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1.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 101, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and was declared a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. This study aimed to assess the effects of temperature and long-term exposure to air pollution on the COVID-19 mortality rate at the sub-national level in France. METHODS: This cross-sectional study considered different periods of the COVID-19 pandemic from May to December 2020. It included 96 departments (or NUTS 3) in mainland France. Data on long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5), annual mean temperature, health services, health risk, and socio-spatial factors were used as covariates in negative binomial regression analysis to assess their influence on the COVID-19 mortality rate. All data were obtained from open-access sources. RESULTS: The cumulative COVID-19 mortality rate by department increased during the study period in metropolitan France-from 19.8/100,000 inhabitants (standard deviation (SD): 20.1) on 1 May 2020, to 65.4/100,000 inhabitants (SD: 39.4) on 31 December 2020. The rate was the highest in the departments where the annual average of long-term exposure to PM2.5 was high. The negative binomial regression models showed that a 1 µg/m3 increase in the annual average PM2.5 concentration was associated with a statistically significant increase in the COVID-19 mortality rate, corresponding to 24.4%, 25.8%, 26.4%, 26.7%, 27.1%, 25.8%, and 15.1% in May, June, July, August, September, October, and November, respectively. This association was no longer significant on 1 and 31 December 2020. The association between temperature and the COVID-19 mortality rate was only significant on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020. An increase of 1 °C in the average temperature was associated with a decrease in the COVID-19-mortality rate, corresponding to 9.7%, 13.3%, and 14.5% on 1 November, 1 December, and 31 December 2020, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study found significant associations between the COVID-19 mortality rate and long-term exposure to air pollution and temperature. However, these associations tended to decrease with the persistence of the pandemic and massive spread of the disease across the entire country.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperatura
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256857, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic began in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and quickly spread to the rest of the world. This study aimed to analyse the associations between the COVID-19 mortality rate in hospitals, the availability of health services, and socio-spatial and health risk factors at department level. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This spatial cross-sectional study used cumulative mortality data due to the COVID-19 pandemic in hospitals until 30 November 2020 as a main outcome, across 96 departments of mainland France. Data concerning health services, health risk factors, and socio-spatial factors were used as independent variables. Independently, we performed negative binomial, spatial and geographically weighted regression models. Our results revealed substantial geographic disparities. The spatial exploratory analysis showed a global positive spatial autocorrelation in each wave indicating a spatial dependence of the COVID-19 deaths across departments. In first wave about 75% of COVID-19 deaths were concentrated in departments of five regions compared to a total of 13 regions. The COVID-19 mortality rate was associated with the physicians density, and not the number of resuscitation beds. Socio-spatial factors were only associated with the COVID-19 mortality rate in first wave compared to wave 2. For example, the COVID-19 mortality rate increased by 35.69% for departments densely populated. Health risk factors were associated with the COVID-19 mortality rate depending on each wave. This study had inherent limitations to the ecological analysis as ecological bias risks and lack of individual data. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has spread more rapidly and takes more severe forms in environments where there is already a high level of vulnerability due to social and health factors. This study showed a different dissemination pattern of COVID-19 mortality between the two waves: a spatial non-stationarity followed by a spatial stationarity in the relationships between the COVID-19 mortality rate and its potential drivers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Pandemias , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial
3.
Data Brief ; : 106939, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686370

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has hit humanity, straining health care systems, economies, and governments worldwide. In one of the responses to the pandemic, a big global effort has been mounted to collect, analyze, and make data publicly available. However, many of the existing COVID-19 public datasets are (i) aggregated at country level, and (ii) tend not to bring the COVID-19-specific data coupled with socio-demographic, economic, public policy, health, pollution and environmental factors, all of which may be key elements to study the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 and its severity. To aid the evaluation of the determinants and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic at a large scale, we present here a new dataset with socio-demographic, economic, public policy, health, pollution and environmental factors for the European Union at the small regions level (NUTS3). The database is freely accessible at http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/2ghxnrkr9p.4. This dataset can help to monitor the COVID-19 mortality and infections at the sub-national level and enable analysis that may inform future policymaking.

4.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 17(2): 136-147, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28696137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are important causes of death, morbidity, and years of potential life lost in most developed countries. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess trends in knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among patients five years after coronary angiography and to investigate the impact of educational level on knowledge level. METHODS: The study included 1289 of 4391 patients admitted for cardiac events in 2008/2009 at the National Institute for Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology, Luxembourg. A follow-up study was conducted by post five years later (2013/2014). Data were obtained from 1837 of the contacted patients (with 548 reported deaths) (response rate=42%). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between educational level and knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors. Educational level was used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status. RESULTS: In total, 39.9% of patients could list at least three risk factors in 2013/2014, a much higher percentage than the 8.5% observed during the initial survey. In both sexes, knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors increased between 2008/2009 and 2013/2014. Patients with higher educational levels were more likely (odds ratio=2.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.63-3.34) to cite at least three risk factors than patients with lower education levels. CONCLUSION: Knowledge level was associated with educational level, and improved for all educational groups five years after coronary angiography. Educational differences in knowledge persisted, but the gaps decreased. Improving knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors among patients with cardiovascular disease will help increase awareness and promote lifestyle changes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Luxemburgo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
BMC Public Health ; 17(1): 925, 2017 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cardiovascular disease who underwent coronary angiography at the National Institute of Cardiac Surgery and Cardiological Intervention (INCCI) in Luxembourg were surveyed for cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, tobacco consumption). In 2013/14, their life satisfaction (LS) was also assessed. Our aim was to analyse the relationships between LS on one hand and longitudinal changes in CVRF between 2008/09 and 2013/14 and socioeconomic factors on the other. METHODS: 1289 patients completed a self-administered questionnaire. Life Satisfaction, originally recorded on a 1 to 10 scale of complete satisfaction was dichotomized into two groups: ≤ 7 and. >7. We then performed logistic multiple regressions. The event on which the probability was modelled, was LS > 7. Data were adjusted on age, sex and income. Longitudinal changes in CVRF were assessed by their presence or absence in 2008/09 and 2013/14 (categories: 'no-no'; 'no-yes'; 'yes-no'; 'yes-yes'). RESULTS: Physical activity in 2008/09 and 2013/14 was associated with a lower LS (OR = 0.469). The same pattern was observed for obesity and physical inactivity: lower LS was related to the presence of these risks (yes-yes; no-yes) in 2013/14 (mean OR for obesity and physical inactivity in 2013/14: 0.587 and 0.485 respectively), whereas their presence or absence in 2008/09 was not related to LS. Finally, patients who suffered from diabetes in 2008 were more likely to experience a decline in LS, particularly if their diabetes was less severe in 2013/14 (OR = 0.462). CONCLUSIONS: The lowest LS was observed when obesity or physical inactivity was present in 2013/14, newly or otherwise. The same trend was seen in diabetes among patients who had it in 2008/9, but were less severely affected in 2013/14. In secondary prevention, CVD-related upheavals could be minimised if professionals and patients became 'Partners in Healthcare' to better adhere to healthy lifestyles, as well as to reduce CVRF, and thereby enhance LS.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 17(1): 107, 2017 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28476143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking contributes to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), a leading cause of death and a large source of healthcare costs in Western countries. We examined the association between income and smoking cessation among smokers who underwent coronary angiography at the National Institute for Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology in Luxembourg. METHODS: Data were derived from a follow-up study conducted in 2013/2014 among 4391 patients (of which 1001 patients were smokers) at the time of coronary angiography in 2008/2009. Four logistic regression models were applied. In three models, the predictor was income and the covariates were sex, age, nationality, marital status, diagnosis, body mass, physical activity, and awareness of tobacco as a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. In the other model, the predictor was an interaction term composed of income and awareness of tobacco as a CV risk factor; the other variables were covariates. RESULTS: Among patients who were current smokers at baseline, 43.2% were current smokers at follow-up and 56.8% had quit smoking. In the multivariate logistic models, quitting smoking was associated with income even after controlling for socio-demographic, diagnostic, and behavioural risk factors. In the full model, the odds of quitting smoking among patients in the two highest income categories remained significant when compared to patients in the lowest income category: odds ratio (OR) = 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-6.1 and OR = 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2-6.5, respectively. In the full model with an interaction term, quitting smoking was only associated with income when patients knew tobacco was a CV risk factor. The odds of smoking cessation were 5.62 (95% CI: 2.13-14.86) and 3.65 (95% CI: 1.51-8.86) times for patients with annual incomes of 36,000-53,999€ and ≥54,000€, respectively), compared to those for patients with an annual income of <36,000€. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the influence of income on behaviours regarding CVD risk factors after a major CVD event. Patients in the highest income groups were more likely to quit smoking, although only when they were aware of tobacco as a CV risk factor. Therefore, intervention strategies targeting lower income groups should be implemented in major health facilities.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Angiografia Coronária , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Renda , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Conscientização , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/economia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia
7.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 14(1): 165, 2016 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27912774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to measure gender differences in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among men and women patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and to assess the impact of socioeconomic factors on HRQOL between men and women, 5 years after a coronary angiography. METHODS: The study included 1,289 out of 4,391 patients who had undergone an angiography in the National Institute for Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology, Luxembourg in 2008/2009. Four indicators of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire (Self-rated health, Quality of life, Physical health, and Psychological health) were used in this study as interest variables. To assess the socioeconomic inequalities in HRQOL between men and women, general linear models were constructed for every indicator, with educational level and living conditions as predictors, and demographic variables, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular events as covariates. RESULTS: Women were older than men (71.5 versus 68.1, p <0.0001) and less likely to be married. HRQOL was significantly different between men and women despite the fact they had the same socioeconomic status. The average score for overall health was 3.7/5 for men versus 3.5/5 for women; similarly, the life quality score was 3.8/5 for men versus 3.6/5 for women. Education level and living conditions were associated with lower HRQOL scores in men and women. CONCLUSION: The findings showed that women have lower HRQOL than men regarding self-rated health, quality of life, and the WHOQOL-BREF physical and psychological domains 5 years after a coronary angiography. Socioeconomic inequalities affect HRQOL, and their influence was similar in both men and women. Socioeconomic inequalities in HRQOL in women and men with CVD are strong 5 years after a coronary angiography. Taking into account differences in gender and socioeconomic status in intervention strategies to substantially reduce the differences observed between women and men could help improve the effectiveness of secondary prevention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0157321, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27355320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients of the National Institute of Cardiac Surgery and Interventional Cardiology in Luxembourg who underwent coronary angiography were surveyed for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and overweight/obesity between 2008/9 and 2013/4. For each cardiovascular risk factor (CVRFs), we analysed the associations between the quality of the patients' communication with the medical practitioner and their adherence declared to preventive behaviours. METHODS: 1,289 completed a self-administered questionnaire on communication with the medical practitioner (P'Com-5 items scale; Cronbach 0.87). 61.8% stopped smoking, 57.9% reduced or stopped their consumption of salt, 71.9% of fat, and 62.8% of sugar, and whereas 65% increased their consumption of fruit and vegetables and 19.8% increased their physical activity. Around 37% reported having made changes following their doctor's advice. 90% were followed by a cardiologist and 95.9% by an attending physician. RESULTS: No link was observed between declaration of physical activity, smoking, fats, and quality of communication. Significant associations: for increased consumption of fruit and vegetables was linked with the quality of doctor-patient communication when patients were overweight (OR = 1.081), obese (OR = 1.130), hypercholesterolemic (OR = 1.102), hypertensive (OR = 1.084) or diabetic (OR = 1.103). Reduction in salt intake was linked only to patients with hypertension (OR = 1.102), whereas reduction or cessation of sugar consumption was linked to overweight (OR = 1.093), and more so obese, (OR = 1.106), hypercholesterolemics (OR = 1.103) and diabetics (OR = 1.173). CONCLUSIONS: Good doctor-patient communication was related to nutrition, particularly increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Accurate perception of CVRFs by both patients and medical practitioners is essential for CV protection. The aim of instructing patients is to encourage them to make informed decisions about how to change their lifestyle. In routinely, P'Com-5 scale can collect data to assess the improvement of the professional skills. It can be used in medical training to enhance the quality of the therapeutic communication, especially for nutritional coaching, and to evaluate its efficacy in reducing CVRFs.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Comunicação , Angiografia Coronária , Cooperação do Paciente , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Idoso , Cardiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Luxemburgo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 11(4): e0153966, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27100293

RESUMO

This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union--Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fumar/tendências , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 13: 149, 2015 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26385815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between self-reported weight change, socio-economic status, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes, 5 years after they underwent coronary angiography. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2014, 1873 of 4391 patients (319 with diabetes) who underwent coronary angiography between 2008 and 2009 participated in a follow-up study. Three out of four domains of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF (physical health, psychological health and social relationships) were surveyed during the follow-up period. To assess the relationship between weight change and HRQOL, generalized linear models were constructed for every dimension of the WHOQOL-BREF, with educational level as a predictor and sex, age, marital status, smoking status, hypertension, cholesterol, ischemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and stable angina pectoris as covariates. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 70 years and almost three-quarters of the patients (72.7 %) were men. During the 12 months preceding the follow-up survey, 22.6 % of the patients reported weight loss, 20 % reported weight gain, and 57.4 % reported no weight change. There were significant differences in the HRQOL scores between patients who reported weight loss and those who reported either weight gain or unchanged weight. The most affected domains were physical and psychological health, with higher scores for patients who reported weight loss (54.7 and 67.2, respectively) than those who reported weight gain (46.3 and 58.5, respectively). The generalized linear model confirmed higher HRQOL scores among patients who reported weight loss and revealed an association between the HRQOL score and education level. CONCLUSION: Weight change and education level were associated with HRQOL in patients with diabetes. Self-reported weight loss and no weight change were positively associated with HRQOL in patients with diabetes, while weight gain was negatively associated with HRQOL.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Obesidade/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Escolaridade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Luxemburgo , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Autorrelato , Classe Social , Ganho de Peso
11.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 668, 2015 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26174092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Five years after coronary angiography, life satisfaction (LS) among patients may be related to incidents of cardiovascular diseases, risk factors and unhealthy behaviours and socioeconomic conditions, but their respective influence remains unclear. Our aim is to analyze LS and its relationships with those factors. METHODS: Among the 4,391 patients initially contacted, 547 deaths were reported and 209 had an invalid address. In 2013-2014, 3,635 patients who underwent coronary angiography in 2008-2009 at the National Institute of Cardiac Surgery and Cardiological Intervention (INCCI) in Luxembourg were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire assessing LS [1-10] and other variables. Data were analysed via multiple regression models adjusted initially on age, sex and income, and for a second time with the addition of all CVRF. RESULTS: LS of 1,289 volunteers (69.2 years) was 7.3/10. Most were men, Luxembourgish, employees and manual workers, had secondary education and an income of 36,000 euros or more per year. LS was lowest in female patients, and those with a low to middle income. Patients who lived in a couple had the best LS. Patients with a history in the previous 5 years of physical inactivity (regression coefficient: -0.903), angina pectoris (rc -0.843), obesity (rc -0.512), diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia, were more likely to have lower LS. The previous associations were mostly maintained on the second analysis, with the exceptions of diabetes and obesity. In addition, patients who stopped smoking because of peer pressure (rc -0.011) had a lower LS. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that LS was lowest among female patients calls for further research on symptoms, and potential risk factors. Also, certain patient profiles are linked with low LS: 'inclined abstainers' who intended to modify their behaviours, but could not do so, and 'disinclined abstainers' who had no intention of changing and were insufficiently concerned to do so. Patients who stopped smoking and perceived it as unpleasant also had low LS. 'Disinclined actors' were those patients who had to adjust their lifestyles, but were ambivalent about their intentions and the behaviour, which they continued. Health promotion programs would benefit from targeting factors that moderate the unfavourable intention-behaviour relationship and can help enhance LS.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária/psicologia , Angiografia Coronária/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Satisfação Pessoal , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Int J Equity Health ; 13: 7, 2014 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24476233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral health is an important component of people's general health status. Many studies have shown that socioeconomic status is an important determinant of access to health services. In the present study, we explored the inequality and socioeconomic factors associated with people's non-use of dental care across Europe. METHODS: We obtained data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey conducted by Eurostat in 2007. These cross-sectional data were collected from people aged 16 years and older in 24 European countries, except those living in long-term care facilities. The variable of interest was the prevalence of non-use of dental care while needed. We used the direct method of standardisation by age and sex to eliminate confounders in the data. Socioeconomic inequalities in the non-use of dental care were measured through differences in prevalence, the relative concentration index (RCI), and the relative index of inequality (RII). We compared the results among countries and conducted standard and multilevel logistic regression analyses to examine the socioeconomic factors associated with the non-use of dental care while needed. RESULTS: The results revealed significant socio-economic inequalities in the non-use of dental care across Europe, the magnitudes of which depended on the measure of inequality used. For example, inequalities in the prevalence of non-use among education levels according to the RCI ranged from 0.005 (in the United Kingdom) to -0.271 (Denmark) for men and from -0.009 (Poland) to 0.176 (Spain) for women, whereas the RII results ranged from 1.21 (Poland) to 11.50 (Slovakia) for men and from 1.62 (Poland) to 4.70 (Belgium) for women. Furthermore, the level-2 variance (random effects) was significantly different from zero, indicating the presence of heterogeneity in the probability of the non-use of needed dental care at the country level. CONCLUSION: Overall, our study revealed considerable socioeconomic inequalities in the non-use of dental care at both the individual (intra-country) and collective (inter-country) levels. Therefore, to be most effective, policies to reduce this social inequality across Europe should address both levels.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 20(5): 872-9, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22508692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to improve their risk profile, individuals need to be aware of the existence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. The awareness of CV risk factors has not yet been studied in patients undergoing coronary angiography. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 4,500 patients undergoing coronary angiography were asked to complete a questionnaire before the procedure. The patients were asked about their economic status, their education, their source of health information and were also asked to name CV risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) (87%) and CV risk factors was high. Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were the two most common CV risk factors and were found in two thirds of the patients. There were significant differences in the awareness of risk factors across the different levels of education. Only 8% of the men and 7% of the women could cite at least three risk factors. This percentage ranged from 4% of the patients with primary level of education to 11% and 20% of the patients with secondary and university levels of education, respectively (p < 0.001). More than 1 out of 10 patients did not know any CV risk factor. Smoking and hypercholesterolemia were the best identified CV risk factors in contrast to diabetes and hypertension. The primary care physician was the major source of information across all levels of education. CONCLUSION: Awareness of CV risk factors is low in this high-risk population and associated with strong social inequalities. This information is alarming and will have to be addressed in order to improve outcomes in patients with CAD.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 5: 467, 2012 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22931792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are becoming increasingly critical problems in most developed countries. Approximately 20% of adults in most European countries are obese. This study examines the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Luxembourg and their association with different demographic, socioeconomic (SES), and behavioural factors. METHODS: The data used in this study were taken from 2 surveys on household income and living conditions conducted in 1995 and 2007. The target population was household residents aged 16 years and older, and body mass index (BMI) data were self-reported. Average BMI, overweight, and obesity prevalence rates were calculated according to each demographic (gender, nationality, marital status), SES (educational level, profession, and place of residence), and behavioural (physical activity and diet) factors. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to measure the relationship between obesity and demographic, SES, and behavioural factors. All analyses were conducted according to gender, and data used were weighted. RESULTS: Between 1995 and 2007, the average BMI remained nearly constant among men and women in the entire study population. Obesity prevalence increased by 24.5% through the study period (14.3% in 1995 to 17.8% in 2007). Obesity prevalence increased by 18.5% for men (15.1% in 1995 to 17.9% in 2007) and by 30% for women (13.6% in 1995 to 17.7% in 2007). Between 1995 and 2007, obesity increased sharply by 48.2% (from 11% to 16.3%) in Portuguese men, 76.7% (from 13.3% to 23.5%) in Portuguese women, 79.7% (from 17.2% to 30.9%) in widowed men, and 84.3% (from 12.1% to 22.3%) in divorced women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the relationship between the educational level and obesity was not statistically significant for men, but was significant for women. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in Luxembourg and has changed slightly in recent years. SES inequalities in obesity exist and are most compelling among women. The fight against obesity should focus on education, with emphasis on the socially disadvantaged segment of the population.


Assuntos
Obesidade/economia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Coleta de Dados , Países Desenvolvidos , Dieta , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Luxemburgo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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