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1.
Geroscience ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428109

RESUMO

SMAD4 encodes a member of the SMAD family of proteins involved in the TGF-ß signaling pathway. Potentially heritable, autosomal dominant, gain-of-function heterozygous variants of SMAD4 cause a rare developmental disorder, the Myhre syndrome, which is associated with a wide range of developmental and post-developmental phenotypes that we now characterize as a novel segmental progeroid syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing of a patient referred to our International Registry of Werner Syndrome revealed a heterozygous p.Arg496Cys variant of the SMAD4 gene. To investigate the role of SMAD4 mutations in accelerated senescence, we generated cellular models overexpressing either wild-type SMAD4 or mutant SMAD4-R496C in normal skin fibroblasts. We found that cells expressing the SMAD4-R496C mutant exhibited decreased proliferation and elevated expression of cellular senescence and inflammatory markers, including IL-6, IFNγ, and a TGF-ß target gene, PAI-1. Here we show that transient exposure to TGF-ß, an inflammatory cytokine, followed by chronic IFNγ stimulation, accelerated rates of senescence that were associated with increased DNA damage foci and SMAD4 expression. TGF-ß, IFNγ, or combinations of both were not sufficient to reduce proliferation rates of fibroblasts. In contrast, TGF-ß alone was able to induce preadipocyte senescence via induction of the mTOR protein. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin mitigated TGF-ß-induced expression of p21, p16, and DNA damage foci and improved replicative potential of preadipocytes, supporting the cell-specific response to this cytokine. These findings collectively suggest that persistent DNA damage and cross-talk between TGF-ß/IFNγ pathways contribute to a series of molecular events leading to cellular senescence and a segmental progeroid syndrome.

2.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(2): 1332-1344, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657444

RESUMO

Cell stress may give rise to insuperable growth arrest, which is defined as cellular senescence. Stenotic kidney (STK) ischemia and injury induced by renal artery stenosis (RAS) may be associated with cellular senescence. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) decrease some forms of STK injury, but their ability to reverse senescence in RAS remains unknown. We hypothesized that RAS evokes STK senescence, which would be ameliorated by MSCs. Mice were studied after 4 weeks of RAS, RAS treated with adipose tissue-derived MSCs 2 weeks earlier, or sham. STK senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) activity was measured. Protein and gene expression was used to assess senescence and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and staining for renal fibrosis, inflammation, and capillary density. In addition, senescence was assessed as p16+ and p21+ urinary exosomes in patients with renovascular hypertension (RVH) without or 3 months after autologous adipose tissue-derived MSC delivery, and in healthy volunteers (HV). In RAS mice, STK SA-ß-Gal activity increased, and senescence and SASP marker expression was markedly elevated. MSCs improved renal function, fibrosis, inflammation, and capillary density, and attenuated SA-ß-Gal activity, but most senescence and SASP levels remained unchanged. Congruently, in human RVH, p21+ urinary exosomes were elevated compared to HV, and only slightly improved by MSC, whereas p16+ exosomes remained unchanged. Therefore, RAS triggers renal senescence in both mice and human subjects. MSCs decrease renal injury, but only partly mitigate renal senescence. These observations support exploration of targeted senolytic therapy in RAS.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(23): 2002611, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304768

RESUMO

Aging is a physiological decline in both structural homeostasis and functional integrity, progressively affecting organismal health. A major hallmark of aging is the accumulation of senescent cells, which have entered a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest after experiencing inherent or environmental stresses. Although cellular senescence is essential in several physiological events, it plays a detrimental role in a large array of age-related pathologies. Recent biomedical advances in specifically targeting senescent cells to improve healthy aging, or alternatively, postpone natural aging and age-related diseases, a strategy termed senotherapy, have attracted substantial interest in both scientific and medical communities. Challenges for aging research are highlighted and potential avenues that can be leveraged for therapeutic interventions to control aging and age-related disorders in the current era of precision medicine.

4.
Nat Metab ; 2(11): 1284-1304, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199925

RESUMO

Decreased NAD+ levels have been shown to contribute to metabolic dysfunction during aging. NAD+ decline can be partially prevented by knockout of the enzyme CD38. However, it is not known how CD38 is regulated during aging, and how its ecto-enzymatic activity impacts NAD+ homeostasis. Here we show that an increase in CD38 in white adipose tissue (WAT) and the liver during aging is mediated by accumulation of CD38+ immune cells. Inflammation increases CD38 and decreases NAD+. In addition, senescent cells and their secreted signals promote accumulation of CD38+ cells in WAT, and ablation of senescent cells or their secretory phenotype decreases CD38, partially reversing NAD+ decline. Finally, blocking the ecto-enzymatic activity of CD38 can increase NAD+ through a nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)-dependent process. Our findings demonstrate that senescence-induced inflammation promotes accumulation of CD38 in immune cells that, through its ecto-enzymatic activity, decreases levels of NMN and NAD+.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4289, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855397

RESUMO

Older organs represent an untapped potential to close the gap between demand and supply in organ transplantation but are associated with age-specific responses to injury and increased immunogenicity, thereby aggravating transplant outcomes. Here we show that cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mt-DNA) released by senescent cells accumulates with aging and augments immunogenicity. Ischemia reperfusion injury induces a systemic increase of cf-mt-DNA that promotes dendritic cell-mediated, age-specific inflammatory responses. Comparable events are observed clinically, with the levels of cf-mt-DNA elevated in older deceased organ donors, and with the isolated cf-mt-DNA capable of activating human dendritic cells. In experimental models, treatment of old donor animals with senolytics clear senescent cells and diminish cf-mt-DNA release, thereby dampening age-specific immune responses and prolonging the survival of old cardiac allografts comparable to young donor organs. Collectively, we identify accumulating cf-mt-DNA as a key factor in inflamm-aging and present senolytics as a potential approach to improve transplant outcomes and availability.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/efeitos adversos , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Órgãos/métodos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Adulto , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/imunologia , Doadores de Tecidos
6.
Aging Cell ; 19(10): e13219, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856419

RESUMO

Adipose tissue is recognized as a major source of systemic inflammation with age, driving age-related tissue dysfunction and pathogenesis. Macrophages (Mφ) are central to these changes yet adipose tissue Mφ (ATMs) from aged mice remain poorly characterized. To identify biomarkers underlying changes in aged adipose tissue, we performed an unbiased RNA-seq analysis of ATMs from young (8-week-old) and healthy aged (80-week-old) mice. One of the genes identified, V-set immunoglobulin-domain-containing 4 (VSIG4/CRIg), encodes a Mφ-associated complement receptor and B7 family-related immune checkpoint protein. Here, we demonstrate that Vsig4 expression is highly upregulated with age in perigonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) in two mouse strains (inbred C57BL/6J and outbred NIH Swiss) independent of gender. The accumulation of VSIG4 was mainly attributed to a fourfold increase in the proportion of VSIG4+ ATMs (13%-52%). In a longitudinal study, VSIG4 expression in gWAT showed a strong correlation with age within a cohort of male and female mice and correlated strongly with physiological frailty index (PFI, a multi-parameter assessment of health) in male mice. Our results indicate that VSIG4 is a novel biomarker of aged murine ATMs. VSIG4 expression was also found to be elevated in other aging tissues (e.g., thymus) and was strongly induced in tumor-adjacent stroma in cases of spontaneous and xenograft lung cancer models. VSIG4 expression was recently associated with cancer and several inflammatory diseases with diagnostic and prognostic potential in both mice and humans. Further investigation is required to determine whether VSIG4-positive Mφ contribute to immunosenescence and/or systemic age-related deficits.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752135

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is a key component of human aging that can be induced by a range of stimuli, including DNA damage, cellular stress, telomere shortening, and the activation of oncogenes. Senescence is generally regarded as a tumour suppressive process, both by preventing cancer cell proliferation and suppressing malignant progression from pre-malignant to malignant disease. It may also be a key effector mechanism of many types of anticancer therapies, such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and endocrine therapies, both directly and via bioactive molecules released by senescent cells that may stimulate an immune response. However, senescence may contribute to reduced patient resilience to cancer therapies and may provide a pathway for disease recurrence after cancer therapy. A new group of drugs, senotherapies, (drugs which interact with senescent cells to interfere with their pro-aging impacts by either selectively destroying senescent cells (senolytic drugs) or inhibiting their function (senostatic drugs)) are under active investigation to determine whether they can enhance the efficacy of cancer therapies and improve resilience to cancer treatments. Senolytic drugs include quercetin, navitoclax, and fisetin and preclinical and early phase clinical data are emerging of their potential role in cancer treatments, although none are yet in routine use clinically. This article provides a review of these issues.

8.
Trends Biochem Sci ; 45(7): 578-592, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531228

RESUMO

Aging is a major risk factor for numerous human pathologies, including cardiovascular, metabolic, musculoskeletal, and neurodegenerative conditions and various malignancies. While our understanding of aging is far from complete, recent advances suggest that targeting fundamental aging processes can delay, prevent, or alleviate age-related disorders. Cellular senescence is physiologically beneficial in several contexts, but it has causal roles in multiple chronic diseases. New studies have illustrated the promising feasibility and safety to selectively ablate senescent cells from tissues, a therapeutic modality that holds potential for treating multiple chronic pathologies and extending human healthspan. Here, we review molecular links between cellular senescence and age-associated complications and highlight novel therapeutic avenues that may be exploited to target senescent cells in future geriatric medicine.

9.
Trends Mol Med ; 26(7): 630-638, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589933

RESUMO

Cellular senescence is a primary aging process and tumor suppressive mechanism characterized by irreversible growth arrest, apoptosis resistance, production of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), mitochondrial dysfunction, and alterations in DNA and chromatin. In preclinical aging models, accumulation of senescent cells is associated with multiple chronic diseases and disorders, geriatric syndromes, multimorbidity, and accelerated aging phenotypes. In animals, genetic and pharmacologic reduction of senescent cell burden results in the prevention, delay, and/or alleviation of a variety of aging-related diseases and sequelae. Early clinical trials have thus far focused on safety and target engagement of senolytic agents that clear senescent cells. We hypothesize that these pharmacologic interventions may have transformative effects on geriatric medicine.

10.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(5): F1167-F1176, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223312

RESUMO

Cellular senescence, a permanent arrest of cell proliferation, is characterized by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which reinforces senescence and exerts noxious effects on adjacent cells. Recent studies have suggested that transplanting small numbers of senescent cells suffices to provoke tissue inflammation. We hypothesized that senescent cells can directly augment renal injury. Primary scattered tubular-like cells (STCs) acquired from pig kidneys were irradiated by 10 Gy of cesium radiation, and 3 wk later cells were characterized for levels of senescence and SASP markers. Control or senescent STCs were then prelabeled and injected (5 × 105 cells) into the aorta of C57BL/6J mice. Four weeks later, renal oxygenation was studied in vivo using 16.4-T magnetic resonance imaging and function by plasma creatinine level. Renal markers of SASP, fibrosis, and microvascular density were evaluated ex vivo. Per flow cytometry, irradiation induced senescence in 80-99% of STCs, which showed increased gene expression of senescence and SASP markers, senescence-associated ß-galactosidase staining, and cytokine levels (especially IL-6) secreted in conditioned medium. Four weeks after injection, cells were detected engrafted in the mouse kidneys with no evidence for rejection. Plasma creatinine and renal tissue hypoxia increased in senescent compared with control cells. Senescent kidneys were more fibrotic, with fewer CD31+ endothelial cells, and showed upregulation of IL-6 gene expression. Therefore, exogenously delivered senescent renal STCs directly injure healthy mouse kidneys. Additional studies are needed to determine the role of endogenous cellular senescence in the pathogenesis of kidney injury and evaluate the utility of senolytic therapy.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Senescência Celular , Túbulos Renais/transplante , Rim/cirurgia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Senescência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Fibrose , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Túbulos Renais/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Sus scrofa , Transplante Heterólogo
11.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 16(5): 263-275, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161396

RESUMO

With the ageing of the global population, interest is growing in the 'geroscience hypothesis', which posits that manipulation of fundamental ageing mechanisms will delay (in parallel) the appearance or severity of multiple chronic, non-communicable diseases, as these diseases share the same underlying risk factor - namely, ageing. In this context, cellular senescence has received considerable attention as a potential target in preventing or treating multiple age-related diseases and increasing healthspan. Here we review mechanisms of cellular senescence and approaches to target this pathway therapeutically using 'senolytic' drugs that kill senescent cells or inhibitors of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Furthermore, we highlight the evidence that cellular senescence has a causative role in multiple diseases associated with ageing. Finally, we focus on the role of cellular senescence in a number of endocrine diseases, including osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as other endocrine conditions. Although much remains to be done, considerable preclinical evidence is now leading to the initiation of proof-of-concept clinical trials using senolytics for several endocrine and non-endocrine diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Senescência Celular , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/fisiopatologia , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(3): 2711-2722, 2020 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955151

RESUMO

The uterine fibrosis contributes to gestational outcomes. Collagen deposition in the uterus is related to uterine aging. Senolytic therapies are an option for reducing health complications related to aging. We investigated effects of aging and the senolytic drug combination of dasatinib plus quercetin (D+Q) on uterine fibrosis. Forty mice, 20 young females (03-months) and 20 old females (18-months), were analyzed. Young (Y) and old (O) animals were divided into groups of 10 mice, with one treatment (T) group (YT and OT) and another control © group (YC and OC). Comparative analysis of Pi3k/Akt1/mTor and p53 gene expression and related microRNAs (miR34a, miR34b, miR34c, miR146a, miR449a, miR21a, miR126a, and miR181b) among groups was performed to test effects of age and treatment on collagen deposition pathways. Aging promoted downregulation of the Pi3k/Akt1/mTor signaling pathway (P = 0.005, P = 0.031, and P = 0.028, respectively) as well as a reduction in expression of miR34c (P = 0.029), miR126a (P = 0.009), and miR181b (P = 0.007). D+Q treatment increased p53 gene expression (P = 0.041) and decreased miR34a (P = 0.016). Our results demonstrate a role for the Pi3k/Akt1/mTor signaling pathway in uterine aging and suggest for the first time a possible anti-fibrotic effect in the uterus of D+Q senolytic therapy.

14.
EBioMedicine ; 47: 446-456, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Senescent cells, which can release factors that cause inflammation and dysfunction, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), accumulate with ageing and at etiological sites in multiple chronic diseases. Senolytics, including the combination of Dasatinib and Quercetin (D + Q), selectively eliminate senescent cells by transiently disabling pro-survival networks that defend them against their own apoptotic environment. In the first clinical trial of senolytics, D + Q improved physical function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal senescence-associated disease, but to date, no peer-reviewed study has directly demonstrated that senolytics decrease senescent cells in humans. METHODS: In an open label Phase 1 pilot study, we administered 3 days of oral D 100 mg and Q 1000 mg to subjects with diabetic kidney disease (N = 9; 68·7 ±â€¯3·1 years old; 2 female; BMI:33·9 ±â€¯2·3 kg/m2; eGFR:27·0 ±â€¯2·1 mL/min/1·73m2). Adipose tissue, skin biopsies, and blood were collected before and 11 days after completing senolytic treatment. Senescent cell and macrophage/Langerhans cell markers and circulating SASP factors were assayed. FINDINGS: D + Q reduced adipose tissue senescent cell burden within 11 days, with decreases in p16INK4A-and p21CIP1-expressing cells, cells with senescence-associated ß-galactosidase activity, and adipocyte progenitors with limited replicative potential. Adipose tissue macrophages, which are attracted, anchored, and activated by senescent cells, and crown-like structures were decreased. Skin epidermal p16INK4A+ and p21CIP1+ cells were reduced, as were circulating SASP factors, including IL-1α, IL-6, and MMPs-9 and -12. INTERPRETATION: "Hit-and-run" treatment with senolytics, which in the case of D + Q have elimination half-lives <11 h, significantly decreases senescent cell burden in humans. FUND: NIH and Foundations. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02848131. Senescence, Frailty, and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Functionality in Chronic Kidney Disease: Effect of Senolytic Agents.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Dasatinibe/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Testes de Função Renal , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quercetina/uso terapêutico
15.
Biol Sex Differ ; 10(1): 49, 2019 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder characterized by impaired angiogenesis. We postulate that senescence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), multipotent cells with pro-angiogenic activities, is one of the mechanisms by which systemic inflammation exerts inhibitory effects on angiogenesis in preeclampsia. METHODS: MSC were isolated from abdominal fat tissue explants removed during medically indicated C-sections from women with preeclampsia (PE-MSC, n = 10) and those with normotensive pregnancies (NP-MSC, n = 12). Sections of the frozen subcutaneous adipose tissue were assessed for inflammation by staining for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Viability, proliferation, and migration were compared between PE-MSC vs. NP-MSC. Apoptosis and angiogenesis were assayed before and after treatment with a senolytic agent (1 µM dasatinib) using the IncuCyte S3 Live-Cell Analysis System. Similarly, staining for senescence-associated beta galactosidase (SABG) and qPCR for gene expression of senescence markers, p16 and p21, as well as senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) components, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and PAI-1, were studied before and after treatment with dasatinib and compared between PE and NP. RESULTS: After in vitro exposure to TNF-alpha, MSC demonstrated upregulation of SASP components, including interleukins-6 and -8 and MCP-1. Staining of the subcutaneous adipose tissue sections revealed a greater inflammatory response in preeclampsia, based on the higher levels of both TNF-alpha and MCP-1 compared to normotensive pregnancies (p < 0.001 and 0.024, respectively). MSC isolated from PE demonstrated a lower percentage of live MSC cells (p = 0.012), lower proliferation (p = 0.005), and higher migration (p = 0.023). At baseline, PE-MSC demonstrated a senescent phenotype, reflected by more abundant staining for SABG (p < 0.001), upregulation of senescence markers and SASP components, as well as lower angiogenic potential (p < 0.001), compared to NP-MSC. Treatment with dasatinib increased significantly the number of apoptotic PE-MSC compared to NP-MSC (0.011 vs. 0.093) and decreased the gene expression of p16 and six SASP components. The mechanistic link between senescence and impaired angiogenesis in PE was confirmed by improved angiogenic potential of PE-MSC (p < 0.001) after dasatinib treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that MSC senescence exerts inhibitory effects on angiogenesis in preeclampsia. Senolytic agents may offer the opportunity for mechanism-based therapies.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Adulto , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
16.
Geroscience ; 41(6): 759-774, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485887

RESUMO

Growth hormone (GH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and regulates various metabolic processes throughout the body. GH and IGF-1 levels are markedly reduced in older humans, leading some to hypothesize GH supplementation could be a viable "anti-aging" therapy. However, there is still much debate over the benefits and risks of GH administration. While an early study of GH administration reported reduced adiposity and lipid levels and increased bone mineral density, subsequent studies failed to show significant benefits. Conversely, other studies found positive effects of GH deficiency including extended life span, improved cognitive function, resistance to diseases such as cancer and diabetes, and improved insulin sensitivity despite a higher fat percentage. Thus, the roles of GH in aging and cognition remain unclear, and there is currently not enough evidence to support use of GH as an anti-aging or cognitive impairment therapy. Additional robust and longer-duration studies of efficacy and safety of GH administration are needed to determine if modulating GH levels could be a successful strategy for treating aging and age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/metabolismo , Longevidade/fisiologia , Humanos
17.
Transl Res ; 213: 112-123, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356770

RESUMO

Obesity and dyslipidemia can be associated with cellular senescence, and may impair kidney function. However, whether senescence contributes to renal dysfunction in these conditions remains unclear. Quercetin is an abundant dietary flavonoid that selectively clears inhibiting PI3K/AKT and p53/p21/serpines and inducing apoptosis. We hypothesized that high-fat-diet-induced obesity causes renal senescence, which would be mitigated by quercetin. C57BL/6J mice fed either standard chow or high-fat diets (HFDs) were treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) or vehicle 5-days biweekly via oral gavage for 10 weeks. Subsequently, renal function was studied in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging, and renal senescence and histology were evaluated ex vivo. Mice fed with a HFD developed obesity and hypercholesterolemia, whereas renal size remained unchanged. Murine obesity impaired renal function and cortical oxygenation, and induced glomerulomegaly. Renal markers of senescence (eg, expression of p16, p19, and p53) and its secretory phenotype were upregulated in the obese hypercholesterolemic compared to lean mice in renal tubular cells, but attenuated in quercetin-treated murine kidneys, as was renal fibrosis. Quercetin treatment also increased renal cortical oxygenation and decreased plasma creatinine levels in obese mice, whereas body weight and cholesterol levels were unaltered. Therefore, murine obesity and dyslipidemia induce renal tissue senescence and impairs kidney function, which is alleviated by chronic senolytic treatment. These findings implicate senescence in loss of kidney function in murine dyslipidemia and obesity, and support further studies of senolytic therapy in obesity.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Rim/patologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dislipidemias/complicações , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/complicações , Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
JAMA ; 321(9): 901-902, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835305
19.
Aging Cell ; 18(3): e12931, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854802

RESUMO

Aging leads to increased cellular senescence and is associated with decreased potency of tissue-specific stem/progenitor cells. Here, we have done an extensive analysis of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) isolated from human subjects with cardiovascular disease, aged 32-86 years. In aged subjects (>70 years old), over half of CPCs are senescent (p16INK4A , SA-ß-gal, DNA damage γH2AX, telomere length, senescence-associated secretory phenotype [SASP]), unable to replicate, differentiate, regenerate or restore cardiac function following transplantation into the infarcted heart. SASP factors secreted by senescent CPCs renders otherwise healthy CPCs to senescence. Elimination of senescent CPCs using senolytics abrogates the SASP and its debilitative effect in vitro. Global elimination of senescent cells in aged mice (INK-ATTAC or wild-type mice treated with D + Q senolytics) in vivo activates resident CPCs and increased the number of small Ki67-, EdU-positive cardiomyocytes. Therapeutic approaches that eliminate senescent cells may alleviate cardiac deterioration with aging and restore the regenerative capacity of the heart.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Senescência Celular , Coração/fisiopatologia , Regeneração , Células-Tronco/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
20.
EMBO J ; 38(5)2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737259

RESUMO

Ageing is the biggest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cellular senescence, a process driven in part by telomere shortening, has been implicated in age-related tissue dysfunction. Here, we address the question of how senescence is induced in rarely dividing/post-mitotic cardiomyocytes and investigate whether clearance of senescent cells attenuates age-related cardiac dysfunction. During ageing, human and murine cardiomyocytes acquire a senescent-like phenotype characterised by persistent DNA damage at telomere regions that can be driven by mitochondrial dysfunction and crucially can occur independently of cell division and telomere length. Length-independent telomere damage in cardiomyocytes activates the classical senescence-inducing pathways, p21CIP and p16INK4a, and results in a non-canonical senescence-associated secretory phenotype, which is pro-fibrotic and pro-hypertrophic. Pharmacological or genetic clearance of senescent cells in mice alleviates detrimental features of cardiac ageing, including myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis. Our data describe a mechanism by which senescence can occur and contribute to age-related myocardial dysfunction and in the wider setting to ageing in post-mitotic tissues.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/patologia , Senescência Celular , Dano ao DNA , Fibrose/patologia , Mitose , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Encurtamento do Telômero , Envelhecimento , Animais , Cardiomegalia/etiologia , Feminino , Fibrose/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Monoaminoxidase/fisiologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , RNA/fisiologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Telomerase/fisiologia
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