropathy. These findings may help to identify potential therapeutic targets for T2D and genomic pathways that link T2D to vascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Afro-Americanos , Cromossomos Humanos X , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GSTM1 and GSTT1 are involved in detoxification of xenobiotics, products of oxidative stress and in steroid hormones metabolism. We investigated whether GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletion was associated with DTC risk and explored interaction with non-genetic risk factors of DTC. METHODS: The study included 661 DTC cases and 736 controls from two case-control studies conducted in France and New Caledonia. Odds ratios (OR) and their confidence interval (CI) for DTC associated with GST genotypes, alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, body mass index and hormonal factors were calculated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Results are presented for Europeans and Melanesians combined, as no heterogeneity between groups was detected. We found that DTC risk increased with obesity and decrease with alcohol drinking. After stratification by gene deletion status, the OR for obesity was 5.75, (95%CI 2.25-14.7) among individuals with GSTT1 and GSTM1-deleted genotype, and 1.26, (95%CI 0.89-1.77) in carriers of both genes (p-interaction = 0.02). The OR for drinking ≥1 glass/week was 0.33 (95%CI 0.15-0.74) in GSTT1-null individuals while it was 1.01 (95%CI 0.67-1.52) in non-null carriers of the gene (p-interaction = 0.01). No interaction between GST genotypes and other non-genetic risk factors was detected. CONCLUSION: GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes may modulate the DTC risk associated with BMI and alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Glutationa Transferase/genética , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Genótipo , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Caledônia , Obesidade/complicações , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia
9.
Circulation ; 139(16): 1889-1899, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although lower-complexity cardiac malformations constitute the majority of adult congenital heart disease (ACHD), the long-term risks of adverse cardiovascular events and relationship with conventional risk factors in this population are poorly understood. We aimed to quantify the risk of adverse cardiovascular events associated with lower-complexity ACHD that is unmeasured by conventional risk factors. METHODS: A multitiered classification algorithm was used to select individuals with lower-complexity ACHD and individuals without ACHD for comparison among >500 000 British adults in the UK Biobank. ACHD diagnoses were subclassified as isolated aortic valve and noncomplex defects. Time-to-event analyses were conducted for the primary end points of fatal or nonfatal acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation and a secondary combined end point for major adverse cardiovascular events. Maximum follow-up time for the study period was 22 years with retrospectively and prospectively collected data from the UK Biobank. RESULTS: We identified 2006 individuals with lower-complexity ACHD and 497 983 unexposed individuals in the UK Biobank (median age at enrollment, 58 [interquartile range, 51-63] years). Of the ACHD-exposed group, 59% were male, 51% were current or former smokers, 30% were obese, and 69%, 41%, and 7% were diagnosed or treated for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, respectively. After adjustment for 12 measured cardiovascular risk factors, ACHD remained strongly associated with the primary end points, with hazard ratios ranging from 2.0 (95% CI, 1.5-2.8; P<0.001) for acute coronary syndrome to 13.0 (95% CI, 9.4-18.1; P<0.001) for heart failure. ACHD-exposed individuals with ≤2 cardiovascular risk factors had a 29% age-adjusted incidence rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, in contrast to 13% in individuals without ACHD with ≥5 risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with lower-complexity ACHD had a higher burden of adverse cardiovascular events relative to the general population that was unaccounted for by conventional cardiovascular risk factors. These findings highlight the need for closer surveillance of patients with mild to moderate ACHD and further investigation into management and mechanisms of cardiovascular risk unique to this growing population of high-risk adults.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 48: 78-84, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426980

RESUMO

The three times higher incidence of thyroid cancer in women compared to men points to a role of female sex hormones in its etiology. However the effects of these factors are poorly understood. We analyzed the association between thyroid cancer and hormonal and reproductive factors among women enrolled in CATHY, a population-based case-control study conducted in France. The study included 430 cases of papillary thyroid cancer and 505 controls frequency-matched on age and area of residence. The odds ratios for thyroid cancer increased with age at menarche (p trend 0.05). Postmenopausal women were at increased risk, as compared to premenopausal women, particularly if menopause followed an ovariectomy, and for women with age at menopause <55years. In addition, use of oral contraceptives and menopausal hormone therapy reduced the association with thyroid cancer by about one third, and breastfeeding by 27%. Overall, these findings provide evidence that the risk of thyroid cancer increases with later age at menarche and after menopause, and decreases with use of oral contraceptives and menopausal hormone therapy. These findings confirm an implication of hormonal factors in papillary thyroid cancer risk, whose mechanisms need to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/complicações , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/métodos , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , França , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , História Reprodutiva , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide
11.
Int J Cancer ; 139(3): 617-27, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26991144

RESUMO

Incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma varies considerably between countries and ethnic groups, with particularly high incidence rates in Melanesians of New Caledonia. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has a familial relative risk higher than other cancers, highlighting the contribution of inherited factors to the disease. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified several DTC susceptibility loci. The most robust associations were reported at loci 9q22 (rs965513 and rs1867277) and 14q13 (rs944289 and rs116909734). In this study, we performed a fine-mapping study of the two gene regions among Europeans and Melanesians from Metropolitan France and New Caledonia. We examined 81 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 9q22 and 561 SNPs at 14q13 in Europeans (625 cases/776 controls) and in Melanesians (244 cases/189 controls). The association with the four SNPs previously identified in GWAS was replicated in Europeans while only rs944289 was replicated in Melanesians. Among Europeans, we found that the two SNPs previously reported at 9q22 were not independently associated to DTC and that rs965513 was the predominant signal; at 14q13, we showed that the haplotype rs944289[C]-rs116909374[C]-rs999460[T] was significantly associated with DTC risk and that the association with rs116909374 differed by smoking status (p-interaction = 0.03). Among Melanesians, a new independent signal was observed at 14q13 for rs1755774 which is strongly correlated to rs2787423; this latter is potentially a functional variant. Significant interactions with parity (p < 0.05) and body mass index were observed for rs1755774 and rs2787423. This study contributed to a better characterization of the DTC loci 9q22 and 14q13 in Europeans and in Melanesians and has identified novel variants to be prioritized for further functional studies.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , França , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Melanesia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Caledônia , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
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