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Bull World Health Organ ; 98(12): 859-868, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293746


Objective: To determine the regional- and district-level newborn prevalence of sickle cell trait and disease, and the prevalence of haemoglobin variants and genetic modifiers of sickle cell disease, in the nine regions of north-western United Republic of Tanzania. Methods: We repurposed dried blood spot samples from children (aged 0-24 months) born to mothers living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), collected as part of the HIV Early Infant Diagnosis programme, for sickle cell diagnosis. We performed isoelectric focusing to determine whether samples had normal haemoglobin, sickle cell trait, sickle cell disease or a rare haemoglobin variant. We shipped samples diagnosed as disease or variant to Cincinnati Children's Hospital in the United States of America for deoxyribonucleic-acid-based analyses to determine the prevalence of α-thalassaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency or fetal haemoglobin genetic modifiers. Findings: We analysed a total of 17 200 specimens during February 2017-May 2018. We observed a prevalence of sickle cell trait and disease of 20.3% (3492/17 200) and 1.2% (210/17 200), respectively. District-level trait varied from 8.6% (5/58) to 28.1% (77/274). Among confirmed sickle cell disease specimens, we noted 42.7% (61/143) had 1-gene deletion and 14.7% (21/143) had 2-gene deletion α-thalassaemia trait. We documented G6PD A- deficiency in 19.2% (14/73) of males. Conclusion: Our calculated prevalence is twice as high as previously reported and reinforces the need for enhanced sickle cell diagnostic services. Our district-level data will inform public health policy, allowing screening and disease-modifying hydroxyurea therapy to be focused on high-prevalence areas, until universal newborn screening is available.

Afr J Lab Med ; 9(1): 823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102164


Background: Erythrocyte alloimmunisation can lead to complications such as delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction. Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of and risk factors for red blood cell alloimmunisation among multiply transfused sickle cell disease (SCD) patients in Mwanza City, Tanzania. Methods: From May 2017 to July 2017, this descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study enrolled 200 participants with SCD who had received at least two units of blood in the previous year. Blood count was performed using a Sysmex haematology analyser. Antibody screening was done by the tube method using a panel of three screening cells with known antigenicity. Results: Of the 200 patients enrolled, 108 (54%) were female. The median age was 4.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 6), the median number of transfusions was 3 (IQR = 1), and the median pre-transfusion haemoglobin level was 6.6 g/dl (IQR = 2.7). Prevalence of alloimmunisation was 8.5% (17/200) with immunoglobulin G, and one patient developed cold immunoglobulin M antibodies. Blood groups reported were Rhesus C and E, Kell, Kidd and Duffy. There was no statistically significant association between the number of transfusions and the risk of alloimmunisation. Conclusion: The rate of alloimmunisation in multiply transfused SCD patients was 8.5% and higher than other studies in East Africa. Thus, there is a need for extensive red blood cell screening and matching to minimize alloimmunisation and risk of delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction, particularly in SCD and chronically transfused patients.

Afr Health Sci ; 19(3): 2351-2355, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127804


Background: Despite blood transfusion being a lifesaving option, it may be associated with blood borne infections including human cytomegalovirus(HCMV). The World Health Organization recommends screening of blood products for HCMV before transfusion to pregnant women, neonates and immunocompromised patients. However, this is not routinely practised in many resource limited countries. Objective: This study aimed at determining seroprevalence of specific HCMV IgM antibodies among volunteered blood donors at the Lake Victoria zone blood transfusion centre. Methods: A total of 228 sera from volunteered blood donors were analyzed using HCMV IgM µ capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay as per manufacturer's instructions. Data were analyzed by STATA version 13. Results: The median age of the study participants was 19 interquartile range (IQR): 18-23 years. The seroprevalence of specific HCMV IgM antibodies was found to be 23/228 (10.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6-14. None of the factors was found to be associated with HCMV IgM seropositivity among blood donors. Conclusion: One out 10 blood donors in the Lake Victoria zone blood transfusion centre is acutely infected with HCMV. There is a need to consider screening of HCMV before blood transfusion particularly in resource limited countries where HCMV is endemic.

Doadores de Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
Case Rep Hematol ; 2018: 5253625, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30034890


Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a life-threatening complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) with blood transfusion an integral part in its management. Red cell exchange (RCE) transfusion is usually regarded as preferable to top-up transfusion, because it reduces the proportion of Hemoglobin (Hb) S while at the same time avoiding circulatory overload. Despite its obvious benefits, RCE is underutilized, particularly in low-resource settings which may be due to scarcity of blood products and of expertise in carrying out exchange transfusion. We report on a young woman with SCD with severe ACS who responded promptly and dramatically to a RCE of only 0.95 L (instead of the recommended 1.4 L) and had in the end an HbS level of 48% (instead of the recommended level below 30%). Limited RCE resulted in significant clinical improvement. We suggest that limited RCE may be of benefit than no RCE in SCD patients with ACS, particularly in settings where RCE is not available.