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2.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): e1185-e1186, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643591
3.
Crit Care Med ; 49(10): e1046-e1047, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529624
4.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 133, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The end-expiratory occlusion (EEXPO) test detects preload responsiveness, but it is 15 s long and induces small changes in cardiac index (CI). It is doubtful whether the Starling bioreactance device, which averages CI over 24 s and refreshes the displayed value every 4 s (Starling-24.4), can detect the EEXPO-induced changes in CI (ΔCI). Our primary goal was to test whether this Starling device version detects preload responsiveness through EEXPO. We also tested whether shortening the averaging and refresh times to 8 s and one second, respectively, (Starling-8.1) improves the accuracy of the device in detecting preload responsiveness using EEXPO. METHODS: In 42 mechanically ventilated patients, during a 15-s EEXPO, we measured ∆CI through calibrated pulse contour analysis (CIpulse, PiCCO2 device) and using the Starling device. For the latter, we considered both CIStarling-24.4 from the commercial version and CIStarling-8.1 derived from the raw data. For relative ∆CIStarling-24.4 and ∆CIStarling-8.1 during EEXPO, we calculated the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to detect preload responsiveness, defined as an increase in CIpulse ≥ 10% during passive leg raising (PLR). For both methods, the correlation coefficient vs. ∆CIpulse was calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were preload responders and sixteen non preload-responders. The AUROC for ∆CIStarling-24.4 was significantly lower compared to ∆CIStarling-8.1 (0.680 ± 0.086 vs. 0.899 ± 0.049, respectively; p = 0.027). A significant correlation was observed between ∆CIStarling-8.1 and ∆CIpulse (r = 0.42; p = 0.009), but not between ∆CIStarling-24.4 and ∆CIpulse. During PLR, both ∆CIStarling-24.4 and ∆CIStarling-8.1 reliably detected preload responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Shortening the averaging and refresh times of the bioreactance signal to 8 s and one second, respectively, increases the reliability of the Starling device in detection of EEXPO-induced ∆CI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: No. IDRCB: 2018-A02825-50. Registered 13 December 2018.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673693, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408744

RESUMO

Background: Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is widely used to treat patients with COVID-19 in China; however, its efficacy remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of Tα1 as a COVID-19 therapy. Methods: We performed a multicenter cohort study in five tertiary hospitals in the Hubei province of China between December 2019 and March 2020. The patient non-recovery rate was used as the primary outcome. Results: All crude outcomes, including non-recovery rate (65/306 vs. 290/1,976, p = 0.003), in-hospital mortality rate (62/306 vs. 271/1,976, p = 0.003), intubation rate (31/306 vs. 106/1,976, p = 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) incidence (104/306 vs. 499/1,976, p = 0.001), acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence (26/306 vs. 66/1,976, p < 0.001), and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (14.9 ± 12.7 vs. 8.7 ± 8.2 days, p < 0.001), were significantly higher in the Tα1 treatment group. After adjusting for confounding factors, Tα1 use was found to be significantly associated with a higher non-recovery rate than non-Tα1 use (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p = 0.028). An increased risk of non-recovery rate associated with Tα1 use was observed in the patient subgroups with maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores ≥2 (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.9, p = 0.024), a record of ICU admission (OR 5.4, 95%CI 2.1-14.0, p < 0.001), and lower PaO2/FiO2 values (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.4, p = 0.046). Furthermore, later initiation of Tα1 use was associated with a higher non-recovery rate. Conclusion: Tα1 use in COVID-19 patients was associated with an increased non-recovery rate, especially in those with greater disease severity.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/epidemiologia , Timalfasina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Prognóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Timalfasina/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 302, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through venous contraction, norepinephrine (NE) increases stressed blood volume and mean systemic pressure (Pms) and exerts a "fluid-like" effect. When both fluid and NE are administered, Pms may not only result from the sum of the effects of both drugs. Indeed, norepinephrine may enhance the effects of volume expansion: because fluid dilutes into a more constricted, smaller, venous network, fluid may increase Pms to a larger extent at a higher than at a lower dose of NE. We tested this hypothesis, by mimicking the effects of fluid by passive leg raising (PLR). METHODS: In 30 septic shock patients, norepinephrine was decreased to reach a predefined target of mean arterial pressure (65-70 mmHg by default, 80-85 mmHg in previously hypertensive patients). We measured the PLR-induced increase in Pms (heart-lung interactions method) under high and low doses of norepinephrine. Preload responsiveness was defined by a PLR-induced increase in cardiac index ≥ 10%. RESULTS: Norepinephrine was decreased from 0.32 [0.18-0.62] to 0.26 [0.13-0.50] µg/kg/min (p < 0.0001). This significantly decreased the mean arterial pressure by 10 [7-20]% and Pms by 9 [4-19]%. The increase in Pms (∆Pms) induced by PLR was 13 [9-19]% at the higher dose of norepinephrine and 11 [6-16]% at the lower dose (p < 0.0001). Pms reached during PLR at the high dose of NE was higher than expected by the sum of Pms at baseline at low dose, ∆Pms induced by changing the norepinephrine dose and ∆Pms induced by PLR at low dose of NE (35.6 [11.2] mmHg vs. 33.6 [10.9] mmHg, respectively, p < 0.01). The number of preload responders was 8 (27%) at the high dose of NE and 15 (50%) at the low dose. CONCLUSIONS: Norepinephrine enhances the Pms increase induced by PLR. These results suggest that a bolus of fluid of the same volume has a greater haemodynamic effect at a high dose than at a low dose of norepinephrine during septic shock.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Norepinefrina/administração & dosagem , Norepinefrina/farmacocinética , Substitutos do Plasma/administração & dosagem , Substitutos do Plasma/farmacocinética , Substitutos do Plasma/farmacologia , Choque Séptico/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoconstritores/administração & dosagem , Vasoconstritores/farmacocinética , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia
7.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 111, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De-regulated host response to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), directly referring to the concept of sepsis-associated immunological dysregulation, seems to be a strong signature of severe COVID-19. Myeloid cells phenotyping is well recognized to diagnose critical illness-induced immunodepression in sepsis and has not been well characterized in COVID-19. The aim of this study is to review phenotypic characteristics of myeloid cells and evaluate their relations with the occurrence of secondary infection and mortality in patients with COVID-19 admitted in an intensive care unit. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the circulating myeloid cells phenotypes of adult COVID-19 critically ill patients. Phenotyping circulating immune cells was performed by flow cytometry daily for routine analysis and twice weekly for lymphocytes and monocytes subpopulations analysis, as well as monocyte human leukocyte antigen (mHLA)-DR expression. RESULTS: Out of the 29 critically ill adult patients with severe COVID-19 analyzed, 12 (41.4%) developed secondary infection and six patients died during their stay. Monocyte HLA-DR kinetics was significantly different between patients developing secondary infection and those without, respectively, at day 5-7 and 8-10 following admission. The monocytes myeloid-derived suppressor cells to total monocytes ratio was associated with 28- and 60-day mortality. Those myeloid characteristics suggest three phenotypes: hyperactivated monocyte/macrophage is significantly associated with mortality, whereas persistent immunodepression is associated with secondary infection occurrence compared to transient immunodepression. CONCLUSIONS: Myeloid phenotypes of critically ill COVID-19 patients may be associated with development of secondary infection, 28- and 60-day mortality.

8.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(4): 532-538, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulse pressure variation (PPV) is not reliable in predicting preload responsiveness in patients receiving mechanical with spontaneous breathing (SB) activity. We hypothesised that an increase in PPV after a tidal volume (VT) challenge (TVC) or a decrease in PPV during passive leg raising (PLR) can predict preload responsiveness in such cases. METHODS: This prospective observational study was performed in two ICUs and included patients receiving mechanical ventilation with SB, for whom the treating physician decided to test preload responsiveness. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure the velocity-time integral (VTI) of the left ventricular outflow tract. Patients exhibiting an increase in VTI ≥12% during PLR were defined as PLR+ patients (or preload responders). Then, a TVC was performed by increasing VT by 2 ml kg-1 predicted body weight (PBW) for 1 min. PPV was recorded at each step. RESULTS: Fifty-four patients (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II: 60 (25) ventilated with a VT of 6.5 (0.8) ml kg-1 PBW, were included. Twenty-two patients were PLR+. The absolute decrease in PPV during PLR and the absolute increase in PPV during TVC discriminated between PLR+ and PLR- patients with area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of 0.78 and 0.73, respectively, and cut-off values of -1% and +2%, respectively. Those AUROC curve values were similar but were significantly different from that of baseline PPV (0.61). CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing mechanical ventilation with SB activity, PPV does not predict preload responsiveness. However, the decrease in PPV during PLR and the increase in PPV during a TVC help discriminate preload responders from non-responders with moderate accuracy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04369027 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 250, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271958

RESUMO

A personalized mechanical ventilation approach for patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) based on lung physiology and morphology, ARDS etiology, lung imaging, and biological phenotypes may improve ventilation practice and outcome. However, additional research is warranted before personalized mechanical ventilation strategies can be applied at the bedside. Ventilatory parameters should be titrated based on close monitoring of targeted physiologic variables and individualized goals. Although low tidal volume (VT) is a standard of care, further individualization of VT may necessitate the evaluation of lung volume reserve (e.g., inspiratory capacity). Low driving pressures provide a target for clinicians to adjust VT and possibly to optimize positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), while maintaining plateau pressures below safety thresholds. Esophageal pressure monitoring allows estimation of transpulmonary pressure, but its use requires technical skill and correct physiologic interpretation for clinical application at the bedside. Mechanical power considers ventilatory parameters as a whole in the optimization of ventilation setting, but further studies are necessary to assess its clinical relevance. The identification of recruitability in patients with ARDS is essential to titrate and individualize PEEP. To define gas-exchange targets for individual patients, clinicians should consider issues related to oxygen transport and dead space. In this review, we discuss the rationale for personalized approaches to mechanical ventilation for patients with ARDS, the role of lung imaging, phenotype identification, physiologically based individualized approaches to ventilation, and a future research agenda.


Assuntos
Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão/tendências , Respiração Artificial/tendências , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia
10.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 186, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extravascular lung water index (EVLWi) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) measured by transpulmonary thermodilution reflect the degree of lung injury. Whether EVLWi and PVPI are different between non-COVID-19 ARDS and the ARDS due to COVID-19 has never been reported. We aimed at comparing EVLWi, PVPI, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics in patients with COVID-19 ARDS vs. ARDS of other origin. METHODS: Between March and October 2020, in an observational study conducted in intensive care units from three university hospitals, 60 patients with COVID-19-related ARDS monitored by transpulmonary thermodilution were compared to the 60 consecutive non-COVID-19 ARDS admitted immediately before the COVID-19 outbreak between December 2018 and February 2020. RESULTS: Driving pressure was similar between patients with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS, at baseline as well as during the study period. Compared to patients without COVID-19, those with COVID-19 exhibited higher EVLWi, both at the baseline (17 (14-21) vs. 15 (11-19) mL/kg, respectively, p = 0.03) and at the time of its maximal value (24 (18-27) vs. 21 (15-24) mL/kg, respectively, p = 0.01). Similar results were observed for PVPI. In COVID-19 patients, the worst ratio between arterial oxygen partial pressure over oxygen inspired fraction was lower (81 (70-109) vs. 100 (80-124) mmHg, respectively, p = 0.02) and prone positioning and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were more frequently used than in patients without COVID-19. COVID-19 patients had lower maximal lactate level and maximal norepinephrine dose than patients without COVID-19. Day-60 mortality was similar between groups (57% vs. 65%, respectively, p = 0.45). The maximal value of EVLWi and PVPI remained independently associated with outcome in the whole cohort. CONCLUSION: Compared to ARDS patients without COVID-19, patients with COVID-19 had similar lung mechanics, but higher EVLWi and PVPI values from the beginning of the disease. This was associated with worse oxygenation and with more requirement of prone positioning and ECMO. This is compatible with the specific lung inflammation and severe diffuse alveolar damage related to COVID-19. By contrast, patients with COVID-19 had fewer hemodynamic derangement. Eventually, mortality was similar between groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE OF REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04337983). Registered 30 March 2020-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04337983 .


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Permeabilidade Capilar , Água Extravascular Pulmonar/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , COVID-19/complicações , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Prognóstico , Edema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Termodiluição
11.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1488-1493, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to treat severe COVID-19, although the clinical outcome of such treatment remains unclear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IVIG treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective multicentre study evaluated 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with or without IVIG treatment. Each patient treated with IVIG was matched with one untreated patient. Logistic regression and inverse probability weighting (IPW) were used to control confounding factors. RESULTS: The study included 850 patients (421 IVIG-treated patients and 429 non-IVIG-treated patients). After matching, 406 patients per group remained. No significant difference in 28-day mortality was observed after IPW analysis (average treatment effect (ATE) = 0.008, 95% CI -0.081 to 0.097, p 0.863). There were no significant differences between the IVIG group and non-IVIG group for acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse intravascular coagulation, myocardial injury, acute hepatic injury, shock, acute kidney injury, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation except for prone position ventilation (ATE = -0.022, 95% CI -0.041 to -0.002, p 0.028). DISCUSSION: IVIG treatment was not associated with significant changes in 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. The effectiveness of IVIG in treating patients with severe COVID-19 needs to be further investigated through future studies.

12.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 110, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients ventilated with tidal volume (Vt) < 8 mL/kg, pulse pressure variation (PPV) and, likely, the variation of distensibility of the inferior vena cava diameter (IVCDV) are unable to detect preload responsiveness. In this condition, passive leg raising (PLR) could be used, but it requires a measurement of cardiac output. The tidal volume (Vt) challenge (PPV changes induced by a 1-min increase in Vt from 6 to 8 mL/kg) is another alternative, but it requires an arterial line. We tested whether, in case of Vt = 6 mL/kg, the effects of PLR could be assessed through changes in PPV (ΔPPVPLR) or in IVCDV (ΔIVCDVPLR) rather than changes in cardiac output, and whether the effects of the Vt challenge could be assessed by changes in IVCDV (ΔIVCDVVt) rather than changes in PPV (ΔPPVVt). METHODS: In 30 critically ill patients without spontaneous breathing and cardiac arrhythmias, ventilated with Vt = 6 mL/kg, we measured cardiac index (CI) (PiCCO2), IVCDV and PPV before/during a PLR test and before/during a Vt challenge. A PLR-induced increase in CI ≥ 10% defined preload responsiveness. RESULTS: At baseline, IVCDV was not different between preload responders (n = 15) and non-responders. Compared to non-responders, PPV and IVCDV decreased more during PLR (by - 38 ± 16% and - 26 ± 28%, respectively) and increased more during the Vt challenge (by 64 ± 42% and 91 ± 72%, respectively) in responders. ∆PPVPLR, expressed either as absolute or as percent relative changes, detected preload responsiveness (area under the receiver operating curve, AUROC: 0.98 ± 0.02 for both). ∆IVCDVPLR detected preload responsiveness only when expressed in absolute changes (AUROC: 0.76 ± 0.10), not in relative changes. ∆PPVVt, expressed as absolute or percent relative changes, detected preload responsiveness (AUROC: 0.98 ± 0.02 and 0.94 ± 0.04, respectively). This was also the case for ∆IVCDVVt, but the diagnostic threshold (1 point or 4%) was below the least significant change of IVCDV (9[3-18]%). CONCLUSIONS: During mechanical ventilation with Vt = 6 mL/kg, the effects of PLR can be assessed by changes in PPV. If IVCDV is used, it should be expressed in percent and not absolute changes. The effects of the Vt challenge can be assessed on PPV, but not on IVCDV, since the diagnostic threshold is too small compared to the reproducibility of this variable. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de santé: ID-RCB: 2016-A00893-48.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Veia Cava Inferior/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Pesos e Medidas/instrumentação , Pesos e Medidas/normas
13.
Crit Care Med ; 49(4): e412-e422, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Individualizing a target mean arterial pressure is challenging during the initial resuscitation of patients with septic shock. The Sepsis and Mean Arterial Pressure (SEPSISPAM) trial suggested that targeting high mean arterial pressure might reduce the occurrence of acute kidney injury among those included patients with a past history of chronic hypertension. We investigated whether the class of antihypertensive medications used before the ICU stay in chronic hypertensive patients was associated with the severity of acute kidney injury occurring after inclusion, according to mean arterial pressure target. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the SEPSISPAM trial. SETTING: The primary outcome was the occurrence of severe acute kidney injury during the ICU stay defined as kidney disease improving global outcome stage 2 or higher. Secondary outcomes were mortality at day 28 and mortality at day 90. PATIENTS: All patients with chronic hypertension included in SEPSISPAM with available antihypertensive medications data in the hospitalization report were included. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We analyzed 297 patients. Severe acute kidney injury occurred in 184 patients, without difference according to pre-ICU exposure to antihypertensive medications. Patients with pre-ICU exposure to angiotensin II receptor blockers had significantly less severe acute kidney injury in the high mean arterial pressure target group (adjusted odd ratio 0.24 with 95% CI [0.09-0.66]; p = 0.006). No statistically significant association was found after adjustment for pre-ICU exposure to antihypertensive medications and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients with septic shock and chronic hypertension treated with angiotensin II receptor blocker may benefit from a high mean arterial pressure target to reduce the risk of acute kidney injury occurrence.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Choque Séptico/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Choque Séptico/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Crit Care Med ; 49(5): 781-789, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of prone positioning on venous return and its determinants such as mean systemic pressure and venous return resistance in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective monocentric study. SETTINGS: A 25-bed medical ICU. PATIENTS: About 22 patients with mild-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in whom prone positioning was decided. INTERVENTIONS: We obtained cardiac index, mean systemic pressure, and venous return resistance (the latter two estimated through the heart-lung interactions method) before and during prone positioning. Preload responsiveness was assessed at baseline using an end-expiratory occlusion test. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Prone positioning significantly increased mean systemic pressure (from 24 mm Hg [19-34 mm Hg] to 35 mm Hg [32-46 mm Hg]). This was partly due to the trunk lowering performed before prone positioning. In seven patients, prone positioning increased cardiac index greater than or equal to 15%. All were preload responsive. In these patients, prone positioning increased mean systemic pressure by 82% (76-95%), central venous pressure by 33% (21-59%), (mean systemic pressure - central venous pressure) gradient by 144% (83-215)%, while it increased venous return resistance by 71% (60-154%). In 15 patients, prone positioning did not increase cardiac index greater than or equal to 15%. In these patients, prone positioning increased mean systemic pressure by 28% (18-56%) (p < 0.05 vs. patients with significant increase in cardiac index), central venous pressure by 21% (7-54%), (mean systemic pressure - central venous pressure) gradient by 28% (23-86%), and venous return resistance by 37% (17-77%). Eleven of these 15 patients were preload unresponsive. CONCLUSIONS: Prone positioning increased mean systemic pressure in all patients. The resulting change in cardiac index depended on the extent of increase in (mean systemic pressure - central venous pressure) gradient, of preload responsiveness, and of the increase in venous return resistance. Cardiac index increased only in preload-responsive patients if the increase in venous return resistance was lower than the increase in the (mean systemic pressure -central venous pressure) gradient.


Assuntos
Posicionamento do Paciente , Decúbito Ventral , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Resistência Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Capacidade de Difusão Pulmonar
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587005

RESUMO

Aims: We sought to investigate the relationship between macrohemodynamic resuscitation and microcirculatory parameters with the response of microcirculatory flow, tissue-specific parameters of metabolic stress and injury. We hypothesized that early resuscitation based on macrohemodynamic parameters does not prevent the development of organ dysfunction in a porcine model of endotoxemic shock, and that sublingual microcirculatory parameters are associated with markers of tissue metabolic stress and injury. Results: Both resuscitation groups had significant increases in creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin as compared with baseline. Neither the macrovascular response to endotoxemia or resuscitation, nor group allocation predicted the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Only a microvascular flow index (MFI) <2.5 was associated with the development of renal tubular injury and AKI, and with increased renal, liver, peritoneal, and sublingual lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio and lactate. Among systemic parameters, only partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) gap >6 and P(a-v)CO2/C(v-a)O2 >1.8 were associated with increased organ L/P ratio and AKI. Innovation and Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that targeting macrohemodynamics to guide resuscitation during endotoxemic shock failed to predict tissue metabolic stress and the response of the microvasculature to resuscitation, and was unsuccessful in preventing tubular injury and AKI. Mechanistically, our data suggest that loss of hemodynamic coherence and decoupling of microvascular flow from tissue metabolic demand during endotoxemia may explain the lack of association between macrohemodynamics and perfusion goals. Finally, we demonstrate that MFI, PCO2 gap, and P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2 ratio outperformed macrohemodynamic parameters at predicting the development of renal metabolic stress and tubular injury, and therefore, that these indices merit further validation as promising resuscitation targets.

16.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 21, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment decisions on critically ill patients with circulatory shock lack consensus. In an international survey, we aimed to evaluate the indications, current practice, and therapeutic goals of inotrope therapy in the treatment of patients with circulatory shock. METHODS: From November 2016 to April 2017, an anonymous web-based survey on the use of cardiovascular drugs was accessible to members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). A total of 14 questions focused on the profile of respondents, the triggering factors, first-line choice, dosing, timing, targets, additional treatment strategy, and suggested effect of inotropes. In addition, a group of 42 international ESICM experts was asked to formulate recommendations for the use of inotropes based on 11 questions. RESULTS: A total of 839 physicians from 82 countries responded. Dobutamine was the first-line inotrope in critically ill patients with acute heart failure for 84% of respondents. Two-thirds of respondents (66%) stated to use inotropes when there were persistent clinical signs of hypoperfusion or persistent hyperlactatemia despite a supposed adequate use of fluids and vasopressors, with (44%) or without (22%) the context of low left ventricular ejection fraction. Nearly half (44%) of respondents stated an adequate cardiac output as target for inotropic treatment. The experts agreed on 11 strong recommendations, all of which were based on excellent (> 90%) or good (81-90%) agreement. Recommendations include the indications for inotropes (septic and cardiogenic shock), the choice of drugs (dobutamine, not dopamine), the triggers (low cardiac output and clinical signs of hypoperfusion) and targets (adequate cardiac output) and stopping criteria (adverse effects and clinical improvement). CONCLUSION: Inotrope use in critically ill patients is quite heterogeneous as self-reported by individual caregivers. Eleven strong recommendations on the indications, choice, triggers and targets for the use of inotropes are given by international experts. Future studies should focus on consistent indications for inotrope use and implementation into a guideline for circulatory shock that encompasses individualized targets and outcomes.

17.
Crit Care Med ; 49(2): e151-e160, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The end-expiratory occlusion test for assessing preload responsiveness consists in interrupting mechanical ventilation for 15 seconds at end-expiration and measuring the cardiac index changes. The perfusion index is the ratio between the pulsatile and the nonpulsatile portions of the plethysmography signal and is, in part, determined by stroke volume. We tested whether the end-expiratory occlusion-induced changes in perfusion index could detect a positive passive leg raising test, suggesting preload responsiveness. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Medical ICU. PATIENTS: Thirty-one ventilated patients without atrial fibrillation. INTERVENTIONS: We measured perfusion index (Radical-7 device; Masimo Corp., Irvine, CA) and cardiac index (PiCCO2; Pulsion Medical Systems, Feldkirchen, Germany) before and during a passive leg raising test and a 15-second end-expiratory occlusion. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In 19 patients with a positive passive leg raising test (increase in cardiac index ≥ 10%), compared to the baseline value and expressed as a relative change, passive leg raising increased cardiac index and perfusion index by 17% ± 7% and 49% ± 23%, respectively, In these patients, end-expiratory occlusion increased cardiac index and perfusion index by 6% ± 2% and 11% ± 8%, respectively. In the 12 patients with a negative passive leg raising test, perfusion index did not significantly change during passive leg raising and end-expiratory occlusion. Relative changes in perfusion index and cardiac index observed during all interventions were significantly correlated (r = 0.83). An end-expiratory occlusion-induced relative increase in perfusion index greater than or equal to 2.5% ([perfusion index during end-expiratory occlusion-perfusion index at baseline]/perfusion index at baseline × 100) detected a positive passive leg raising test with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.95 ± 0.03. This threshold is larger than the least significant change observed for perfusion index (1.62% ± 0.80%). CONCLUSIONS: Perfusion index could be used as a reliable surrogate of cardiac index for performing the end-expiratory occlusion test. Confirming previous results, the relative changes in perfusion index also reliably detected a positive passive leg raising test.


Assuntos
Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Índice de Perfusão/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Postura/fisiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Idoso , Débito Cardíaco , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pletismografia
18.
Crit Care Med ; 48(12): e1377, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255143
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 402, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The weight of social inequalities during education is a reality. Students of lower socioeconomic status may have less chance of success in higher education, particularly in medical studies. However, the role of students' socioeconomic factors, such as their parents' profession, in their success in the national ranking exam (NRE) has not been studied. Our aim was to investigate the association between socioeconomic factors and success in the national ranking exam among sixth year medical students at the Paris-Sud Faculty of Medicine. METHODS: This was a prospective survey of all sixth-year medical students at the Paris-Sud Faculty of Medicine, using a questionnaire on socioeconomic factors, which were compared according to NRE rank. RESULTS: Of 172 sixth year medical students, 110 completed the questionnaire. Their ranking ranged from 20 to 7695, with a median of 2815 (interquartile range: 1029-4581). The factors associated with the NRE rank were a high school diploma (baccalauréat) A or B grade, success at the first attempt in the first-year medical examination, and enrollment in the NRE preparatory lectures during the sixth year of medical training (linear regression, p < 0.001). The educational status and socio-professional category of the parents were not associated with the NRE rank (linear regression, p = 0.92). CONCLUSION: At the Paris-Sud Faculty of Medicine, there was no association between parental socioeconomic status and sixth year students' success in the NRE.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 52(4): 297-303, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165880

RESUMO

BACKGORUND: Current evidence suggests that intraoperative goal-directed haemodynamic therapy (GDT) should be considered for high-risk patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. We aimed to evaluate if an algorithm using venoarterial carbon dioxide difference (CO2 gap) and pulse pressure variation (PPV) as therapeutic targets during GDT would decrease the major complications after gastrointestinal surgery. METHODS: This was a before-and-after study (n = 204) performed in a tertiary hospital on patients who underwent elective open major gastrointestinal surgeries. The inclusion criteria were surgeries expected to last more than two hours, family and physician's agreement on total postoperative support, and survival expectancy of at least three months. The exclusion criteria were previous haemodynamic instability, presence of infection, cardiac arrhythmias, and emergency surgery. In the intervention group (IG), an algorithm was applied using fluids, dobutamine, and noradrenaline during the intraoperative period aiming at MAP > 65 mm Hg, SpO2 > 95%, CO2 gap < 6 mm Hg, and PPV < 13%. The control group (CG) comprised consecutive eligible patients who were operated by the same team before the institution of the algorithm. RESULTS: The rates of moderate and severe postoperative complications were lower in the IG (11% vs. 23%; IC: RR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.246-0.929; P = 0.025). The respective 90- and 180-day mortality rates in the IG and CG were 9.8% vs. 22.5% (P = 0.014) and 12.6% vs. 25.5% (P = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: An algorithm aiming to minimise the CO2 gap and normalise PPV was feasible and effective in decreasing rates of moderate and severe complications after surgery in high-risk patients.

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